Organic Farming Manual

Miracle Farm Blueprint

This guide teaches you how to make the best worm farm that money can buy; and you don't have to spend much money to get a really good quality worm farm! While worms may not seem very impressive, you'd be amazed at what these worms can do. If you want to grow your own food, the best soil that you will ever get is soil that worms have thoroughly turned over. No matter what the soil in your area looks like, you will always be able to get the highest quality soil to grow plants in. You will have the most protein-rich, nutritious, and potent soil that you've ever seen. The all-natural soil that is worm-tended is far better than what you will get from organic growers; all that it takes is the process that nature invented. That's really all you need to get the best organic vegetables! Continue reading...

Miracle Farm Blueprint Overview

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Farming Systems to Enhance General Suppressiveness

Although amending soil with high rates of organic matter can generate suppressive-ness to nematodes and other soilborne pathogens and maintain it for some time after the amendment is applied, it is important to recognise that this approach to disease control is likely to be most useful in high value horticultural production systems. Nurseries where plants are grown in containers, glasshouses producing vegetable or ornamental crops and intensive in-field production of crops with a high monetary value are perhaps the only situations where it is realistic to use amendments in this way to manage nematodes. In all other agricultural systems, applying organic matter at rates of 10-100 t ha annum is never likely to be economically feasible. Importation of organic matter will generally be expensive relative to the income derived from most crops, largely because transportation costs are high and non-agricultural markets compete for the resource. Since high application rates are required to...

Developing More Sustainable Farming Systems

One of the biggest changes to world agriculture in the last 30 years has been the development of no-till farming. Various forms of conservation tillage are now applied to many millions of hectares of cropped land, and when combined with practices such as crop rotation and cover cropping, it has resulted in farming systems that are much more profitable and sustainable than they were in the past. One of the benefits from this change will be an increase in the suppressiveness of soils to soilborne disease (Stone et al. 2004). Given the economics of broad-scale agriculture and the cropping area involved, enhancing general suppressiveness through the farming system is probably the only realistic way of improving the level of biological control in most of the world's agricultural land. The role of farming systems in enhancing suppressiveness should therefore be a major focus of future research. We need to know how the main soil management practices available to farmers (e.g. tillage,...

Conversion to Organic Farming

In order for farmers to become certified organic producers, they must complete a certification procedure. The United States and most European countries have created regulations that apply to the production and sale of organically grown produce. All organic produce must carry a quality mark authorized by the government and provided to farmers by legal organizations that conduct strong verification systems with on-site annual inspections. Farmers willing to convert to organic farming must adhere to specific production standards and can be certified as organic only after three years of strictly following such standards. 4. Redesign of diversified farming systems with an optimal crop animal assemblage so that the system can support its own soil fertility, natural pest regulation, and crop productivity. It is important to note that the conversion process can take anywhere from one to five years depending on the level of artificialization or degradation of the original high-input system. In...

Sustainable Agriculture

Environmental impacts (Harrier and Watson, 2004). Sustainable agriculture must, by definition, be ecologically sound, economically viable, and socially responsible. Similarly, sustainable forestry refers to an overall commitment to environmental conservation that integrates the production of trees for useful products with reforestation and conservation of soil, air, water quality, wildlife and aesthetics. Sustainable agriculture relies on long-term solutions using proactive rather than reactive measures at system levels. Several soil fertility factors contribute to sustainable agriculture through control of soil-borne diseases, including increased soil microbial activity leading to increased competition and parasitism within the rhizosphere (Jawson et al., 1993 Knudsen et al., 1995). Research and development strategies are presently focused on the search for suitable alternatives to the use of commercial synthetic pesticides. Progress has also been made, however, in exploring the use...

Organic Farming of Ginger

Organic farming is an approach to sustainable agriculture aiming to create an integrated, ecofriendly and economically sustainable production system. This integrated system includes the protection of soil fertility through the application of organic matter and fostering the soil biological activity. Nutrients are applied through relatively insoluble nutrient sources (organics), maintenance of the nitrogen source through the raising of leguminous crops, recycling organic residues, and disease and insect pest control through crop rotation, use of natural predators, biopesticides, and resistant varieties as well as by maintaining diversity in crop plants.

Features of Organic Farming

Organic farming is widespread throughout the world and is growing rapidly. In Germany alone there are about eight thousand organic farms occupying about 2 percent of the total arable land. In Italy organic farms number around eighteen thousand, and in Austria about twenty thousand organic farms account for 10 percent of total agricultural output. In 1980 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that there were at least eleven thousand organic farms in the United States and at least twenty-four thousand farms that use some organic techniques. In California, organic foods are one of the fastest-growing segments of the agricultural economy, with retail sales growing at 20 percent to 25 percent per year. Cuba was the only country undergoing a massive conversion to organic farming, promoted by the drop of fertilizer, pesticide, and petroleum imports after the collapse of trade relations with the Soviet bloc in 1990. Although research on organic farming systems was very limited...

Potential Tool for Organic Farming

In recent years, the world has seen a growing awareness of health and environmental issues, and sustainability has become a key word in discussions on economic development, particularly in relation to developing countries. The community is becoming more and more conscious of these issues globally, and government policies in industrialized as well as developing countries are increasingly being formulated to encourage organic and sustainable agriculture. Producers are turning to certified organic farming systems as a means of lowering input costs, decreasing reliance on non-renewable resources, capturing high-value markets and premium prices, and boosting farm income. Organic farming severely restricts the use of artificial chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Instead, it relies on developing a healthy, fertile soil and growing a mixture of crops. Supplementing the nutrient requirement of crops through organic composts manures is essential for sustaining soil fertility and crop...

Am Fungi And Alleviation Of Soil Heavy Metal Stress

The significance of AM fungi in soil remediation has been recognized (Gaur and Adholeya, 2004 Khan, 2005). A vast amount of literature is available on the effects of mycorrhizal colonization on plants under heavy metal stress but contradictory observations and wide variations in results are reported (Khan, 2005). Enhanced understanding of heavy metal tolerance of plants and AM fungi has defined valuable parameters for improving phyto-remediation, i.e., the engineered use of green plants to remediate an affected site. The utility of AM fungi in soil remediation is also important for sustainable agriculture. Application of these fungi is generally useful to overcome heavy metal problems and to alleviate soil stress, and ultimately increases agricultural production.

