Easy Homemade Organic Fertilizers You Can Make Today

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas

In this information you will find recipes and techniques that work to: Protect your house and lawn with special indoor and outdoor Shock Treatments: Ants, Snails, Slugs, Roaches, Fleas, Earwigs, Cockroaches, Silverfish, Beetles, Termites and Webworms. Say good-bye to those annoying yellow spots. Learn the secret to keep your grass greener in water restricted areas and in hot weather. Treat your lawn with a deworming concoction. (learn how and why you must do it once a year) Use effective Natural Insecticides (it's now time to learn what they are and how to use them. in the years to come, only natural insecticides will be permitted by cities!) Avoid serious plant, pet and child health problems caused by toxic commercial products. Protect yourself and your family against the nile virus in 1 minute. Kill ants and destroy the entire colony in 3 days or less. Kill harmful insects while fertilizing your soils.

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Fertilizer Requirements 61 Fertilizer scheduling

Started applying chemical fertilizers. de Geus (1973) suggested a fertilizer dose of 45 45 45 kg N, P2O5 and K2O ha for Kerala, 67 34 100 kg N, P2O5 and K2O ha for Karnataka with half N in organic form and 45 34 45 kg N, P2O5 and K2O ha for Tamil Nadu. However, considering the low requirement of cardamom and the high status of N and K in cardamom-growing soils, a maintenance dose of 30 60 30 kg N, P2O5 and K2O ha was recommended for healthy and vigorous growth of plants (Zachariah, 1978). Based on further studies and the factors affecting the availability of nutrients in the soil, a fertilizer dose of 75 75 150 kg N, P2O5 and K2O ha was recommended under rainfed situation for a normal crop of 100 kg dry capsules ha. If the yield is more, the fertilizer doses are to be increased proportionately. Additional fertilizer dose of 0.65 kg N, P2O5 and 1.30 kg K2O ha is to be applied for increase in yield of every 2.5 kg dry capsules over normal yield (Anonymous, 1976 Kologi, 1977). Results of...

Fertilizer Value of Sewage Sludge

Sewage sludge is increasingly used as a fertilizer because land application is considered a more environmentally friendly disposal method and because of its great fertilizer value (Table 3.3). Nowadays, sewage sludge can be produced for agricultural use as dry granular, palletized, or fortified organic-based materials, which have more specialized uses in agriculture and horticulture compared with the conventional forms 23 . The technology for applying sludge is advanced and includes surface spreading and injection of the material into the soil, a practice that helps reduce odor problems and facilitates proper incorporation into the soil. The optimum dose of application is difficult to determine because of restrictions that depend on soil parameters, such as pH, clay content, and contaminant and nutrient content in sludge 24 . Usually, if no other restricting factors are present, the rate of application should not exceed 10 t ha-1 yr-1, equivalent to 250 kg N ha-1 25 .

Soil amendments and fertilizers

Composted animal manures provide organic matter and improve soil structure, while supplying plant nutrients. Lime adjusts soil pH, as well as supplying calcium, and, if from dolomite, it also supplies magnesium. Pineapple root development can vary dramatically among locations, so a site-specific understanding of root development is important to determine whether or not plants will respond favourably to the use of soil amendments. Soil amendments can be broadcast immediately after knock-down so that they can be incorporated by tillage operations. Preplant fertilizers can be banded just below or adjacent to the plant line during bed formation to allow early interception by the developing roots. Ideally, amendments and preplant fertilizers should provide all the needed nutrients in conjunction with side-dressing or foliar fertilization, or both, while maintaining a good soil tilth, which will encourage a healthy root system. For best results, nutrient...

Fertilizer and cultural management practices

Although the use of Fe-efficient plants is generally the best approach to preventing Fe availability problems (Goos and Johnson, 2000 Hansen et al., 2003 Jolley and Brown, 1994), several fertilizer and cultural management strategies are also available for use alone or in combination, to prevent correct Fe deficiency, including 1) lowering soil pH, 2) applying foliar Fe fertilizer or acid sprays, 3) applying chelated complexed Fe fertilizers to the soil, 4) applying Fe fertilizer materials in a concentrated band near roots, 5) companion cropping with Fe efficient species, and 6) altering management of irrigation and drainage, fertility and seeding practices (Hopkins et al., 2005). Artificially lowering the soil pH would seem to be a viable alternative for correcting Fe deficiency (Lucena, 2003 Olson, 1950). For example, a pH drop from 7.5 to 6.5 would result in a ten fold increase in hydrogen ion activity and an associated 1000 fold increase in the solubility of soil Fe minerals....

Economics of Fertilizer

The farmers are generally not applying the recommended doses of fertilizers to soybean because of high prices, inadequate supply and risks involved in soybean's cultivation under rainfed situations. However, the efficient use and management of fertilizer is of great value. The common method of determining the profitability potential is a VCR that represents the value of extra crop produced per unit of money invested in fertilizer. A VCR 1 mean a net profit while

Fertilizer Application

The crop is mainly potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) exhausting magnesium (Mg) and phosphorous (P) removal being intermediary (Nagarajan and Pillai, 1979 Lee et al., 1981). Results of analyses of vegetative plant parts give a similar trend. Plant parts development and yield response to timing of fertilizer application aimed at achieving fertilizer use efficiency is presented in Table 7.1. Levels of trace elements Mg K maximum arsenic 5, lead 10, copper 20, and zinc 50 are the prescribed levels fixed by processors in ginger of commerce (See also Roy et al., 1992). Therefore, application of minor elements is necessary for successful ginger technology. But the question is the rationale for fertilizer usage in ginger production if the economics of the process is carefully worked out. Fertilizer mix used varies from place to place, and is based on farmers' experience. The variable doses are of interest because of possible environmental pollution effects and to ascertain...

Fertilizer Recommendations

The Brazilian Government (IPEAN 1966) has developed fertilizer recommendation based on the following scheme. Equations have been developed for predicting the changes in soil nutrient levels per kilogram of fertilizer active ingredient applied. Table 4.1.A2 Brazilian government's fertilizer recommendation. Initial soil Fertilizer - Initial soil Fertilizer - Different types of organics are applied in varying quantities in the pepper growing countries. In India green leaves, dry leaves, wood ash, cattle manure, oil cakes, neem cake and bone meal are the common organics used. In Malaysia organic cakes, prawn refuse, guano, fish meal, etc are used. In Micronesia every pepper field will have a compost pit also. In addition sea cucumbers (Holothurian sp.) are dug into the soil around vines. (Zaiger 1964). Here the recommended fertilizer dose is a mixture of urea, cottonseed meal, potassium chloride and superphosphate at the rate of 0.66, 6.6, 1.1, 1.8 pounds per vine per year (Lawrence 1981).

Preparing the Field and Applying Base Fertilizers

High Yield Ginger Plants Images

The ginger root system is underdeveloped and its nutrient-absorbing ability is poor. So it cannot endure drought or waterlogging. The ginger field should be fertile, should have deep soil that is rich in organic substances, capable of retaining moisture and fertilizer, can be irrigated and drainedeasily, and isomewhat acidic. It is better to rotate crops for three to four years. It is not advisable to plant ginger continuously in the same plot and the land becomes unfit for ginger planting at least for three to four years if the crop has been infected with blast. In the north of China, making ridge and planting in ditch is often being adopted. The ditch is in an east to west or south to north direction, and is about 25 to 30 cm deep. Farmers in the north often apply bean cake or cooked beans as fertilizer. In general, 1,125 to 1,500 kg ha crushed cake or 750 to 1,125 kg ha cooked and fermented bean is spread in the ditch (Figure 6.9). In addition, 225 kg (NH4) 2 SO4, 375 kg calcium...

Soiltestbased Fertilizer Recommendations in Soybean

Liebig's law of minimum states that the growth of plants is limited by the plant nutrient element present in the smallest amount, all others being in adequate quantities. From this, it follows that a given amount of a soil nutrient is sufficient for any one yield of a given percentage nutrient composition. Ramamoorthy et al. (1967) established the theoretical basis and experimental proof for the fact that Liebig's law of minimum operates equally well for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. This forms the basis for fertilizer application for targeted yields, first advocated by Truog (1960). Among the various methods of fertilizer recommendation, the one based on yield-targeting is unique in the sense that this method not only indicates a soil-test-based fertilizer dose, but also gives the level of yield the farmer can hope to achieve if good agronomic practices are followed in raising the crop. The essential basic data required for formulating fertilizer recommendations for a targeted...

Fertilizer Application Practices

A fertilizer management program should start before an orchard is planted. At that time, fertilizers can be easily incorporated into the soil to the depth of 25 to 30 centimeters, i.e., the zone of high root activity. This is particularly important for P, K, Mg, and Ca fertilizers as well as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe, which move very slowly down the soil profile. When applied to the soil surface in mature orchards, these fertilizers will need a long time to reach the main part of the root system. In the first two years after planting, fruit trees are usually fertilized individually by uniformly spreading fertilizers around each tree in a circle two to three times larger than the canopy. Depending upon local soil conditions, such applications may involve N and or other fertilizers. In young, nonbearing orchards, N applications are often split into two or more applications that start in early spring prior to the beginning of current season growth and extend into midsummer. Later applications...

Postplant sidedressings and foliar fertilizers

Side-dressings or foliar fertilizers are used where nutrients in the soil are not sufficient to meet the plant's nutrient requirements. Fertilizer may be applied as a dry side-dressing to the soil, often close to the base of the plant or, in some cases, in the lower leaf axils of mature plants. Care must always be taken to avoid plant damage due to exposure to high osmotic concentrations from dissolving nutrients. The basal white tissue of young and expanding leaves is particularly sensitive to fertilizer burn. If manure is to be used as a postplant source of nutrients, infor Foliar fertilizer sprays are particularly effective for pineapple plants and application is easily mechanized (Fig. 6.17A-C). The leaves absorb nutrients through the cuticle and nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, iron, zinc and boron are readily translocated throughout the plant. The morphological structure of the pineapple plant also facilitates receiving foliar sprays and funnelling them to the adventitious...

