Easy Organic Gardening eBook
Because cutin and cellulose provide tough, protective barriers for the plant, cutinase and cellulase enzymes are necessary to the penetration of plant hosts by pathogenic fungi. They break down the cutin in the cuticle and the cellulose in the primary cell wall. Hydrolytic (digestive) enzymes also play important roles in pathogenesis. The organic food in the host is usually in the form of complex carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. To be absorbed by pathogens, they must be broken down to their simpler units simple sugars, fatty acids, glycerol, and amino acids. Common digestive enzymes amylases, cellulases, lipases, and proteases produced by pathogens break down these complex foods.
Dietary interventions, particularly phytoestrogen-rich foods,19,20 can help to control and modulate the availability of sex hormones. These plant-derived diphenolics have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties that can help to diminish breast-cancer risk.21,22 Classical phytoestrogen sources include soy (Glycine soja) isoflavones, lignans from flax (Linum usi-tatissimum) and other seeds and fiber-rich vegetables, and coumestrol from legumes and alfalfa sprouts.23-25 (See the box on page 192 entitled Phytoestrogen-Rich Foods.'') Indole-3-carbinol (I3C)-abundant foods, such as cruciferous vegetables, are equally worth integrating into a hormone-modifying regimen because of these foods' estrogen-modulating activity.26 It is advisable for patients to consume organic produce (and organic food in general) whenever this is possible, to minimize exposure to lipid-soluble pesticides and herbicides that can have numerous adverse effects in the body. What is noteworthy is that several...
Organic farming is widespread throughout the world and is growing rapidly. In Germany alone there are about eight thousand organic farms occupying about 2 percent of the total arable land. In Italy organic farms number around eighteen thousand, and in Austria about twenty thousand organic farms account for 10 percent of total agricultural output. In 1980 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that there were at least eleven thousand organic farms in the United States and at least twenty-four thousand farms that use some organic techniques. In California, organic foods are one of the fastest-growing segments of the agricultural economy, with retail sales growing at 20 percent to 25 percent per year. Cuba was the only country undergoing a massive conversion to organic farming, promoted by the drop of fertilizer, pesticide, and petroleum imports after the collapse of trade relations with the Soviet bloc in 1990.
In recent years, the world has seen a growing awareness of health and environmental issues, and sustainability has become a key word in discussions on economic development, particularly in relation to developing countries. The community is becoming more and more conscious of these issues globally, and government policies in industrialized as well as developing countries are increasingly being formulated to encourage organic and sustainable agriculture. Producers are turning to certified organic farming systems as a means of lowering input costs, decreasing reliance on non-renewable resources, capturing high-value markets and premium prices, and boosting farm income. Organic farming severely restricts the use of artificial chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Instead, it relies on developing a healthy, fertile soil and growing a mixture of crops. Supplementing the nutrient requirement of crops through organic composts manures is essential for sustaining soil fertility and crop...
Wetland soils provide anoxia-tolerant plants with access to ample light, water, and nutrients. Intense competition, involving chemical strategies, ensues among the plants. The roots of wetland plants are prime targets for root-eating pests, and the wetland rhizosphere is an ideal environment for many other organisms and communities because it provides water, oxygen, organic food, and physical protection. Consequently, the rhizosphere of wetland plants is densely populated by many specialized organisms, which considerably influence its biogeochemical functioning. The roots protect themselves against pests and control their rhizosphere organisms by bioactive chemicals, which often also have medicinal properties. Anaerobic metabolites, alkaloids, phenolics, terpenoids, and steroids are bioactive chemicals abundant in roots and rhizospheres in wetlands. Bioactivities include allelopathy, growth regulation, extraorganismal enzymatic activities, metal manipulation by phytosiderophores and
I've seen rabbits out and about, but none has fallen victim to our crocuses this spring. The chicks are still too small to loose in the yard, so they are housed in a cage in the garage. For now, they stay warm under a brooder bulb that I found, complete with a picture of a yellow chick on the box, at the warehouse-style home and garden retailer in the mall near our suburb. Is the presence of this bulb in that store a relic of nearby farms, recently built over, or is it an indicator that my strange love of chickens is shared more widely than I thought I dug up another patch of lawn in the backyard to expand our vegetable garden and was overjoyed to find some fat white grubs, because the chicks love them.
Given that the bed was unfenced from our resident rabbits. Perhaps some were eaten, but since I wasn't paying close attention to them I never knew what we lost. In any case, the carrots from the front yard were free of the insect damage that most of our vegetable-garden carrots bore. The lettuce was attractive and tasty until it set stems and bolted, becoming tall and bitter. All in all, it was a surprising success, and I plan to repeat the planting next year. Of course, one reason not to plant edibles in the front yard is the possibility of vegetable theft. The very concept would seem ludicrous to me had I not experienced it in our very first garden. The summer I was first married, our vegetable garden was approximately five square feet alongside the back of the house we were renting, and a zucchini that probably weighed four pounds was taken one weekend. I felt cheated, of course, of the opportunity to cook it. However, as we lived near a complex of subsidized housing, I...
Growing Vegetables In Containers For Beginners
Start Saving Money By Discovering How To Grow Your Own Fruit and Vegetables At Home From Start To Finish. Container gardening does not have to be expensive. With a bit of imagination you can reuse containers and items that are around your home and start your own container garden on a minimal budget. Of course, if you prefer you can buy containers from the store and make your container garden a feature in your home.