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Phosphate Acquisition

Phosphate is an essential nutrient and is limiting for plant growth in many environments (Bucher, 2007). Phosphate is present in the soil in the form of inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) and is readily sequestered by cations, especially in acidic conditions, of which the most abundant are iron, aluminium and calcium. The mobility of sequestered phosphate is reduced and, as a consequence, plant uptake rapidly exhausts the phosphate available in the vicinity of the root system and creates a localised depletion zone (Bucher, 2007). In modern agriculture, the problem of phosphate limitation has been addressed by the extensive use of phosphate-additions, more than 4,000,000 tons annually in the USA alone (www.fao.org). However, as supplies are reduced, phosphate becomes increasingly difficult and costly to extract. Furthermore, the efficiency of phosphate uptake may be as low as 20 (Zhu et al., 2003) and much of the added phosphates will pass to adjacent water

Bioprotectant Behavior Of Am Fungi

Plant diseases can be controlled by manipulation of indigenous microbes or by introducing antagonists to reduce the disease-producing pro-pagules (Linderman, 1992). AM fungi and their associated interactions with plants reduce the damage caused by plant pathogens (Harrier and Watson, 2004). These interactions have been documented for many plant species (Tables 1 and 2). With the increasing cost of inorganic fertilizers and the environmental and public health hazards associated with pesticides and pathogens resistant to chemical pesticides, AM fungi may provide a more suitable and environmentally acceptable alternative for sustainable agriculture.

Am Fungal Communities And Grain Production

Fertilizer use represents a common agricultural management practice, but a growing body of evidence has demonstrated an array of negative impacts on ecosystems from their use. No matter which form of fertilizer is applied (organic or mineral), conventional farming generates large N and P surpluses, which can lead to N leaching through the soil profile and P losses in runoff (Brady and Weil, 2002). Not only is there a high financial cost to farmers associated with this loss, but the phenomenon also resulted in soil contamination. In addition, excess fertilizer inputs can be a major threat to aquatic ecosystems through surface and groundwater degradation (Kirchmann and Thorvaldsson, 2000). Recently, fertilizer runoff from agricultural fields was emphasized among the causes of excessive cyanobacterial growth and increasing of potentially harmful blooms leading to restricted access to lakes. of fertilizers. Conventional farming systems using lower application rates of fertilizers and...

Mohd Sayeed Akhtar And Zaki A Siddiqui

Abstract Arbuscular Mycorhizal (AM) fungi are ubiquitous and form symbiotic relationships with roots of most terrestrial plants. Their associations benefit plant nutrition, growth and survival due to their enhanced exploitation of soil nutrients. These fungi play a key role in nutrient cycling and also protect plants against environmental and cultural stresses. The establishment of AM fungi in the plant root has been shown to reduce the damage caused by soil-borne plant pathogens with the enhancement of resistance in mycorrhizal plants. The effectiveness of AM fungi in biocontrol is dependent on the AM fungus involved, as well as the substrate and host plant. However, protection offered by AM fungi is not effective against all the plant pathogens and is modulated by soil and other environmental conditions. AM fungi generally reduce the severity of plant diseases to various crops suggesting that they may be used as potential tool in disease management. AM fungi modify the quality and...

Am Fungi And Plant Disease Control

Plant diseases can be controlled by manipulation of indigenous microbes or by introducing antagonists to reduce the disease-producing pro-pagules (Linderman, 1992). AM fungi and their associated interactions with plants reduce the damage caused by plant pathogens (Siddiqui and Mahmood, 1995 Siddiqui et al., 1999 Harrier and Watson, 2004). With the increasing cost of pesticides and the environmental and public health hazards associated with pesticides and pathogens resistant to chemical pesticides, AM fungi may provide a more suitable and environmentally acceptable alternative for sustainable agriculture and forestry. The interactions between different AM fungi and plant pathogens vary with the host plant and the cultural system. Moreover, the protective effect of AM inoculation may be both systemic and localized. Cropping sequences, fertilization, and plant pathogen management practices affect both AM fungal propagules in soil and their effects on plants (Bethlenfalvay and Linderman,...

Practical Control System

Although AMF are ubiquitous, natural associations of AM fungi are not efficient in increasing plant growth (Fitter, 1985). Cropping sequences, fertilization, and plant pathogen management practices affect both AM fungi propagules in soil and their effects on plants (Bethlenfalvay and Linderman, 1992). The propagation system used for horticultural fruit and micropropagated plants can benefit most from AM biotechnology. Micropropagated plants can withstand transplant stress from in vitro to in vivo systems if they are inoculated with appropriate AM fungi (Lovato et al, 1996 Azcon-Aguilar et al., 2002). In order to use AM fungi in sustainable agriculture, knowledge of factors such as fertilizer inputs, pesticide use, and soil management practices which influence AM fungi is essential (Bethlenfalvay and Linderman, 1992 Allen, 1991, 1992). In addition efficient inoculants should be identified and used as biofertilizers, bioprotectants, and biostimulants for sustainable agriculture.

Contributors To Volume

Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA TADACHI YOSHIHASHI Postharvest Science and Technology Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan OLGA A. ZABOTINA Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA

Discovery And Evaluation Of Natural Productbased Fungicides For Disease Control Of Small Fruits

1 United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Natural Products Utilization Research Unit, The Thad Cochran National Center for Natural Products Research, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA and Small Fruit Research Station, 306 S. High St., Poplarville, MS 39470, USA Email dwedge olemiss.edu

Photoprotection Photoinhibition Gene Regulation and Environment

This book was edited by three outstanding authorities in the areas of Photoprotection, Photoinhibition, Gene Regulation, and Environment Barbara Demmig-Adams and William W. Adams III (both at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado) and Autar K. Mattoo (Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland).

Rice research and poverty alleviation

To appreciate the short-term indirect contribution of rice research to poverty alleviation, it is important to understand that not all poor people are farmers who own land, grow rice, and benefit directly from improvements in crop productivity. In fact, several classes of people are very poor but do not reap any direct benefits from rice research. These people are net purchasers of rice, and they reap indirect benefits from rice research in terms of lower prices for the rice they must buy to stay alive. It is true that lower rice prices, holding all else constant, adversely affect poor rice farmers who produce a surplus of rice this is the food price policy dilemma noted by Timmer et al (1983). But agricultural research resolves this dilemma, as will be explained shortly. Low rice prices that are the result of higher productivity induced by agricultural research contribute to this structural transformation of the economy. Low rice prices allow wages to be lower from the employer's...