Experimental Studies On The Effects Of Different Fertilizers On Metal Removal From Contaminated Soils Using Wheat

To optimize and manipulate the process of metal phytoextraction successfully, the author studied the effects of three fertilizers (urea, horse manure, and ispolin fertilizer on the basis of mixture of organic fertilizers, humic acids, and industrial population of worms) on yields and physiological characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and removal of metals from two Podzol soils with loam (site 1) and sandy loam (site 2) textures. Soil in site 2 was contaminated with several metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn), and soil in site 1 was relatively clean. Wheat seedlings were grown in the two soils for 36 days. Urea, manure, and ispolin were incorporated into the soils at rates of 10 mg kg-1, 100 mg kg-1, and 100 mg kg-1, respectively. Metal concentrations in the initial soils before and after application of different fertilizers are presented in Table 28.4. No statistically significant differences were present between concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the fertilized and nonfertilized...

Banded preplant fertilizers

The precision placement of preplant fertilizers can ensure both vigorous rooting and the early uptake of N, P and K prior to the development of the leaf canopy. Banded fertilizer should be applied in sufficient amounts to enhance rooting and carry the young plants for 3-4 months, until the canopy is sufficiently developed to make foliar fertilizer applications efficient and effective. Placement is usually just below or adjacent to the plant line to allow the earliest interception by the developing roots. Plastic mulch can protect fertilizer from leaching or volatilization. However, water applied by drip irrigation can contribute to losses by leaching. Many types of fertilizers are available, such as urea, ammonium sulphate, potassium nitrate, superphosphate and treble superphosphate, ammonium phosphate, magnesium sulphate, muriate or sulphate of potash, and others. The choices should complement both the previously incorporated broadcast amendments and, where foliar fertilization is...

Fertilizer Trials

Acacia Mangium Plantation

Application of fertilizers is a standard practice in the countries where A. mangium is a major plantation species. In most cases, however, the nature of fertilizers and their quantity are not based on systematic research. Fertilization levels and time of application have been decided tentatively, probably based on a few studies or on experience with other species in the area. The main aim of fertilizer application is to produce uniform, fast-growing plantations. Uniformity makes it easier to prescribe operations (thinning, pruning) on time fast growth ensures that the site is quickly captured. A few examples of fertilizer trials are given below. 1. SAFODA adopted the following fertilizer regime for A. mangium plantations 2. Wan Rasidah et al. (1989) concluded in Malaysia that the soils are low in nutrients, especially in phosphorus. A number of fertilizer trials have been carried out to determine the best schedule for fertilizers. Table 7.8 summarizes diameter and height growth...


Amish Manuring Fields

Adding nutrients to agricultural systems is essential to enhance crop yield, crop quality, and economic returns. Commercial fertilizers are typically used to supply needed nutrients to crops. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and An Amish farmer uses a horse team to spread fertilizer on a field in An Amish farmer uses a horse team to spread fertilizer on a field in potassium (K) fertilizers are used extensively. Other secondary and mi-cronutrient fertilizers are generally required in small quantities to correct Commercial fertilizers contain a guaranteed quantity of nutrients, expressed as fertilizer grade on a label showing the weight percentage of available N, P2O5, and K2O equivalent (N-P-K) in the fertilizer. Additional nutrients in fertilizer formulations are listed at the end of the fertilizer grade with the nutrient identified. Commonly used commercial fertilizers include ammonium nitrate (fertilizer grade 33-0-0), urea (45-0-0), urea-ammonium nitrate (28-0-0), anhydrous ammonia...


Ginger responds well to the application of biofertilizers. Studies conducted by Vilasini (1996) indicated that soil solarized for 30 days and incorporated with Trichoderma (125 g m2) and amended with neem cake (500 g m2) could control the disease effectively and increase the yield considerably. Sharma et al. (1997) found that inoculation with Glomus mosseae at the spore stage (10 X 102) g soil gave taller ginger plants, with higher yield (46.5 g per pot) and greater number of tillers per plant than other treatments under the subtropical conditions of Himachal Pradesh, India. Soil application of Gigaspora margarita (2.5 g per rhizome) at the time of planting increased plant height, number of leaves and tillers, root weight, and yield of ginger, which is similar to that of pine needle organic amendment and seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum.

Modification of Gene Expression

Although all cells in an organism contain essentially the same DNA, cell types and cell functions vary because of qualitative and quantitative differences in their gene expression. Overexpression and downregulation of key genes will provide plants with the necessary resources to grow properly in the global warming challenge. The nutrition of K+, one of the most important macronutrients presently found in most commercial fertilizers, could be improved in this way. Thus, enhanced expression of K+ transporters and channels could result in an increase in plant K+ uptake which could lead to high-yield production. At the same time, improved K+ nutrition could lead to enhanced salt tolerance, because of the aforementioned competition between K+ and Na+, or to alleviation of drought stress as K+ is a known osmolite (Amtmann et al. 2004 Romheld and Kirkby 2010).

Heavy Metal Contamination Of Soil And Associated Agricultural And Environmental Problems

Furthermore, it may also be noted that the use of heavy metals like Hg and As as components of pesticides in agriculture has been nearly discontinued, and the contamination of the land mass by these through agricultural practices is now only history. Also, although the use of fertilizers may result in contamination of the environment by various heavy metals present in them 26,27 , this is unlikely to be of much significance because these are continuously removed from the soil along with each harvest.

Soybean rotational benefits

Within the US corn belt, rotation of corn (Zea mays) and soybean is preferred to continuous cropping (Wilhelma and Wortmann, 2004) because the rotation produces greater grain yield of both crops (West et al., 1996). Input costs are often less in particular, less nitrogen fertilizer is needed for the corn-soybean rotation (Katupitiya et al., 1997) compared with continuous corn. A corn-soybean rotation also reduces deep leaching of nitrate nitrogen relative to continuous corn. Reduced stress from pests and diseases may also improve yields in rotations. This chapter concentrates on the nitrogen-saving benefits. In the first instance, it has already been indicated that in Brazil, 80 of the direct nitrogen for soybean comes from nitrogen fixation, with a global input of around 58 , so there are direct benefits for the grower of the soybean crop (Herridge et al., 2008 Salvagiotti et al., 2008). The magnitude of the benefit has also been indicated to increase via the use of supernodulating...

Deficiency and Toxicity Symptoms

When some element is deficient or present in such high concentration as to be toxic, plants often have symptoms somewhat characteristic of the particular condition afflicting them. For example, yellowing of leaves, or chlorosis, often indicates a deficiency of nitrogen. Nevertheless, visual identification of deficiencies or toxicities is not a reliable procedure. For example, sulfur deficiency may result in symptoms very similar to those of nitrogen deficiency. Therefore even experts check their visual impression by analyzing the tissue to find out whether its content of the suspected element is in fact below the value deemed adequate for that particular crop or present in excess. Often, such unrelated conditions as diseases caused by fungi or bacteria may result in the development of symptoms that mimic those of nutrient disorders. see also Biogeochemical Cycles Fertilizer Halo-phytes Hydroponics Nitrogen Fixation Soil, Chemistry of.

Vetiver Grass For Phytostabilization Of Metalliferous Ecosystems

The most conspicuous characteristics of vetiver grass include its fast growth, large biomass, strong root system, and high level of metal tolerance therefore, it is an important candidate for stabilization of metal-contaminated soils. Results from glasshouse studies show that, when adequately supplied with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, vetiver can grow in soils with very high levels of acidity, aluminum, and manganese. Vetiver growth was not affected and no obvious symptoms were observed when soil pH was as low as 3.3 and the extractable manganese reached 578 mg kg-1, and plant manganese was as high as 890 mg kg-1. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), which has been recommended as a suitable species for acid mine rehabilitation, has 314 mg kg-1 of manganese in plant tops when growing in mine wastes containing 106 mg kg-1 of manganese 112 . Vetiver also produced excellent growth at a very high level of soil aluminum saturation percentage (68 ), but it did not survive an aluminum...

Significance Of Siliconaccumulating Grasses For Integrated Management And Remediation Of Metalliferous Soils

Silica is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust, so it would be useful for amelioration of aluminum (Al) toxicity in acidic soils. Ranking of silicon accumulation in the subfamilies of Poaceae is shown in Figure 21.2. Subsoil acidification is a serious global environmental concern. Acid soils occupy nearly 30 (3.95 ha) of the arable land area in tropical and temperate belts. In addition to the natural processes, farming and management practices such as high use of nitrogen fertilizers, removal of cations by harvested crops, and leaching and runoff of cations resulted in acidification of soils. In many industrialized areas, the atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen compounds is a major source of proton influx to soils. More than the low pH of the soils, the major problem associated with acid soils is the toxicity of Al and manganese and the deficiency of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and potassium.

Management of Diseased Garden

Malnutrition often results in incidence of disease in pepper plants. Deficiencies of nutrients like P and K have been indicated as the reason for diseases (Harper 1974, DeWaard 1969). DeWaard stated that a fertilizer mixture having 400 kg N, 180 kg P, 480 kg K, 425 kg Ca and 112 kg Mg applied to one hectare with appropriate mulching will control the disease and yield 2.0-2.5 kg dry pepper vine-1. Slow decline of pepper was first reported by Menon (1949) in Wynad, Kerala and a crop loss of 10 per cent was recorded. Nambiar et al. (1965) worked out tentative ratios of K2O (total) N, K2O (available) N and CaO+K2O+MgO N in soil, and found that slow decline of pepper occurred when these ratios were below 14.1, 0.05 and 3.8 respectively. Slow decline is attributed to fungal infection, soil moisture stress and deficiency of K and P (Nambiar and Sarma 1977) and nematode (Ramana and Mohandas 1987). Wahid and Kamalam (1982) found that K levels of the leaves of healthy vines were considerably...

Summary And Implications For Research Needs

Where M. x giganteus can be grown with little or no N fertilizer, nitrate leaching losses will likely be low compared to crops such as maize that have a high N requirement. However, because M. x giganteus is slow to establish, large losses of nitrate to leaching are possible during the establishment year, although the quantity will likely depend on weather and prior land use. More research is needed to quantify the N leaching and N2O emissions for a variety of N fertilizer rates and timings in settings where M. x giganteus responds to N fertilizer application. Additionally, the possibility of using cover crops in the establishment year to minimize N losses without inhibiting M. x giganteus establishment deserves investigation (Fig. 9).

Reactive Nitrogen Inflow

The form of added N plays a role in regulating N losses and influencing NUE. Among these forms, NO3 is the most susceptible to leaching, NH4 the least, and urea moderately susceptible. Ammonia and urea are more susceptible to volatilization loss of N than fertilizers containing NO3. Urea is the most widely used N fertilizer in India. The studies showed the importance of selecting ammonium-based N fertilizer early in the season to reduce N leaching due the mobility of urea and nitrate source in irrigated rice and wheat systems (Prasad and Prasad 1996). Nitrate containing fertilizers when applied to rice proved less efficient because nitrate is prone to be lost via denitrification and leaching under submerged soil conditions in normal and alkali soils (Prasad 1998). In saline soils, however, it is beneficial to use NO3 containing N fertilizers as it compensates the adverse effects of Cl- and SO42- on absorption of NO3 by plants (Choudhary et al. 2003). soil solutions, which leads to N...

Regulation of rootshoot interactions Highyielding trials

Using high-yielding varieties and slow-release fertilizer, a very high yield was attained for various field crops in Sapporo (43 03'N), Japan (Osaki et al 1991c. 1992c, 1995b Table 1). These high-yielding varieties (HYVs) were characterized by the fact that the total amount of dry matter (DM,) and the amount of nitrogen absorbed (N, ) in a whole plant increased linearly with growth until harvest (Osaki et al 1991b.c). indicating that photosynthetic rate and root activity remained high during maturation. This type is designated as nitrogen absorption type. In contrast, in standard-yielding varieties (SYVs), nitrogen absorption ceased at the maximum shoot growth stage, and at the same time N, in the nonreproductive organs started to decrease, followed by cessation of the increase in dry matter. This type is designated as nitrogen efficiency type.

Current Threats to Wetlands

Excessive amounts of pollution entering a wetland over a long period of time is likely to cause long-term changes in the wetland. One of the world's most famous wetlands, the Everglades of southern Florida, has suffered for years from pollution from fertilizers used by farms upstream from it. The pollution has resulted in some major changes in the plant community and suspected declines in the diversity of animals it supports.

Sustainable Orcharding

Conventional orchard management is guided by the goal of maximizing bearing potential per hectare in order to increase short-term gains. Within this framework, growers typically rely on management practices that are linked to external or off-farm inputs. These external inputs include synthetic pesticides used to control insects, diseases, and weeds synthetic fertilizers and irrigation systems and synthetic growth regulators used to control numerous aspects of fruit production, such as budbreak or bloom, fruit set, preharvest drop, size, and color. Shortcomings of reliance on these inputs include pesticide resistance, soil degradation, collateral injury to nontarget organisms, and concerns for human health. Given their reliance on off-farm inputs to establish and maintain production, these management systems reduce long-term sustainability despite increases in short-term gains. Sustainable production in agricultural systems must include consideration of economics and profitability,...

Fertilization weeding and irrigation

Vegetable soybean, being a legume, fixes atmospheric nitrogen in the soil through the Bradyrhizobium bacteria, and normally it does not require nitrogen fertilizer application. However, depending upon a soil test and the amount of fertilizer applied to the previous crop, a starter nitrogen fertilizer of 25-30 kg N ha-1 can be applied at the time of sowing. Based on soil tests in Taiwan, the recommended fertilizer application is about 10 t ha-1 of compost, 60 kg N ha-1, 30 kg P ha-1 and 50 kg K ha-1. Half of the nitrogen fertilizer is applied as a basal dressing and the other half as a top dressing at the flowering and pod-formation stage. To ensure optimum size and good quality of seed, another dose of 20 kg N ha-1 can be given at the seed-filling stage (Chen et al., 1991). In Japan, compost is applied at 10-150 t ha-1. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer rate is 30-40, 150, and 80-100 kg ha-1, respectively (Kamiyama, 1991). Lime is also applied at the rate of 1000 kg...

Root hairs and nutrient uptake

Nutrient deficiency limits crop growth and yields worldwide. Fertilizer application alone cannot always ameliorate this limitation. Certain nutrients, such as phosphorus, become unavailable to plants by forming insoluble complexes at both high and low pH. Further, as with iron, diffusion rates are generally low because the ions readily bind to soil particles.

Sludge Usage International Regulations

In general, heavy metals and persistent organic compounds cause damage to the environment by accumulating, while the introduction of nutrients may harm the environment through the leaching of nutrients to the aquatic environment. The extent to which organic compounds are accumulated has not yet been clarified. The effects of heavy metals and organic compounds on the soil fauna have not been sufficiently investigated. One of the most important sources of pollution from persistent organic compounds is pesticides the pollution caused by heavy metals arises from industrial deposition and fertilizers.

Organic Production Systems

A few studies have evaluated the impact of substantial changes in production practices, such as organic farming, on the level of biological control or on densities of antagonists. Organic farming replaces synthetic fertilizers and pesticides with organic fertilizers (plant material and animal manure), crop rotation, and resistant cultivars. Persmark (1997) sampled 11 pairs of organically and conventionally managed farms and found no difference between the two management systems in either the densities of nematode-trapping fungi, numbers of nematodes in the rhizosphere of pea, or organic matter. In a field plot experiment, organically managed plots had more species of nematophagous fungi and two species, Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Nematoctonus leiosporus, were more abundant than in conventionally managed plots (Jaffee et al. 1998). However, soils from organic and conventionally managed plots did not differ in level of suppression of M. javanica. In another similar study, the number...

Production and Forest Management

Forest management techniques that promote mushroom production have been studied in many countries. To encourage matsutake mushroom production in Japanese forests, for example, various silviculture treatments have been applied. Overstorey trees are thinned, tree species composition is altered, nonhost under-storey shrubs and herbs are cut, and organic litter is removed from the forest floor (Hosford et al. 1997). In North America, such intense management of forests for pine mushroom production does not occur. Studies in Europe show that nitrogen deposits from air pollution (Arnolds 1991) and applications of nitrogen fertilizers (Termorshuizen 1993) reduce the productivity of edible ectomycorrhizal fungi. Information on the effects of pesticide application or grazing on edible mushrooms is currently not available for any country. More research is required to determine how silviculture techniques could be used to promote the fruiting of economically important fungi in forests across the...

Historical development

The breeding and widespread adoption of high-yielding varieties in the 1960s led to a rapid intensification in the tropical lowlands of Asia. The release of semidwarf short-duration varieties such as IR8 (1966), IR20 (1969), and IR36 (1976) triggered investments in irrigation infrastructure and allowed farmers to grow two to three rice crops per year. The new varieties had a short growth period and more efficient biomass partitioning, were short-statured and lodging-resistant, and responded well to fertilizer N additions. Tillage and management intensity increased and soils remained submerged for longer periods. The use of external inputs such as fertilizers, water, energy, and pesticides increased and the diversity of rice varieties used in the irrigated systems decreased. By growing two or three short-duration crops per year, each at a higher yield level than before 1965, annual crop nutrient removal increased five- to sevenfold compared with the pre-Green Revolution period. The use...

Production of Seedlings in Nurseries

Production of high-quality seedlings requires close attention to all phases of nursery management. These include preparation of nursery beds, soil management, planting procedures, control of seedling density, use of fertilizers, irrigation, and pest control. Sometimes they also may include root pruning and inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi (Chapter 7). For discussion of nursery practices, see Chapter 7 and books by Duryea and Brown (1984), Duryea and Landis (1984), Duryea and Dougherty (1991), and van den Driessche (1991a,b).

Plant Nutritional Status

Nutrient Deficiency Pineapple

The nutritional status of the pineapple plant has a large influence on plant growth and, consequently, on yield and fruit quality. For pineapple, plant indicators that reflect plant nutritional status have been identified and, in conjunction with soil analysis, can be used to manage fertilization of the pineapple crop. The alternative to the use of plant indicators and soil analysis is the use of calibrated fertilizer trials in each area where the crop is grown. This practice is more common where pineapple is grown on small farms and where access to technology is limited (Souza, 1999). To sustain growth and obtain good yields, it is important to provide adequate supplies of all nutrients in proper balance. Balanced nutrition based on the principles of best management practices ensures that excess nutrients of one type do not induce deficiencies of others or, in the case of N and P, lead to environmental degradation. likely to retard growth and provide growers with the information...