Trace Elements In The Soils

Trace elements accumulate locally in soils due to weathering of rock minerals. Because trace elements are essential for plants, animals, and human beings, it is necessary to ensure their adequate levels in agricultural products. Apart from trace elements originating in parent materials and entering the soil through chemical weathering processes, soil toxic trace elements have many anthropogenic sources. Campbell et al. 10 compared natural and anthropogenic quantities of trace metals emitted to the atmosphere and showed that around 15 times more Cd 100 times more Pb 13 times more Cu and 21 times more Zn are emitted by man's activities than by natural processes.

Regulation of Populations

Complex interactions between organisms regulate their numbers in natural ecosystems. Competition, mutualisms, and other types of interactions are promoted by the organization and structure of the system. Growing one or very few crops in modern agriculture eliminates many of these interactions, often removing natural control mechanisms and allowing pest outbreaks. An agroecological alternative seeks to reintroduce more complex structures and species arrangements, often including both crop and noncrop species, in order to reduce the use of pesticides and enhance natural controls.

BOX C21 Top Ten Apple Cultivars in the World

This apple resulted from a cross between 'Golden Delicious' and 'Jonathan' at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, New York. It was named by Roger Way and introduced in 1968. The fruit is large, conic, blushed pinkish red with extremely high quality. It is atriploid, so its pollen is not viable as a pollinizer. Fruit quality tends to be best in cooler climates. Storage life is medium to short, and it is quite susceptible to the calcium deficiency disorder that manifests itself as bitter pit.

Further Adventures and Advances

My walk through the xanthophyll cycle took several administrative detours from 1980-82, 1982-86, and 1994-96 as Acting Associate Dean of Research, Chair of the Department of Plant Molecular Physiology, and Director of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, respectively. During the second of these, another chance occurrence caused me to refocus on

Us Echinacea germplasm collection

My introduction to the genus Echinacea came as the result of collecting 88 of the 150 accessions now maintained by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agricultural Research Service for the National Plant Germplasm System of the United States. This germplasm represents a comprehensive sampling of Echinacea diversity and includes all species recognized by McGregor

South Central Europe Ljubljana Slovenia

Ljubljana is the capital of Slovenia and also its largest city, located in the middle of the country. Its elevation ranges from 285 to 310 m above sea level. The total residential population of Ljubljana is approaching 340000 inhabitants. Data on current (1997) land use were obtained from Ljubljana municipality sources and corrected using aerial photographs. Within the overall 87 km2 of Ljubljana city area, forests cover 16 , buildings, yards and paved areas cover 33 , agricultural land 47 and other public open space (parks, playgrounds, cemeteries, water) cover 4 of the total area (Pirnat in press Fig. 3.15).

Southern Europe Florence Italy

The city region is the most densely populated part of the plain of the valley of the River Arno. The land rises from an altitude of 30 m, beside the river to 343 m in the hills that surround the built core. These hills cover roughly 60 of the city's surface area and form a kind of green crown, where parks, ancient and new woodlands merge into agricultural land.

Or Resistance Productivity and Prospects

Combining the resources of classical breeding with modern biotechnology, a novel variety of genotypes and phenotypes can be created, agricultural productivity can be increased, and human survival in the face of population growth and climate change can be achieved (Altman 2003) . This is an important subject for agricultural research, as increased competition with other land uses pushes farms into harsher environments, fresh water becomes scarcer, and the climate change anticipated by some scientists increases environmental stress. Therefore, to increase productivity by engineering plants that are more resistant or tolerant to abiotic stress, genes, and their products are the target of this initiative. However, this task seems more daunting than engineering plants that are resistant to pests and herbicides. Biotic stress is largely dependent on monogenic traits, while abiotic stresses are multigenic and thus more difficult to control and engineer (Vinocur and Altman 2005).

Desalination and Stabilization of Saline Soils

Plant with higher accumulation of Na+ in its shoot parts for desalination purpose in arid and semiarid regions where precipitation is too low to leach salts from rhizosphere. Similarly, successful germination and growth of Hordeum vulgare (barley) was observed on the soil desalinated with salt accumulator halophyte S. portulacastrum (Rabhi et al. 2010++ Taken together, the reports suggest that salt accumulator halophytes can be exploited as a potential source for desalination of agricultural land in the arid and semi-arid regions as well as for the stabilization of saline lands along the coastal regions of the world.

Conclusions and Future Perspective

Acknowledgments The financial support for this study from the United States Department of Agriculture-CSREES is gratefully acknowledged. This manuscript is approved for publication by the Director of Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, USA as manuscript number 2011-306-5892.

Introduction Agriculture And Pest Management Systems

Agriculture is one of the world's largest industries. On a worldwide basis, more people are in some way involved in agriculture than in all other occupations combined. Agriculture is also United States' largest industry. This country produces more food than any other nation in the world and is the world's largest exporter of agricultural products. According to the 2002 survey from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service, there are more than 941 million acres used for farming in the U.S. with the average farm size being 436 acres.

Utilization of Germplasm

In China, seven foreign soybean cultivars have been immediately used in production and 134 cultivars have been bred using foreign germplasm, accounting for a planting area of 25 of the total since 1980 (Liu et al., 2009). Since 2001, 35 germplasm lines have been introduced to China from Ukraine by the Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences. These have been used in breeding programme, and consequently seven superior lines are expected to be released (Wang and Yang, 2009).

Nitrogen Deposition Sources of N pollution

Atmospheric reduced N (NHy) is predominantly an agricultural by-product, increasing in direct proportion to animal numbers and body mass (Asman et al. 1998). NHy dominates N deposition in Europe and dry deposition of NH3 dominates the NHy inputs close to emission sources. Annual average NH3 concentrations range from 20 to 63 .g m-3 down to less than 1 .g m-3 (Fangmeier et al. 1994, Fowler et al. 1998a,b, Krupa 2003). Emissions are linked to farming practices and may vary seasonally and between countries. The fitting of catalytic converters to vehicle exhausts has provided an additional source of NHy. NH4+ ions can travel as aerosols of (NH4)2SO4 that have an atmospheric residence time of 4 to15 days and contribute significantly to the N deposition load to remote ecosystems. NH3 and NOx have relatively short half-lives of less than 3 days and for HNO3 the half-life is less than a few hours (Harrison et al. 2000).