Uptake and Transport of Cd by Plants

Cadmium accumulation by higher plants can occur through foliar or root uptake. However, the primary point of entry for Cd into plants is through the roots. Cadmium uptake by plants grown in contaminated soils has been extensively studied, particularly in sludge-amended soils (e.g. Jackson and Alloway 1991 McLaughlin et al. 2006 Singh and Agrawal 2007 Speir et al. 2003) and in soils treated with Cd-enriched phosphate fertilizers (Crews and Davies 1985 He and Singh 1994a, b Huang et al. 2003). In general, metals have to be in an available form to be taken up by plants. Alternatively plants must have mechanisms to make the metals available. The degree to which higher plants are able to take up Cd depends on its concentration in the soil and its bioavailability. Cadmium bioavailablity in soils is modulated by the presence of organic matter, pH, redox potential, temperature, light intensity, cation exchange capacity and concentrations of other elements (Greger 1999 He and Singh 1993 Sanita...

Use Of Micronutrient Efficient Genotypes

In general, the traditional method of applying micronutrients to plants subjected to their deficiency provides effective control of their deficiencies but this method involves high-energy inputs. Costs on both labour and fertilizers are high. Continuous fertilizer usage also contributes to resource depletion and, at times, soil pollution. The alternative approach of 'tailoring the plant to fit the soil' (Foy, 1983) circumvents these problems. Growing plant genotypes that can produce reasonably well under conditions of low micronutrient availability, where the other commonly cultivated crop genotypes fail, offers a low input and ecologically safe approach for amelioration of the deficiencies. Notwithstanding the mechanisms contributing to higher nutrient efficiency, which may, except for isogenic lines, differ in different genotypes, the use of efficient genotypes provide an opportunity to manage the deficiencies unless they are very severe. Under conditions of severe deficiency, a...

Fruit size and quality

In the 'Smooth Cayenne' cultivar, nitrogen fertilizer tends to decrease fruit acidity while increasing fruit weight, fruit translucency in winter fruit and susceptibility of harvested fruit to chilling injury. Fruit chilling-injury intensity is reduced by potassium fertilization, especially when supplied as the chloride (Teisson et al., 1979). Magnesium fertilization does not significantly influence fruit acidity, while high magnesium application led to a significant decline in fruit TSS (Sanford, 1963). Potassium fertilization has no effect on TSS or slightly increases it. Other nutrients - calcium, phosphorus and micronutrients - have little effect on fruit quality and chilling sensitivity.

Morphological and Growing Characteristics

Root Ginger root includes fibrous root and fleshy root. After planting, many roots having indefinite growth grow from the base of the sprouts. They are called fibrous roots. The number of the fibrous roots keep on increasing with the seedling growth, and each carries many tiny lateral roots. The fibrous roots are thin, have root hairs, and so they are also called absorption roots. Toward the rapid growing stage, several fleshy roots of indefinite growth come out from the lower node of the mother ginger and primary fingers. These fleshy roots are 0.5 cm thick and 10 to 25 cm long. They are milk-white, with few root hairs and no lateral roots. They have the functions of absorption and support, and they also can be eaten. Ginger roots are shallow, distributed within 30 cm deep in the soil, and only a few reach the lower soil layers. They are underdeveloped with low absorption ability. Therefore, ginger requires good conditions of soil, fertilizer, water, and so on.

Diagnostic monitoring of plant health and nutrient status

Cameco Boom Spraying

Today, fertilizer schedules for most large operations take into account both research results and operating experiences in order to consistently produce high yields. Such schedules should not be changed unless data gathered at key times during the cropping cycle indicate either a shortfall in or an imbalance of plant nutrients.

Nutrient Requirements

For ginger crop, the requirement of nitrogen (N) is the most critical among the major nutrients. Although the nutrient is directly available to the plant in nitrate form, it is easily lost by leaching. Under tropical conditions, the loss by leaching and denitrification is very high. At the same time, the nitrate N moves upward with the capillary rise of water during drought. Ammonium ions perform better than nitrates under heavy leaching situations. Unlike N, phosphorus, (P), is highly immobile in the soil because of its reaction with iron and aluminum hydroxides. Therefore, the amount of phosphatic fertilizer needed for the crop is relatively high. For a short-duration, quick-growing crop like ginger, fertilizer containing a high proportion of water-soluble P2O5 is needed for a better yield (Sushama and Jose, 1994). When ginger is grown as a homestead crop, potassium, (K), nutrition plays an important role. Only under high rates of K application can the crop be grown successfully...

Assessment of nutritional requirements

Pineapple responses to nutrient management are dramatically affected by the condition of the soil and the health of the developing root system. Pathogens, nematodes, waterlogging and impermeable soil easily inhibit the crop from assimilating nutrients and responding to fertilizers. Indeed, several symptoms due to stress in pineapple are easily misinterpreted as nutritional deficiencies. When optimum growing conditions prevail, particularly for the roots, significant economical responses can be achieved with both soil-applied and foliar-applied fertilizers. A preliminary assessment of nutrient requirements can be made by soil testing. Soil samples should be taken prior to land preparation, such as just before knockdown, and should represent the rooting volume of the native soil, less any contributions made from the crop residue. The total nutrient-management programme for pineapple is determined for three important stages -broadcast amendments for soil improvement, localized preplant...

Box 61 Outgrower schemes

Well-documented examples of outgrower schemes are the pulp companies Mondi and Sappi in South Africa. Here, around 10,000 smallholders grow Eucalyptus spp. on areas between 1.5 and 2.7ha in rotations of seven years. The companies provide seedlings, credit, fertilizer and technical assistance, and ultimately acquire the harvest for pulp production. The outgrowers receive payments before planting and after successfully completing each operation specified in the production programme, such as marking, ploughing, pitting, planting, fertilizing, weeding and fire protection. The money paid to the outgrower after completing each operation is essentially a loan advanced against the value of the final product (Mayers and Vermeulen, 2002). In the year 2002, outgrowers produced about 10 per cent of the two companies' mill consumption (Hall, 2003).

Magnesium Mg zinc Zn boron B and other micronutrients

Since a deficiency of Zn or B can be especially devastating, they are applied when even marginally low levels are suspected. Zinc and boron are truly microelements and should not be overapplied. Zinc sulphate is applied in combination with other sulphates, such as Fe or Mg, to achieve a total application of no more than 0.1 kg ha-1 (0.1 lb acre-1) of Zn. Boron should not be applied in combination with any other nutrient it should be applied at about 1.0 kg ha-1 (1.0 lb acre-1) of B in one or two foliar applications. Soluble forms of borax are available from qualified fertilizer dealers. In Queensland, Australia, boron is commonly applied in the ethephon solution at 10 kg acre-1 of borax or solubor, when plants are forced, to supply B and, especially when forcing in midsummer (January-February), to raise the pH of the ethephon solution to enhance forcing success. Under these conditions, boron is applied in a 2.0-4.0 urea solution.

Mother And Finger Rhizome

Mother And Finger Rhizome Images

In the seedling stage, only vegetative growth takes place, usually one tiller grows out in every 20 days. When entering the root-growing stage, lateral branches of the rhizome grow out quickly one branch usually grows out every 5 to 6 days. After the middle of October, with the decrease in temperature, the growth slows down. The number of lateral branches (fingers) of the rhizome depends on the cultivars and planting condition. Generally, dense seedling cultivars have 15 to 20 primary fingers under moderate fertility and normal water-supplying conditions, whereas sparse seedling ones have 10 to 15. Cultivars when planted in fertile soil, with adequate supply of water and fertilizers, will have more fingers. There are nodes on the rhizome the number and the density of the nodes vary in the mother rhizome, and the primary and secondary fingers. Usually, the mother ginger is smaller, with short internodes, whereas the primaries are bigger with long internodes.

The Impact of Meristem Allocation on Reproductive Allocation

Geber (1990) showed that meristem allocation affects reproductive allocation in Polygonum arenastrum (Polygonaceae), an annual herb. There was genotypic variation in the early allocation to flowering. Genotypes that had a high early allocation to flowering suffered from a cost in terms of low growth rate and fecundity later in life. The experimental plants did not produce any dormant meristems. All genotypes produced equal numbers of seeds per flowering metamer, which suggests that plants with high early reproductive allocation did not suffer from higher resource limitation than other plants. Plants were given ample water and fertilizer, which also suggests that it was unlikely that resource limitation would explain the result.

Relationship Between Foliage Nutrient Content and Tree Growth

Foliar analysis has proven to be a powerful tool in tree nutrition and fertilizer research. In this, foliage nutrient levels are used as an index of the nutritional condition of the tree or stand. Given the relationship between tree growth and foliar nutrient levels, one can diagnose nutrient deficiencies, better interpret responses to fertilizer trials, and even predict fertilizer responses (Bevege 1978). In interpreting foliage nutrient contents, the concept of critical concentration has been used to define predictable functional relationships between nutrient concen-

Sustainable Agriculture

Mycorhizal fungi, particularly AM, are ubiquitous in soil and create symbiotic associations with most terrestrial plants including agricultural crops, cereals, vegetables, and horticultural plants. In agriculture, several factors such as host crop dependency to mycorrhizal colonization, tillage system, fertilizer application, and the potential of mycorrhizal fungi inocula, affect plant response and plant benefits from mycorrhizae. Interest in AM fungi propagation for sustainable agriculture is increasing due to its role in the promotion of plant health, and improvements in soil fertility and soil aggregate stability. These fungi can be utilized effectively for increasing yields while minimizing use of pesticides and inorganic fertilizers. To improve crop production in infertile soils, chemical fertilizers have been intensively used, organic matter is incorporated and soil management technologies such as fallow or legume cultivation have also been used. Reliance should be on biological...

Occurrence Of Iron Deficiency In Field Crops

Soybean Geographical Distribution

Rice is moderately sensitive to Fe deficiency, but the problem is relatively rare (Dobermann and Fairhurst, 2000). When rice is produced in flooded conditions, soil Fe is reduced to the more soluble Fe+2 forms, even in calcareous soils. Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a more common problem in rice production, while in some cases there may be simultaneous deficiencies in both Zn and Fe. There are occurrences of Fe deficiency in rice in the U.S. under certain conditions inadequate soil reduction due to low organic matter levels, calcareous subsoil conditions, and large ratios of phosphorus (P) to Fe, where low solubility iron phosphates form (Morikawa et al., 2004). Iron deficiency occurs in the Texas and Louisiana rice production areas in high pH, sandy soils with low soil Fe levels (Fred Turner, Texas A&M, Beaumont, TX, personal communication) and in areas of the Florida Everglades region on peat soils with low total Fe content where Fe fertilizer must be applied (Snyder and Jones, 1988)....

Combined Effects of Mycorrhiza and Rhizobium

Only plants dependent on mycorrhiza for their growth show positive responses to inoculation with VAM fungi in growth and nutrient uptake (Yantasath and Poonsawad 1991). Chemical fertilizers can improve tree growth, but once the fertilizer is exhausted, growth will cease. Fortunately, native VAM populations where trees are planted (especially in logged-over areas and degraded grasslands) are often adequate for at least minimal growth. Tambalo-Zarate and dela Cruz (1991), in screening 18 crops (6 agronomic, 6 fruit species, and 6 reforestation species) for their responses to VAM inoculation, found A. mangium to be mycor-rhizal-dependent that is, it would not survive in soils of marginal fertility with MYKOVAM 2 is a granulated form of MYKOVAM 1 which resembles granular chemical fertilizers. It is easier to handle than MYKOVAM 1 and has a longer shelf life (6-8 months, as opposed to 3-4 months for MYKOVAM 1). MYKOVAM 2 can also be stored at room temperature. Lorilla et al. (1992) tested...

Infleunce Of Soil Fertility On Soybean Production

Cambridge University Press, UK Heeraman DA, Claassen VP, Zasoki RJ (2001) Interaction of lime, organic matter and fertilizer on growth and uptake of arsenic and mercury by Zorrofescue (Vulpia myuros L.). Plant Soil 234 215-231 Hemalatha S, Anburaj A, Francis K (1997) Effect of heavy metals on certain biochemical constituents and nitrate reductase activity in Oryza sativa L. seedlings. J Environ Biol 18 313-319 Hirt H, Casari G, Barta A (1989) Cadmium enhanced gene expression in suspension culture cells of tobacco. Planta 179 414-420 Hock B, Elstner E (2005) Preface. In Hock B, Elstner E (eds) Plant toxicology, 4th edn. Marcel Dekker, New York Horvath G, Droppa M, Oraveez A, Raskin VI, Marder JB (1996) Formation of the photosynthetic apparatus during greening and cadmium poisoning barley leaves. Planta 199 238-243 Howlett NG, Avery SV (1997) Relationship between cadmium sensitivity and degree of plasma membrane fatty acid unsaturation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Microbiol...

Seed Stands Seed Production Areas and Seed Orchards

Current local demand for seeds, seed stands can he established in existing mature plantations by removing inferior phenotypes, controlling weeds, and applying fertilizer. Thinning stimulates the remaining trees to have large, healthy crowns for producing large seed crops. Isolating the stand from undesirable pollen sources can be difficult, but is desirable for better quality seed. Such improved stands can be classified as seed production areas.

Nutrient absorption and growth

The uptake of nitrogen also shows luxury consumption, generally being proportional to the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied during vegetative growth (Scott, 1993). Juice nitrate is an important quality factor in canned pineapple because high levels detin cans 8 p.p.m. is considered the critical level in Australia (Scott, 1994). In Thailand, fruits that exceed 25 p.p.m. nitrate in the pineapple juice are rejected at the cannery (P. Chairidchai, 2000, personal communication). Juice nitrate levels can be highly correlated with nitrogen applied with fertilizers (Scott, 1993). In one study, juice nitrate averaged 1.0, 6.0 and 23 p.p.m. when N applied was 200, 600 and 1200 kg ha-1 (Scott, 1993). Heavy N fertilization and application of N fertilizers after flowering is more likely to result in elevated fruit nitrate levels (Chongpraditnun et al., 1996). However, nitrate levels in leaves sampled at different stages of plant growth were not well correla ted with juice nitrate levels...

Treatment of previous crop residues

Poor tilth and impediments to drainage are especially unfavourable to pineapple. The chief objective of tillage is to achieve excellent soil tilth to improve contact with the planting material and for rapid and sustained root development. Tillage should achieve a permeable soil profile that is free of rocks and large clods and a homogeneous distribution of decomposed residue, amendments and fertilizers. Where fumigation for nematode control is essential, fine tilth must be achieved for effective distribution of the fumigant. results in an improved planting and growing environment. Harrows and discs (Fig. 6.5) are used to break up clods to provide a suitable tilth for planting. Rollers, cultipackers, rototillers and levelling boards may be used to finish the tillage operations. These operations will be followed by bed-forming, pre-plant fertilizer application and fumigation, with mulch laying, where these operations are appropriate.

Factors Affecting Water Use and Wateruse Efficiency in Soybean

Fertilizer application An optimally fertilized crop exhibits proper growth and development, high yield and high WUE. The highest ET and WUE in soybean have been reported with the application of 100 of recommended nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) levels plus 10 t farmyard manure ha-1 compared to with 100 of recommended NPK levels alone or no fertilizer (Hati et al., 2000).

Inoculation of plants with siderophore producing microorganisms

Promoting bacteria that stimulate plant growth through the production of hormones or destruction of plant produced ethylene rely on the use of siderophores for rhizosphere competence in iron-limiting soils (Forlani et al., 1995 Bevivino et al., 1998 Cattelan et al., 1999). The enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC), is responsible for the degradation of the precursor of ethylene which can inhibit plant growth. Bacteria that produce this enzyme also frequently produce siderophores. Auxins are produced by many different bacteria including Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and others (Haahtela et al., 1990). These bacteria also produce siderophores which presumably increases their rhizosphere competence. In the search for bacteria and fungi that can be used as biofertilizers or for biocontrol of disease, siderophore production is commonly included as a criterion for characterizing potential soil and seed inoculants. However, it is clear that this trait alone does not...

Balanced and Integrated Nutrient Management in Soybeanbased Cropping Systems

In an era of multiple nutrient deficiencies, a single nutrient approach can lower fertilizer-use efficiency. Balanced nutrition implies that there are no deficiencies, excesses, antagonisms or negative interactions. All deficient nutrients must be at an optimum rate by themselves and in relation to each other, enabling positive interactions to enhance yields. Field trials conducted in different villages of central India on black soils deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur and zinc have shown that balanced fertilization (BF) through the application of NPKSZn at recommended rates (25 kg N, 60 kg P2O5, 20 kg K2O, 20 kg S and 5 kg Zn ha-1) produced a higher soybean seed yield by 30-35 over farmers' usual practice (12.5 kg N and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1) (Fig. 8.1). Omitting the application of phosphorus (NKSZn treatment) and sulphur (NPKZn treatment) had resulted in a 15-19 reduction in The interactive advantage of the combined use of all possible sources of nutrients and their scientific...

Sulfur in grapevine nutrition and health

The effect of sulfur on plant growth, productivity and product quality mostly relates sulfur nutrition in interaction with nitrogen (Brunold 1976, Byers et al. 1987, Schnug 1997). In grapevine xylem sap, sulfate, chloride and phosphate increased by N fertilizer treatment, while nitrate was the major anion followed by malate (Peuke 2000). The protective effect of elemental S against pests and diseases has been mostly reported after foliar application (Bloem et al. 2007). In the decade of 90's field trials showed that S fertilization could substitute for fungicide application in crop yield protection from pests attack. Then the concept of Sulfur Induced Resistance (SIR) was introduced to describe the natural resistance of plants against fungal pathogens through the stimulation of sulfur metabolic processes by fertilizer application strategies (Haneklaus et al. 2007), although S-containing metabolites responsible for SIR have not been fully elucidated (Bloem et al. 2007). However,...

PH Changes in the Rhizosphere and Bioavailability of Trace Elements

If plants can induce the release of Ca from Ca-carbonates and phosphates due to release of protons by roots, this process is also likely to induce a release of trace elements from them. Hinsinger and Gilkes 24 showed an increase in Ca and P concentration in the rhizosphere of ryegrass and subclover due to release of protons by their roots. It is well known that phosphorus fertilizers are a source of input of Cd in agricultural soils due to substitution of Cd that occurs in phosphate rocks used for manufacturing phosphorus fertilizers 25 .

Am Fungal Communities And Grain Production

Fertilizer use represents a common agricultural management practice, but a growing body of evidence has demonstrated an array of negative impacts on ecosystems from their use. No matter which form of fertilizer is applied (organic or mineral), conventional farming generates large N and P surpluses, which can lead to N leaching through the soil profile and P losses in runoff (Brady and Weil, 2002). Not only is there a high financial cost to farmers associated with this loss, but the phenomenon also resulted in soil contamination. In addition, excess fertilizer inputs can be a major threat to aquatic ecosystems through surface and groundwater degradation (Kirchmann and Thorvaldsson, 2000). Recently, fertilizer runoff from agricultural fields was emphasized among the causes of excessive cyanobacterial growth and increasing of potentially harmful blooms leading to restricted access to lakes. of fertilizers. Conventional farming systems using lower application rates of fertilizers and...