Interactions in Agricultural Settings

In order to prevent significant losses of agricultural crops to herbivory, both in the field and following harvest, some form of insect population control is often required some crops may require protection from more than one insect herbivore. Under conventional farming methods in the industrialized world, insecticides are applied to agricultural fields to control insect pests. Often, more than one type of insecticide and or more than one treatment will be applied in a single crop cycle. The type of control method used for a particular insect crop combination in part depends upon the understanding of the insect and its use of a particular crop plant. Research into novel aspects of insect-plant interaction may provide improved alternatives for controlling insect pest populations. For instance, recent research examining the effects of moth larvae feeding on corn has demonstrated that after herbivore damage, corn plants release a new complex of odorants into the air, and that some of...

Conclusions and Perspectives

The capacity of cyanobacteria to thrive in high CO2 concentrations makes them an attractive system for beneficial recycling of CO2 from point sources such as coal-fired power plants via biofuel synthesis. Since many cyanobacteria are halophilic, raceway ponds can be sited away from agricultural land, making use of seawater or various sources of saline wastewater. A conceivable future scenario where CO2 recycling is combined with utilization of brine produced from CO2 injections during geological carbon capture and storage (CCS) is shown in Fig. 4.

Interactions Plant Plant

Other plants, which create a better water-relationship environment for the cactus and protect it from the negative effects of the intense sun. Farming practices often use nurse plants to create a temporary improvement in the environment for the main crop. For example, oat and alfalfa may be seeded together so that oat shades and maintains better soil surface moisture for the emerging alfalfa seedlings.

Preliminary Treatment Of The Fruits

The citrus fruit then reaches the processing plant directly from the citrus groves, or via packing houses, preparation for the marketing of the fresh fruit. Transportation is usually by lorry, loaded in bulk, or in bins. As a rule the height to which the fruit is loaded is limited to avoid damage by crushing. It is certainly helpful if the lorries and bins are sterilized before use. The fruit is unloaded directly from the lorry or bin, and passes onto a level roller conveyor in order to remove the leaves, and any soil present. It is then carefully inspected to eliminate fruit which is rotten or does not reach those standards required for processing (Braverman, 1949 Agricultural Research Service, 1962). After that, a representative sample of each batch is selected automatically and is sent to the laboratory, where a series of tests are carried out to determine the yield of essential oil and juice, and the main characteristics of these two principal derivatives. In the next phase, the...

Other field operations

Towards the end of monsoon rains, a light raking or soil digging is done around plants at a radius of about 75 cm. The soil mulch thus formed around plants would help to conserve moisture for the ensuing dry period. This practice is particularly useful in low rainfall areas. Digging, not less than 25 cm deep once in 2 years, may be recommended to the whole area and immediate application of farmyard manure or organic manure such as bone meal, sterameal, groundnut cake, etc. that will produce a fairly good result. Digging can also be done in patches however, it is necessary every year, particularly in clayey soil (Kuttappa, 1969).

Scenario and assessment tools

Given the challenges of direct observation of the impacts of planted forests on water yield or quality, and the long timescale between afforestation actions and catchment responses, a variety of analytical tools have been developed to assess the potential impact of afforestation on water. Models currently used to assess the impact of conversion of agricultural land to plantations are typically either directly derived from catchment data or from process simulation models.

Payments for watershed services from planted forests

Perhaps the most celebrated case of watershed benefits of forest restoration was the decision by the City of New York to invest about US 1 billion in land protection and conservation practices to avoid spending US 4-6 billion on filtration and treatment plants (Perrot Maitre and Davis, 2001). Much of the effort focused on improving the management of existing forest and changing agricultural land-use practices, but there was some support provided for afforestation. Other examples of payment arrangements for forest watershed services include (Perrot Maitre and Davis, 2001)

Eva Sundberg1 and Cristina Ferrndiz2

1 Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden 2Instituto de Biolog a Molecular y Celular de Plantas (UPV-CSIC), Campus de la Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avda de los Naranjos s n, Valencia, Spain

A novel growth modulator interconnects ethylene ABA and sugar signaling

Unit Plant Hormone Signaling and Bio-imaging, Department of Molecular Genetics, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium, Jasper.Dugardeyn UGent.be 2Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China. (*Corresponding author dominique.vanderstraeten ugent.be)

Fertility Promoting Lifestyle Factors What to Tell Your Patients

Commercially prepared food, if not foods from organic farms or derived from similar production means. Secondhand cigarette smoke presents a problem due to cadmium, a toxic metal in smoke, which is absorbed in the body and is known to have negative effects on fertility, as well as other components of cigarette smoke.6 It is easy to become overwhelmed by the numerous ways in which the world has become increasingly nonconducive to optimal fertility levels patients must be trained to be diligent in protecting themselves without becoming overwhelmed.

A PPR protein required for normal plant development may be involved in control of the ethylene pathway at the

Unit Plant Hormone Signalling and Bio-imaging, Department of Molecular Genetics, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium, Dik.Hagenbeek UGent.be. 2 Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China. (*Corresponding author Dominique.VanDerStraeten UGent.be)

Comparison of Proteomics and Transcriptomics Profiling of Rice Anthers

Professor Koike's group at the National Agricultural Research Center, Japan has also been working on cold-induced male sterility in rice, and they have recently reported a microarray analysis of rice anther genes under chilling stress at the microsporogenesis stage 10 . They treated cold-sensitive cv. Hayayuki at 12 C for 5 days for the microar-ray analysis. The gene expression profile during the microspore development process under chilling stress was revealed using a microarray that included 8987 rice cDNAs. As many as 160 cDNAs were up or down-regulated (at least twofold) by chilling during the microspore release stage. This microarray analysis should be comparable with proteomic analysis of cv. Doongara, since both rice cultivars are cold-sensitive and conditions used are very similar. However, only expression of a few transcripts (cysteine synthases and APX) seems to correlate positively with the accumulation of actual protein products. It is not surprising, given the fact that...