Box 62 The Gotsch agroforestry system

The agroforestry approach developed by Ernst Gotsch in subtropical north-eastern Brazil has been adapted widely by several development projects in South America. The principle of the Gotsch approach is to make use of natural succession dynamics to achieve an abundant and diverse production while maintaining soil fertility without fertilizer and chemical use and without the need to fight disease or pests. Priority is given to a wide range of annual and perennial food crops and fruits adapted to the specific local ecological conditions. The tree component is less important. Typical crop species are rice, corn, beans, tomato, manioc, papaya, banana, cacao, coffee, citrus trees, palms and legumes as well as mahogany and other high-value timber species. All species are planted at high densities to respond effectively to all niches in the ecosystem. When the growth of one species declines another species take over. Weeding occurs selectively. Regular pruning adds more organic material to...

Future trends in rice demand

The most important inputs in rice production are land, labor, water, and fertilizer. Constraints to the future supply of these inputs will affect rice production, and consideration of these constraints gives insights into the type of technologies that are most likely to be helpful in reducing the incidence of poverty. In contrast to increasing shortages of land, water, and labor, fertilizer is much cheaper now than it was 30 years ago. The world market price of urea (the most common source of nitrogen for rice farmers in Asia) was US 516 r1 on average from 1957 to 1961, but declined to US 174 r1 on average from 1994 to 1998 (all prices are in constant 1998 dollars see Fig. 5). Because of these low prices, the cost of nitrogen fertilizer is a relatively small share of the total value of production. For example, recent data collected from representative farm enterprises in several key irrigated rice-growing areas showed mean shares of just 3.5 in West Java, Indonesia, 6.7 in the Central...

Conclusion And Future Outlook

In this chapter Fe-chelates have been presented as the most efficient, but expensive, fertilizers to correct Fe chlorosis. Their chemical equilibria, the sorption into soil surfaces, the plant acquisition of Fe from chelates and the remobilization of Fe from native forms present in soils seems to play important roles in their mechanism of action, but the quality and effectiveness of commercial products can still be considerably improved.

Plantation Management

As almost all pepper plantings are undertaken by small holders, so the sizes of holdings are relatively small ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 ha. The average size is about 0.65 ha. In general the economic condition of the family is low, except for small number of holders and in certain periods of good prices and good harvest. There are two types of pepper plantings applied by small holders in Indonesia (1) extensive cultivation in Lampung and (2) fairly intensive one in Bangka, South Sumatra. In Lampung, pepper is planted under live standards and little inputs are given to the crop in terms of fertilization, cultivation, pest management, pruning- both pepper and poles, while situation in Bangka is better where pepper is grown on dead standards. The soil in Bangka is poor, lack organic content and very sandy, therefore fertilizers and mulch are regularly needed. In general, the features of pepper cultivation systems are part of traditional cultural practices including harvesting and processing...

Heavy metal availability in the soil

There are differences between heavy metals concerning their phyto-availability. Lead and Cu have a high affinity for organic soil constituents, although they may also bind to colloid particles. Zinc has a much lower affinity for soil organic particles than Cu. The phytoavailable fraction of Zn corresponds to its water-soluble and exchangeable forms, which constitute a small portion as compared to the total Zn content of the soil. Cadmium is a constituent of fertilizers and sewage sludge applied to agricultural areas, and is highly mobile and available for plants (Bolan et al., 2003 McBride, 1989 Bell et al., 1991b Luo and Christie, 1998 Barak and Helmke, 1993 Kabata-Pendias, 2001).

Rhizobium spp and Ochrobactrum spp

Two laboratories, that Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii efficiently colonized roots of different monocots, such as wheat, maize, and rice (Schloter et al. 1997 Yanni et al. 1997). In the Egyptian Nile delta many hundred years' recorded history of rice forage legume (Egyptian berseem clover, Trifolium alexandrinum L.) rotation existed on 60-70 of the 500 000 ha of land used for rice production. It has been estimated that this clover rotation with rice can replace 25-33 of the recommended amount of fertilizer-N needed for optimal rice production. Detailed studies have revealed that the clover root-nodule occupant Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is forming endophytic associations with rice plants. Certain strains of endophytic Rhizobia as inoculants for a rice crop could significantly improve the vegetative growth, grain productivity, and agronomic fertilizer use efficiency (measured as kg grain yield per kg of fertilizer-N applied) (Dazzo and Yanni 2006). Detailed colonization...

Effect of nutrition on fruit quality

Assuming that no other factors limit growth, the adequacy of the nutrient supply determines the plant growth rate, the plant mass at induction and ultimately the fruit mass at harvest. However, the plant-mass-fruit-mass relationship is by no means direct, as environment and the quality of forced induction are also important (see Bartholomew et al., Chapter 8, this volume). The literature seems to indicate that plants well supplied with nutrients at the time of induction are likely to have larger fruit than plants of the same mass that have less than optimum nutrition (Py et al., 1987). If nutrition is adequate at the time of induction, additional nutrients are typically not applied after that time, because nutrient absorption, except for potassium, ceases (Py et al., 1987). Fruit mass is well correlated with plant mass at induction, and fruit quality is primarily determined by environmental factors. Where nutrient supplies at the time of induction are inadequate, fruit mass may be...

Conclusion Of Medicinal Plant

Though cardamom is a perennial crop, its growth behaviour resembles more to a biennial crop in the sense that vegetative phase (tillers) emerging in one year turns into reproductive phase during the second year and produce panicles, flowers and capsules. Cardamom, being cultivated as an undergrowth with shade trees, competition for inputs among them makes nutritional management an important practice in realizing optimal yield of the crop. Escalation in cost of fertilizers makes necessary their use in an efficient and economic manner. Even though there exists greater demand for different spices produced through organic cultivation practices, the demand for organic cardamom is not much at present. However, production of cardamom through low input sustainable agriculture incorporating integrated nutrient management system involving use of various kinds of organic manures and bio-fertilizers should be aimed at in the present day context of preservation of natural ecosystem and...

Structure And Composition Of The Starch Granule

Starch is a dominant reserve material of plants and an important component of the human diet. The starch granule is a dense, semi-crystalline, anhydrous structure found exclusively in the plastids of green algae and higher plants and in the cytosol of some red algae. In the potato tuber starch granules are located inside amyloplasts (one per plastid) and have characteristic shapes and structure, but are mostly oval or egg-shaped (126). Starch grain size increases as the tuber matures up to values of 100 mm length by 70 mm diameter (26), although there is usually a large granule size distribution within individual tubers. Many factors are known to influence starch granule size in potato. Low water availability decreases granule size (26) whilst potassium fertilizers (26) and high growth temperature (127) both increase it.

Basic Practices of Modern Agricultural Systems

Modern agricultural systems have been developed with two related goals in mind to obtain the highest yields possible and to get the highest economic profit possible. In pursuit of these goals, six basic practices have come to form the backbone of production intensive tillage, monoculture, application of inorganic fertilizer, irrigation, chemical pest control, and genetic manipulation of crop plants. Each practice is used for its individual contribution to productivity, but when they are all combined in a farming system each depends on the others and reinforces the need for using the others. The work of agronomists, specialists in agricultural production, has been key to the development of these practices. Use of Synthetic Fertilizers. Very dramatic yield increases occur with the application of synthetic chemical fertilizers. Relatively easy to manufacture or mine, to transport, and to apply, fertilizer use has increased from five to ten times what it was at the end of World War II...

Synergies and tradeoffs between ecosystem goods and services

Structural retention Use of native species Mixed-species stands Long rotations Thinning Site preparation Herbicides and fertilizer Landscape level In general, there are mostly synergies between the supporting ecosystem services such as the maintenance of soil resources, water and nutrient cycles, and biodiversity. However, most of the above-listed management options that have a direct or indirect negative effect on plantation productivity, have a positive influence on water services and vice versa (e.g. Vertessy et al, 1996 Jackson et al, 2005). However, this does not apply universally to all other -including undesirable and unintended - negative effects on productivity, as for example through soil compaction or erosion. Here, the focus is on effects on the physiological activity and transpirational demand of planted forests. Where measures such as structural retention or longer rotations result in fewer young and vigorously transpiring trees on site, the water demand of plantations...

Sulfur nutrition and plant defense against pathogens

Whole plants do not accumulate nor remobilize S-reserves (Mengel and Kirkby 1982). In the past, the sulfur used by crop plants resulted from sulfur-containing fertilizers and or sulfur in rainfall (Jolivet 1993). Due to environmental policies both these sources were significantly reduced in the last 25 years atmospheric sulfur deposition significantly decreased and many of the currently used mineral fertilizers lack sulfur (Blake-Kalff et al. 2000). Recent studies indicate that sulfur deficiency can be a limiting factor to crop yield and quality (Saito 2004, Hawkesford 2005). Therefore, former research on plant adaptation to excessive inputs of sulfur due to aerial pollution moved now into the effects of S-deficiencies.

Mechanism of nutritional benefit by mycorrhiza

Stand the precise implications of this technique. It is not able to detect shifts between the sorbed and solution phase phosphate which form the two components of the isotopically-exchangeable pool (Tinker, 1975), but it does show that phosphorus has not been solubilized from organic phosphates or from mineral phosphates that were not in isotopic equilibrium with the soil solution. If this had occurred, the specific activity of phosphorus in the plant would have been lower than that in the soil solution. Similar concepts can also be used to compare the efficiency of use of different fertilizer types by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants.

Epidemiology and Modes of Infection and Transmission of Bacterial Wilt on Ginger and Other Hosts

Ginger Bacterial Wilt

R. solanacearum can survive in the soil for long periods in the absence of host plants. There are conflicting reports on the longevity of R. solanacearum strains in soil, especially in the absence of protected sites (Graham and Lloyd, 1979) and on its resistance to desiccation. Soil types have been differentiated as being either conductive or suppressive to bacterial wilt (Hayward, 1991) their indirect influence on soil moisture determines the population size of antagonistic microorganisms, which affect, in turn, the persistence of R. solanacearum. Many workers have stressed the complexity of the epidemiology of bacterial wilt and involvement of many interacting factors (Kelman, 1953 Buddenhagen and Kelman, 1964 Hayward, 1991). Dissemination on infected vegetative planting material is of major importance in the case of banana, ginger, and potato and the potential for spread may be local or international. Some early evidence indicated that true seed might serve as a means of dispersal...

Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for growth

In a closed ecological system, the nitrate required for plant growth is derived from the degradation of the biomass. In contrast to other plant nutrients (e.g., phosphate or sulfate), nitrate cannot be delivered by the weathering of rocks. Smaller amounts of nitrate are generated by lightning and carried into the soil by rain water (in temperate areas about 5 kg N ha per year). Due to the effects of civilization (e.g., car traffic, mass animal production, etc.), the amount of nitrate, other nitrous oxides and ammonia carried into the soil by rain can be in the range of 15 to 70 kg N ha per year. Fertilizers are essential for agricultural production to compensate for the nitrogen that is lost by the withdrawal of harvest products. For the cultivation of maize, for instance, about 200 kg N ha per year have to be added as fertilizers in the form of nitrate or ammonia. Ammonia, the primary product for the synthesis of nitrate fertilizer, is produced from nitrogen and hydrogen by the...

Modern Trends In Fruit Tree Nutrition

Modern nutrient management practices rely on fine-tuning the application of nutrients to satisfy specific needs of different tree organs at times most beneficial from the standpoint of tree productivity and fruit quality. An improved understanding of how tree nutrient reserves are built up and mobilized leads to fertilizer practices that optimize yield and fruit quality while minimizing excessive vegetative growth. The use of different rootstocks with various abilities to acquire nutrients from the soil is being explored to solve tree nutritional problems via genetic means rather than fertilizer manipulations. A better understanding of the genetic control of plant nutrient uptake and translocation on a molecular level will open new frontiers for further improving the efficiency of mineral nutrient acquisition and utilization with the use of less fertilizer. All these modern approaches to plant nutrition are aimed at minimizing or eliminating the environmental pollution that can...

Nitrogen and Phosphorus

Seagrasses (Marba et al., 1996), both from morphological and growth characteristics (Marba et al., 1996). P. oceanica sediments receive enough nitrogen from depostion of decaying leaves to sustain the plants' needs, if recycling is efficient (Gacia et al., 2002). Phosphorus appeared to limit seagrass production in Shark Bay (Australia) (Smith and Atkinson, 1983). If limitation by nutrient availability occurs, the consequences for growth are most obvious during summer (Alcoverro et al., 1997b Wolterding and Larkum, 2002). Even in oligotrophic areas, such as NW Corsica, fertilizers have little effect on the annual dynamics of P. oceanica (Gobert, unpublished data). P. oceanica may have developed diverse strategies to buffer and reduce the impact of environmental conditions.

Electrical Conductivity And pH In The Nutrient Solution

EC is an index of salt concentration that informs about the total amount of salts in a solution. Hence, EC of the nutrient solution is a good indicator of the amount of fertilizer available to the plants in the root zone (Nemali and Van Iersel, 2004). When plants absorb nutrients and water from the solution, the total salt concentration, that is the EC of the solution changes, and measurements of EC level are easy, fast and economic, hence, can be carried out daily by growers. Thus, fertigation management is currently based on the control of EC and pH in order to correct a preset nutrient solution prepared according to previous experience. This is a practical method but it is important to note that EC does not inform about the concentration of specific ions in the solution, hence, this way of managing nutrient solution may lead to nutrient imbalances. problems whereas EC 1.5 dS m may lead to nutrient deficiencies. In greenhouse culture, the high input of fertilizers is the main cause...

Effect of Environmental Conditions

Environmental conditions during grain fill alter both wheat yield and flour quality. To elucidate the basis for these changes, comparative proteomics has been used to identify specific protein changes in response to temperature and fertilizer levels during grain fill. Skylas et al. 39 determined the effect of a 3-day high-temperature regimen (40 25 C day night at 15-17 DPA) on protein profiles in heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive wheat cultivars. At 17 DPA, more proteins responded to high temperature in the endosperm of the heat-tolerant cultivar than to high temperature in the endosperm of the heat-sensitive cultivar. All 17 heat-responsive proteins identified in this study were smHSPs. Because seven proteins responded only in the heat-tolerant cultivar at 17 DPA and one protein remained at high levels at 45 DPA, these proteins were suggested to be candidates for markers for heat-tolerance. Such proteins are of keen interest to plant breeders who are trying to obtain stress-resistant...

Phytoremediation and the beginning of interest in mycorrhiza

At first, the necessity to include soil microorganisms in phytoremediation was neglected. People used compounds that increase the availability of toxic compounds, therefore stimulating the accumulation of metals in plants 16-18 , as well as fertilizers to boost plant biomass production 19 . The most efficient varieties were selected techniques involving genetic engineering were also used 20-23 . The plants' ability to produce organic compounds influencing the rhizosphere and increasing the availability of metals was also acknowledged 24-26 .

Food Versus Fuel And The Case For Highyielding Crops

Of the three legs of the sustainability stool, economic sustainability of agriculture receives the most attention. Globally, there has been a trend away from diverse crop rotation to simplified annual crop systems that has been accompanied by increases in yield and farm labour productivity, made possible through increased reliance on synthetic fertilizer, pesticides and subsidy payments for crops in surplus (Bullock, 1992 Malezieux et al., 2009 Schulte et al., 2006 Tegtmeier and Duffy, 2004). Beginning with the Soil Conservation Act of 1935, the US government has, like many developed countries, paid farmers to set aside land from arable cropping, and instead plant it to perennials as a soil conservation tool. As demand grows for highly productive land to produce food, feed, fibre and now fuel, however, the value of these government programmes fades in comparison to what a farmer can earn by producing a subsidy-protected grain crop. In a more specific...

In Agriculture An Environment Perspective

Increased use of nitrogenous (N) fertilizer has significantly altered the global N-cycle and produced nitrogenous gases of environmental consequence. While nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions contribute to global greenhouse gas accumulation and the stratospheric ozone depletion, degradation of groundwater quality by N use in agriculture is fundamentally a nitrate leaching problem. Despite these evident negative environmental impacts, consumption of N fertilizer cannot be reduced in view of the food security for teeming population in the developing countries. Various strategies, from agronomic to genetic engineering, have been tried to tackle this problem. Split application of N, use of slow-release fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors, and the use of organic manures are some agronomic techniques adopted. One of the important goals to reduce N-fertilizer application can be effectively achieved by choosing N-efficient (i.e., which can grow under low N conditions), ensuring their optimum...

Ectomycorrhizae And Forest Ecosystems

The importance of ectomycorrhiza in forest plantations has received much attention when it was observed that trees often fail to establish at new sites if the ectomycorrhizal symbiont is absent. This effect has been observed in exotic pine transplantation in different parts of the world. In Western Australia, Pinus radiata and P. pinaster failed to establish in nursery beds in the absence of mycorrhizal fungi (Lakhanpal, 2000). Even the addition of fertilizer had no effect on the establishment of seedlings on such sites. Addition of forest soil produced normal and healthy seedlings, however, because the forest soil contained propagules of mycorrhizal fungi.

Introduction Abiotic Stress Responses Importance

Those responses that follow a similar pattern can be useful in developing sustainable agriculture by reducing the need for chemicals (e.g., fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides) and preserving optimizing natural resources (e.g., water, reclaiming wasteland for intensive agriculture) (Wang et al. 2003 Agrawal et al. 2010).

General introduction to the genus Lavandula

Lavender oil, distilled from L. angustifolia was used extensively in Victorian times as a perfume and applied in numerous cosmetic products, but now it is used mainly in combination with other essential oils and aromachemicals. This species and numerous hybrids cultivars, for example, Lavandin 'grosso' were originally grown in the South of France, but are now grown virtually round the world. True lavender oil, consisting mainly of linalool and linalyl acetate, has a very variable composition due to the genetic instability of the oil-producing plants and variations due to temperature, water quantity, altitude, fertilizers, time of year, geographic distribution etc. The chemical composition also varies in the numerous hybrids, which produce larger plants with a higher essential oil yield and which are therefore grown more often.

Temporal response patterns considerations and controls

The sustainability of the magnitude and even direction of a response may be governed by the availability of resources which will be governed in part by initial conditions. For example, ecosystems with large stocks of relatively labile C may show a larger and more sustained increase in soil respiration in response to warming than an ecosystem with low initial labile C stocks, or an N-rich ecosystem may show a more sustained increase in photosynthesis and NPP under CO2-enrichment then a N-poor ecosystem. In either case, if the systems receive no new inputs of labile C or atmospheric or fertilizer N, the magnitude of the response will decline over time as either labile C or N are depleted (hypothetical line 2 in Figure 2). For example, at the Harvard Forest soil warming experiment, Peterjohn et al. (1994) initially reported an approximately 40 increase in soil respiration during the first six months of the experiment. However, the magnitude of this increase diminished over time such that...

Percent Survival During Acclimatization Ex Vitro

Of the total costs for ex vitro acclimatization in the PAM, 20 was spent on the construction of the greenhouse, 56 was spent on labor, 19 was spent on supplies such as substrate, electricity, water, fertilizer and pesticide and 5 was spent on other items. On the other hand, in the PMM, 11 was spent on the construction of the greenhouse, 38 was spent on labor, 11 was spent on supplies such as substrate, electricity, water, fertilizer and pesticide and 40 was spent on other items. The lower cost of ex vitro acclimatization in the PAM than in the PMM was mainly due to a higher percentage of survival ex vitro and less labor. The cost for in vitro multiplication, which was equal to that for in vitro rooting, in the PAM was 58 of that in the PMM (Table 6). Labor cost in the PAM was less than half of that in the PMM. This result is consistent with the prediction by Kozai et al. (2000). The reduced labor cost in the PAM significantly reduced the cost for in vitro...