Allelopathy And Integrated Weed Management

Integrated weed management assumes significance in managing aquatic systems. Use of herbicides are constrained with drastic reduction in water quality and ultimate ill effect on associated non-target organisms. In countries like India, herbicides are yet to get registered for use in aquatic systems. Under these conditions managing infestations of water hyacinth, water fern, and water lettuce is challenging. In one of the recreational lakes with tourist attraction in a hill resort in Ooty, in the state of Tamilnadu, India, the public authority has spent heavily (Indian Rupees 1.25 crores, about US 200,000) for manual clearing of water hyacinth for one time. Similarly, thousands of army personnel were used for clearing water hyacinth in a lake in Bangalore, the capital city of Karnataka State, India. Classical biological control is the only option available and that too is difficult in situations where the water body dries off in the peak summer, leaving the released insects to starve...

Stand density management initial spacing and thinning

In temporal sequence, the effects of thinning operations follow those of initial spacing. An often studied subject is the influence of canopy opening on the abundance and diversity of understorey vegetation. There is abundant evidence that the reduction in canopy density through thinning promotes the development of the understorey in the form of grass, herb and shrub layers (Harrington and Ewel, 1997 Bailey and Tappeiner, 1998) resulting in a positive relationship between the degree of opening and the increase in understorey biomass (Bone et al, 1997 Harrington and Edwards, 1999 Battles et al, 2001 Elliott and Knoepp, 2005). A positive relationship between vascular plant diversity and richness, and management-induced canopy openings have been found in several studies (Battles et al, 2001 Muir et al, 2002). However, there are also many studies that could not find a significant increase in floristic diversity following canopy opening in native forests (Bauhus et al, 2002 Gilliam, 2002...

Herbicideresistant Soybean

Crop management, higher productivity and net returns ha-1 to a safer environment through the decreased use of conventional pesticides, all of which collectively contribute to more sustainable agriculture. Despite growing controversy, the area under transgenic crops is increasing at a fast rate. The global area of transgenic crops increased from 1.7 million ha in 1996 to 114.3 million ha in 2007 (James, 2007), of which > 63 of crops were tolerant to a specific herbicide. Transgenic or herbicide-resistant soybeans are genetically altered to tolerate herbicides that would normally kill or injure conventional or non-transgenic varieties. The first use of herbicide-resistant soybean was in 1994 with the introduction of sulphonylurea-tolerant varieties. Glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glufosinate-resistant soybeans (Roundup Ready and Liberty Link, respectively) are now commercially available. Herbicide-tolerant soybean is the most dominant transgenic crop, followed by genetically modified...

Bacterial breeding for increased microbial fixation

Considerable effort has been expended in attempts to create bacteria that provide enhanced growth of soybean symbioses through enhanced fixation, either across all environments or in particular situations. Efforts have included traditional selection of bacteria through direct responses of the bacteria or responses of the inoculated plant (selected for nitrate tolerance McNeil, 1982), mutation of bacteria and use of genetic-engineering technologies to produce altered bacteria. Attempts have also been made to improve bacterial field survival to improve their ability to nodulate plants at a later date. There is no doubt that under laboratory conditions and in the field (if they can form a substantial proportion of the nodules), selected strains can increase soybean fixation. As a consequence, numerous Rhizobium culture collections exist worldwide (e.g. the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the National Rhizo-bium Germplasm Collection, the Australian National Rhizobium Programme...

Smallholders in the tropics demands and capacities

In keeping with the general goal of poverty alleviation as stated at the world summit in Johannesburg in 2002 (UN, 2002), we use the term smallholder for people living in the rural tropics who own small areas of land that they cultivate for subsistence or commercial purposes, relying principally on family labour. In our simplified analysis, we distinguish between two idealized smallholder types traditional communities and individual farmers. The term individual farmers refers to farmers working individually in family units who focus on the cultivation of agricultural crops for local markets. They usually manage smaller plots than traditional communities. Often they have acquired land through initiatives promoting large settlements or individual efforts to improve their quality of life (Marquette, 2006). They are located in already fragmented landscapes with adequate infrastructure and connection to markets. Some families also have a complementary off-farm income. Forest use...

Stem Reserves In Grain Filling

Wheat plants were frozen in the field at the Purdue Agricultural Research Station in 1999, freeze dried, ground, extracted and the total ketose sugars determined as fructose equivalents using cold anthrone. Kernel dry weight was determined on 12 kernels from the 6 central spikelets of six different main stems. Plants were marked at anthesis when the anthers extruded from the central portion of the head.

Conclusions And Future Directions

Bittner-Eddy, P.D., Crute, I.R., Holub, E.B., andBeynon, J.L. (2000). RPP13 is a simple locus in Arabidopsis thaliana for alleles that specify downy mildew resistance to different avirulence determinants in Peronospora parasitica. The Plant Journal 21 177-188. Boissy, G., De La Fortelle, E., Kahn, R., Huet, J.C., Bricogne, G., Pernollet, J.C., and Brunie, S. (1996). Crystal structure of a fungal elicitor secreted by Phytophthora cryptogea, a member of a novel class of plant necrotic proteins. Structure 4 1429-1439.

Ethylene and volatile accumulation in citrus fruit

1The Kennedy-Leigh Centre for Horticultural Research, The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Department of Postharvest Science of Fresh Produce, ARO, the Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet-Dagan 50250, Isreal. 3Department of Food Science, ARO, the Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet-Dagan 50250, Isreal. 4Department of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants, ARO, Newe Ya'ar Research Center, P.O. Box 1021, Ramat Yishay 30095, Isreal. aPermanent Address Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan 030031, Shanxi, China. (*Corresponding author rgoren agri.huji.ac.il)

The Role Of Allelopathic Bacteria In Weed Management

U.S.D.A., Agricultural Research Service, Cropping Systems & Water Quality Unit, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, U.S.A. Email KremerR missouri.edu Abstract. Allelopathic bacteria encompass those rhizobacteria that colonize the surfaces of plant roots, produce, and release phytotoxic metabolites, similar to allelochemicals, that detrimentally affect growth of plants. Practical application of this group of bacteria to agriculture could contribute to biological weed management systems that have less impact on the environment than conventional systems by reducing inputs of herbicides. Allelopathic bacteria have been investigated for potential as inundative-type biological control agents on several weeds. Because allelopathic bacteria generally do not attack specific biochemical sites within the plant, unlike conventional herbicides, they offer a means to control weeds without causing direct selective pressure on the weed population, therefore, development of resistance is...