Allelopathy and Allelochemicals

Allelopathy refers to any process involving secondary metabolites produced by plants, microorganisms, viruses and fungi that influence the growth and development of agricultural and biological systems (Narwal, 1994). It has been established that allelopathy offers great potential to (a) increase agricultural production (food grains, vegetables, fruits and forestry), (b) decrease harmful effects of modern agricultural practices multiple cropping, leaching losses from N fertilizers, indiscriminate use of pesticides (weedicides, fungicides, insecticides and nematicides), tolerant resistant biotypes in pests on soil health productivity and on environment and (c) maintain soil productivity and a pollution-free environment for our future generations. It is likely that in the near future allelopathy will be used in crop production, crop protection, agroforestry and agrohorticultural practices in developed and developing countries. Allelopathy may become one of the strategic sciences to...

Mohd Sayeed Akhtar And Zaki A Siddiqui

Abstract Arbuscular Mycorhizal (AM) fungi are ubiquitous and form symbiotic relationships with roots of most terrestrial plants. Their associations benefit plant nutrition, growth and survival due to their enhanced exploitation of soil nutrients. These fungi play a key role in nutrient cycling and also protect plants against environmental and cultural stresses. The establishment of AM fungi in the plant root has been shown to reduce the damage caused by soil-borne plant pathogens with the enhancement of resistance in mycorrhizal plants. The effectiveness of AM fungi in biocontrol is dependent on the AM fungus involved, as well as the substrate and host plant. However, protection offered by AM fungi is not effective against all the plant pathogens and is modulated by soil and other environmental conditions. AM fungi generally reduce the severity of plant diseases to various crops suggesting that they may be used as potential tool in disease management. AM fungi modify the quality and...

Soil Chemical Analysis

Sults of soil tests conducted on samples collected from different soil depths. The second limitation reflects the fact that no chemical extracting procedure adequately mimics the natural process of nutrient release by the soil. The latter is affected by constantly changing biotic and abiotic conditions in the soil, i.e., the factors totally ignored by soil chemical tests. The third major limitation is the lack of sufficient data to correlate the results of soil tests with fruit tree responses in field fertilizer trials. It is well known that such responses may be modified by various production systems, rootstocks, and even fruit tree cultivars, thus further complicating the task of properly interpreting the results of soil tests. Increasing sampling intensity, enhancing the knowledge of how the results of soil tests correlate with tree responses in field fertilizer trials, and the availability of trained personnel to interpret soil tests will mitigate the limitations discussed...

Management Of Iron Nutrition In Field Crops

Management of Fe nutrition is unique compared to most essential nutrients for which deficiencies are easily corrected by adding relatively inexpensive fertilizer. Although soil chemistry and environmental conditions result in various inefficiencies with these other nutrients, these deficiencies are generally corrected with adequate fertilizer addition (Tisdale et al., 1993). Alternatively, Fe deficiencies are not easily corrected with fertilizers applied to the soil in typical fashion (Anderson, 1982 Chen and Barak, 1982 Cihacek, 1984 Clark, 1982 Lucena, 2003 Vose, 1982). This anomaly is due to the extreme nature of the equilibrium between the solid and solution phase forms of Fe in the soil. This relationship is so one-sided in alkaline soils, that essentially an infinitesimal concentration of soluble Fe resides in the soil solution from which roots draw nutrients (Lindsay, 1974 Lindsay and Schwab, 1982). Iron fertilizer materials dissolve and temporarily elevate solution Fe...

Features of Organic Farming

Organic farming is widespread throughout the world and is growing rapidly. In Germany alone there are about eight thousand organic farms occupying about 2 percent of the total arable land. In Italy organic farms number around eighteen thousand, and in Austria about twenty thousand organic farms account for 10 percent of total agricultural output. In 1980 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that there were at least eleven thousand organic farms in the United States and at least twenty-four thousand farms that use some organic techniques. In California, organic foods are one of the fastest-growing segments of the agricultural economy, with retail sales growing at 20 percent to 25 percent per year. Cuba was the only country undergoing a massive conversion to organic farming, promoted by the drop of fertilizer, pesticide, and petroleum imports after the collapse of trade relations with the Soviet bloc in 1990. Chemical, fertilizers applied in Microbial biofertilizers,...

Chemical Features of Urban Soils

Urban soils show chemical human impacts compared with natural soils their pH, element cycling and nutrient availability are altered. Their node function as nutrient source and buffering system or as detoxification medium is restricted or imbalanced. Fertilizer or compost application, atmospheric pollution and outwash via stem-flow, heavy metal contamination from various sources, de-icer from winter maintenance, contaminated irrigation-water, debris from exotic species, litter removal etc. contribute to chemical deviations from the natural element budgets and have additive or antagonistic effects. For improving nutrient levels of alkaline soils acidic, slow-release fertilizers are proposed, but changes in availability of mineral nutrients or toxic elements by simultaneous adaptation of soil pH have to be taken into account. Antagonistic and syner-gistic effects of the fertilizer constituents have to be kept in mind and basic knowledge of the respective soil nutrient concentrations are...

Conclusion and Future Perspectives

Present review provides an overview of plant nutriomics, which is still at a conceptual stage. Although considerable efforts are in progress with the aim at enhancing plant nutrient efficiency through molecular and genetic approaches. We have focused here largely on nitrogen with which we have been working on along molecular biology lines. Crop response to N and NUE is very low in developing countries including India. Use of NIs and slow-release nitrogen fertilizers and efficient crop and fertilizer management can significantly increase NUE. It is clearly evident

Rice Varietal Improvement

Thus farmers themselves were responsible for most rice improvement from the time of its domestication to about 1900. The best known examples are the rono varieties such as Shinriki that Japanese farmers selected in the 1890s. The rono varieties are shorter and therefore responded to nutrient inputs with higher yields. Rice-breeding stations were established in China, India, and Japan in the early 20th century. Rice breeders' initial activities were the purification of existing varieties (landraces) through pure line selection. This resulted in pure line varieties. Up to the 1960s rice farmers in tropical and subtropical Asia grew thousands of landraces or pure line varieties, and few had been touched by modern agricultural science. These varieties were tall and weak stemmed and late maturing. When nitrogenous fertilizer was applied at rates exceeding 40 kg ha, traditional varieties tillered profusely, grew excessively tall, lodged early, and yieldedlessthantheywould have with lower...

Physiological and Molecular Aspects for Improving NUE

NUE at the plant level is its ability to utilize the available nitrogen (N) resources to optimize its productivity. In terms of agriculture, it is the optimal utilization of nitrogenous manures or fertilizers for plant growth, yield, and protein content, as atmospheric nitrogen gas is not utilized by higher plants, except symbiotic legumes. The inherent efficiency of the plant to utilize available N for higher productivity needs to be tackled biologically (Abrol et al. 1999 Abdin et al. 2005) . This includes uptake, assimilation, and redistribution of nitrogen within the cell and balance storage and current use at the cellular and whole plant level. Moreover, since N demand and its actual availability tend to vary in time, space, and environmental conditions, the regulation of plant nitrogen metabolism must be responsive to nutritional, metabolic, and environmental cues. nitrate to nitrite by catalytic reaction in the cytosol. Nitrite is transported into the chloro-plast, where it is...

Soil Cd Contamination

Pollution Claude Monet

Treated sewage sludge ( biosolids ) and phosphate fertilizers (He and Singh 1994a, b McLaughlin et al. 2006 Singh and Agrawal 2007 Speir et al. 2003) are important sources of Cd contamination in agricultural soils. The usage of Cd in developed countries has, however, begun to decline because of its toxicity. For instance, Cd is one of the six substances banned by the European Union's Restriction on Hazardous Substances directive, which bans carcinogens in computers (2002 95 EC 2002).

Am Fungi And Plant Disease Control

AM fungi are rarely found in commercial nurseries due to the use of composted soil-free media, high rates of fertilizer application and regular application of fungicide drenches. The potential advantages of AM fungi in horticulture, agriculture, and forestry are not perceived by these industries as significant. This perception may be due in part to inadequate methods for large-scale inoculum production. Cropping sequences, fertilization, and plant pathogen management practices affect both AM fungal propagules in soil and their effects on plants (Bethlenfalvay and Linderman, 1992). In order to apply AM fungi in sustainable agriculture, knowledge of factors such as fertilizer inputs, pesticide use, and soil management practices which influence AM fungi is essential (Allen, 1992 Bethlenfalvay and Linderman, 1992). In addition, efficient inoculants should be identified and employed as biofertilizers, bioprotectants, and biostimulants for sustainable agriculture and forestry.

Plantation requirements

Table 6.2 shows that the establishment of a plantation requires a significant investment. These costs vary strongly in relation to the type of nursery, transport distances, soil quality (need for fertilizer) as well as the tree species grown. Generally, seedlings from exotic tree species are less expensive than those from domestic ones as they are produced in smaller quantities often with more basic, less effective technologies. Along the Trans-Amazonian highway, for example, mahogany seedlings were sold for US 1.40 per seedling whereas 100 eucalypt seedlings cost less than US 10 in 2009 (Hoch, 2009). The cost of site preparation and planting in regular planting schemes is directly proportional to the size of the area planted. The application of fertilizer in fast-growing plantations is mandatory, even on fertile soils. For optimal growth, planting, 3 fertilizer In addition, specific technical skills are needed to manage plantations adequately, including activities such as the...