Fruit Development

Fruit is a unique and important organ that developed in higher plants during evolution. Fruits protect seeds during development and serve as vehicles for seed dispersal to different habitats for species propagation (Tanksley 2004). Fleshy fruits are important in agricultural sciences because of their nutritional and economic values for humans. Important plant families that produce fleshy fruits include the Solanaceae (e.g. tomato, eggplant, pepper), the Cucurbitaceae (e.g. melon, cucumber, watermelon, pumpkin), the Roseaceae (e.g. apple, pear, strawberry), the Rutaceae (e.g. citrus) and the Vitaceae (e.g. grape).

Future prospects for Capsicums

Even though under the Coordinated Vegetable Development Programme of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi, India, considerable progress has been made in increasing productivity and resistance to diseases, there is scope for further improvements. Today, aflatoxin in dry chillies is a major export issue, which calls for the development of aflatoxin free lines.

Attractiveness of plantations for smallholders

Apart from cultural preferences, traditions and other 'non-rational' criteria, financial attractiveness is the key factor for smallholder decisions about land use. Yet for the generation of cash income, plantations show significant competitive disadvantages compared to agriculture. Even if supported by external organizations, plantations still require significant inputs of land and time. They represent long-term investments with the accumulation of risk over several years. Smallholders also need to wait a relatively long time for cash returns, which, due to insecure market situations, are often unpredictable. In contrast, although the cultivation of agricultural crops does not necessarily generate a higher financial return per hectare or per work input, it promises a more immediate income, allows flexibility to respond to changing markets, is based on existing traditional knowledge and skills and doesn't require long-term investment. Thus, in many situations agricultural land uses...

Phosphorylation Dephosphorylation

Many traits selected for plant productivity in modern agriculture are greatly influenced by photoreceptors. Because of these observations, photoperception modification has become an appealing target for crop improvement. disadvantageous for plant productivity in modern agriculture because it results in resource allocation to stem growth, at the cost of leaf growth and the development of storage and reproductive structures. As this example illustrates, modern agricultural practices place different constraints on plant growth that have not been necessarily selected for during plant evolution, although the natural environment selects for certain traits. Traditionally, breeding efforts have been focused on optimizing grain yields by modulating those characteristics that affect these traits, such as plant height, branching and time of flowering. With the recent interest in lignocellulosic-based biofuels, however, a new breeding paradigm may emerge to optimize biomass at the expense of...

Plant PestlRelationships and the Orchard Ecosystem

A pest is considered to be an organism in direct competition with humans for a valued resource. Pests have the potential to lower yields and reduce marketability of agricultural products. Five categories of pests can cause economically important damage in orchard ecosystems arthropods, disease-causing pathogens, nematodes, vertebrates, and weeds. A particular type of damage can be caused by a single organism or by interactions among several organisms such as arthropod- or nematode-vectored diseases. Ultimately, damage in a particular orchard ecosystem is caused by organisms belonging to all categories, leading to economic losses.

Conditions for success

In general terms, plantations tend to be more attractive for individual farmers than for communities, as farmers have stronger linkages to markets, are better connected to existing infrastructure and, furthermore, are more experienced in adopting and adapting technologies promoted by external actors. For smallholders living in remoter areas the immense market distances signify a critical barrier to viability of plantations at the outset. Yet, individual farmers also may have insufficient capacities, in particular of financial resources, land and organizational skills. Where the above-mentioned limitations to viable plantations occur, long-term technical assistance and adequate financing mechanisms are indispensable for success (Varmola and Carle, 2002 Almeida et al, 2006).

Early Life and Career

Vavilov rose to prominence shortly following the Russian Revolution. He drew the favorable attention of Lenin and was placed in charge of the Bureau of Applied Botany in St. Petersburg. Under his direction, it became one of the world's most active research institutions. By 1934 it had a staff of approximately twenty thousand persons and was known as Lenin's AllUnion Academy of Agricultural Sciences. His success was recognized both at home and abroad. Though he was never a Communist, he was made a member of the Soviet Central Executive Committee. He occupied many important international positions including being named President of the International Congress of Genetics in 1939.

Carver George Washington

Carver accepted the invitation and remained at Tuskegee until his death forty-seven years later in 1943. During his tenure at Tuskegee he taught classes, directed the Agricultural Experiment Station, managed the school's farms, served on various councils and committees, and directed a research department. One of Carver's first efforts was to find methods within reach of the farmer with limited technical and financial means for enriching the soils. He conducted soil analysis to determine what was needed to make soils more productive. Then Carver proceeded to set up scientific experiments to determine organic methods for building up the soil. He also tried planting and cultivating various plants and plant varieties so he could identify ones that could be successfully grown. Sweet potatoes, peanuts, and cowpeas were considered the most promising. These plants were favored because they could help enrich the soil, they could offer good nutritional value to...

Mycorriza In Disease Resistance

Root rot caused by Fusarium solani significantly contributes to crop yield decline, up to 50 . The inoculation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with Glomus mosseae, besides decreasing propagule number of F. solani in the rhizosphere, decreased root rot by 34 to 77 (Dar et al., 1997). In the presence of the root nodulating symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum, mycorrhizal inoculated plants were more tolerant to the fungal root pathogen. This indicates that interactions between mycorrhizal fungi and other rhizosphere microbes might have greater effects on soil-borne pathogens than mycorrhizal fungi alone. Davis and Menge (1980) found that Glomus fasciculatum reduced Phytophthora root rot of citrus at low level of soil phosphorus but had no effect in high phosphorus soil. The VAM fungi has also been employed as biocontrol agents for Macrophomina root rot of cowpea and Fusarium wilt of tomato (Ramaraj et al., 1988). The understanding of the mechanisms of plant disease resistance in...

Fire and grazing influenced types of forest degradation in the Mediterranean region after Le Houerou 1992

Typical types of agricultural land use in countries around the Mediterranean. A Subsistence farming on a small area with mixed crops and many cultivated plant species (Central Atlas, Morocco). B Grain crops and fodder plants for the national market on large-scale farms with high input of agrochemicals and machinery (Tuscan Hills, Italy). C Mixed agroforestry with grain crops for the growers consumption, and cork (Quercus suber) for the national market (Extremadura, Spain). D Unregulated, excessive grazing with severely degraded forests and soil erosion (Central Atlas, Morocco). (Photos K. M ller-Hohenstein) Fig. 4.1.24. Typical types of agricultural land use in countries around the Mediterranean. A Subsistence farming on a small area with mixed crops and many cultivated plant species (Central Atlas, Morocco). B Grain crops and fodder plants for the national market on large-scale farms with high input of agrochemicals and machinery (Tuscan Hills, Italy). C Mixed...

Materials and Methods

Aijiaozao) seeds were obtained from the Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (Wuchang, Hubei) and were kept at 15 C until used. The seeds were surface-sterilized in a solution of 1 hypochlorite, rinsed three times in sterile water, and then imbibed by placing the seeds in a shallow layer of distilled water or treatment solution (Ca2+, EDTA, etc.) such that half the seed was immersed. Axes were excised from the seeds that had been imbibed for different times and were then treated as indicated below. All manipulations and germination studies were conducted at room temperature (20 C).

Developments in Europe

Across Europe, other institutions have developed urban forestry programs. Most have had a national scope, and many have in recent years experienced difficulties in rooting itself - in several cases due to lack of students. To our knowledge urban forestry related programs have been offered or are under preparation in the following countries Ireland, The Netherlands, Germany, Norway, Greece, Italy and Denmark Sweden. Examples of programs are provided in Boxes 17.1 and 17.2. Based on their long tradition in urban green establishment, forestry, landscape architecture and landscape planning, the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University of Copenhagen, Denmark and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences have developed, jointly with other partners, a Master education in Urban Forestry and Urban Greening. This program will have an international scope and starts in autumn 2005.

Summary and Future Prospects

Acknowledgements The Chase laboratory research on CMS and fertility restoration is supported by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and by USDA Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service NRI grant numbers 2001-0534-10888 and 2005-35301-1570. Alexandra Ribarits and Erwin Heberle-Bors are at the Department of Plant Molecular Biology, Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Vienna, Austria. Their work on male sterility has been supported by the HYBTECH project No. QKL5-CT-1999-30902 of the European Commission.

Improved ecosystem services from plantations of the future

The projections also stress that we need to be mindful about the possible consequences of replacing natural ecosystems that provide great benefits to human societies such as clean drinking water, soil protection, etc. Many of the ecosystem services they provide are irreplaceable, or the technology necessary to replace them is prohibitively expensive (Palmer et al, 2004). Thus the role of both natural and replacement, or man-made ecosystems in maintaining these services becomes increasingly important. In the past, tree plantations have had ambivalent roles with regards to ecosystem services. Their production function has served in a very efficient way to meet the growing demand for wood products. However, where tree plantations have replaced native ecosystems (forests or grasslands), many ecosystem services have deteriorated. The expansion of fast-growing industrial plantations for pulp, together with the rapid expansion of oil-palm plantations, has been a...

Global Soybean Marketing and Trade a Situation and Outlook Analysis

Agriculture 2 Division (OSAN.2), Agriculture & Agro Industry Department (OSAN), African Development Bank, Tunis, Tunisia 2Department of Agricultural Economics, School of Agricultural Sciences and Agribusiness, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa 3International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Organic Production Systems

A few studies have evaluated the impact of substantial changes in production practices, such as organic farming, on the level of biological control or on densities of antagonists. Organic farming replaces synthetic fertilizers and pesticides with organic fertilizers (plant material and animal manure), crop rotation, and resistant cultivars. Persmark (1997) sampled 11 pairs of organically and conventionally managed farms and found no difference between the two management systems in either the densities of nematode-trapping fungi, numbers of nematodes in the rhizosphere of pea, or organic matter. In a field plot experiment, organically managed plots had more species of nematophagous fungi and two species, Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Nematoctonus leiosporus, were more abundant than in conventionally managed plots (Jaffee et al. 1998). However, soils from organic and conventionally managed plots did not differ in level of suppression of M. javanica. In another similar study, the number...

Conservation and Restoration

Because grasslands have tremendous economic value as grazing lands and also serve as critical habitats for many plant and animal species, efforts to conserve the remaining grasslands and restore grasslands on agricultural land are underway in many states and around the world. see also Biome Grasses Savanna.

Plantations as designer ecosystems

Plantations composed of salt-tolerant species and placed in specific locations in the landscape can assume important ecosystem functions, such as the maintenance of hydrological balance, to uphold the viability of agricultural landscapes in many dry regions of the world. Here, elevated saline groundwater tables, which may be the consequence of irrigation or of clearing deep-rooted perennial vegetation for pastures and cropping or of irrigation, threaten the continuation of agricultural land use (Johnson et al, 2009). Planting of trees to reduce the recharge of groundwater and to increase the discharge from groundwater can help to lower the water table or stop it from rising further to the surface (Chapter 4 in this book Nambiar and Ferguson, 2005). Depending on the salt concentration of the groundwater and the height of the water table, different types of trees (or shrubs) may be most suitable for this purpose, in many cases non-native species (e.g. Mahmood et al, 2001).

Formation of Polyploids

Finally, many crops that are grown for vegetative parts are bred based on crosses between genotypes of different ploidy, which produce sterile progeny. For example, many cultivated types of banana (Musa spp.) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon spp.) are triploid, made from crosses between a diploid and a tetraploid. In each of these crops, seed production is undesirable for human purposes, and the unbalanced genetic constitution of the triploids usually results in seed abortion. Each of these crops is propagated clonally by cuttings. This is a good example of how humans have applied basic research knowledge to improved quality and productivity of agricultural products.

Economic growth rising per capita income and urbanization in developing countries

The changing world food demand for high-value agricultural products (including livestock products) and processed foods has mainly been attributed to strong economic growth and rising per capita income in developing countries (USDA, 2005 ASARECA, 2008). With economic growth, urbanization and changing diets, the world demand for plant-derived oils and their derivatives has soared (Smaling et al., 2008). In North Africa, the Middle East region, Central America and the Caribbean, income and population growth are driving strong gains in soybean oil imports (USDA, 2005). North Africa and the Middle East are projected to experience a continued growth in import demand for grain and high-protein meals through 2014, as rising populations and incomes sustain a strong growth in the demand for animal products (USDA, 2005). Strong income and population growth in developing countries generate increasing demand for vegetable oils for human food and high-protein meals are used in livestock production....

Global increase in human and livestock population and expansion of trade

Population, a demand shifter, is a significant factor driving the overall growth in demand for agricultural products (Vandenborre, 1966). Ever-increasing global human and animal populations, especially in developing countries, will likely lead to future increases in the demand for soybean. A major factor in the oilseed sector for the past several years has been China's large soybean imports due to its huge population (Plato and Chambers, 2004). The surge in demand from China was further triggered by its WTO membership in 2002 (Smaling et al., 2008). Increases in domestic demand due to marginal increases in China's population will drive world demand and prices. An increasing global demand for animal products also increase demand for soybean due to its desired feed traits. Demand for food and feed is expected to double in the next 50 years (Gowing and Palmer, 2008), which, in turn, will push the demand for soybean and its products.

Climate change mitigation

The greatest realistic potential for plantations appears to be in the first and in the fifth options. However, carbon sequestration in the forest-based sector is largely a non-permanent strategy. The sequestration phase is finite. In plantations it may last only for some decades and then the gained carbon stocks would need to be protected to keep carbon withdrawn from the atmosphere. While this is not possible within a single plantation stand, it may well possible over larger temporal and spatial scales, if plantations are maintained and not converted back into agricultural land use. Sequestration therefore always needs to be protected by safeguarding measures to make mitigation strategies effective.

Endoparasitic Fungi 4221 Introduction

Nematode endoparasites were usually found in deciduous and conifer litter, old dung, moss cushions, and decaying vegetation 97 . Addition of farmyard manure to agricultural soil increased the population of endoparasites 102 . Nematodes are attracted toward Drechmeria coniospora, Haptocillium balanoides, and other endoparasites colonies 23, 69, 103-105 .

Approaches for Developing Salt Tolerant Crop Plants

Pepper Dihaploid 2012

The success of the crop-breeding program largely depends on the availability of natural genetic variation among the germplasm resources. Large number of cultivated and wild germplasm in major crops, preserved in the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) institutions and national centers, provide unique resources for systematic screening for discovery of novel variability to improve adaptation of crop plants in saline environments. Particularly, the wild relatives, land races, and traditional culti-vars are the potential reservoirs of novel alleles to improve abiotic stress tolerance. Accurate pheno-typing procedures are critical for identifying useful germplasm for crop improvement program as well as for deciphering the genetic basis of the mechanisms associated with salinity tolerance. Several parameters for salinity tolerance are studied by growing the germplasm in a variety of culture techniques such as hydroponics, pot culture, and field screening....

Plant Nutritional Status

Nutrient Deficiency Pineapple

The nutritional status of the pineapple plant has a large influence on plant growth and, consequently, on yield and fruit quality. For pineapple, plant indicators that reflect plant nutritional status have been identified and, in conjunction with soil analysis, can be used to manage fertilization of the pineapple crop. The alternative to the use of plant indicators and soil analysis is the use of calibrated fertilizer trials in each area where the crop is grown. This practice is more common where pineapple is grown on small farms and where access to technology is limited (Souza, 1999). To sustain growth and obtain good yields, it is important to provide adequate supplies of all nutrients in proper balance. Balanced nutrition based on the principles of best management practices ensures that excess nutrients of one type do not induce deficiencies of others or, in the case of N and P, lead to environmental degradation.

Role Of Cactus Opuntia Ficus Indica In Waste Water Treatment Scuience Direct

Abid N, Lal R (2008) Tillage and drainage impact on soil quality I. Aggregate stability, carbon and nitrogen pools. Soil Till Res 100 89-98 Aganchich B, El Antari A, Wahbi S, Tahi H, Wakrim R, Serraj R (2008) Fruit and oil quality of mature olive trees under partial rootzone drying in field conditions. Grasas Aceites 59(3) 225-233 Aiyelaagbe I, Orodele O (2007) Leaf gas exchange and growth response of juvenile 'Valencia' orange trees to dry season irrigation in south western Nigeria. Proceedings conference on international agricultural research for development tropentag 2007. University of Kassel-Witzenhausen and University of Gottingen, Germany, October 9-11, 2007 Alar on JJ, Domingo R, Green SR, S nchez-Blanco MJ, Rodr iguez P, Torrecillas A (2000) Sap flow as an indicator of transpiration and the water status of young apricot trees. Plant Soil 227 77-85 Allouche N, Fki I, Sayadi S (2004) Toward a high yield recovery of antioxidants and purified hydroxytyrosol from olive mill...

Disease Management in Nurseries

Anandaraj, M., Ramana, K.V. and Sarma, Y.R. (1991b) Interaction between vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Meloidogyne incognita in black pepper. In D.J.Bagyaraj and A.Manjunath (eds.), Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Plant Growth, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, pp. 110-112. Dutta, P.K. (1984) Studies on two Phytophthora diseases (koleroga of arecanut and blackpepper wilt) in Shimoga district, Karnataka state. Ph.D thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, College of Agriculture, Dharwad 121 pp. Kueh, T.K. (1979) Pests, diseases and disorders of black pepper in Sarawak. Semongok Agricultural Research Centre, Dept of Agriculture, Sarawak, Malaysia, 68 pp. Santhakumari, P. (1987) Studies on Phytophthora Diseases of Plantation Crops. Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of plant pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 139 pp. Sasikumaran, S., Mammootty, K.P., Abicheeran and Pillay S.V. (1981) Field trial for the control of quick wilt (foot rot) disease of pepper. In...

Rooted Cuttings Production

When the large scale production of pepper cuttings started in India (in Kerala), three node cuttings from runner shoots were used. The success rates were often very low. The runner shoots from high yielding and healthy plants are kept coiled on wooden pegs fixed at the base of the vine to prevent the shoots from coming in contact with soil and striking roots. The runner shoots can be separated from the mother plant in Jan-Feb., dip in a fungicide like copper oxychloride or Bordeaux mixture for 1 minute, surface dry in the shade and after trimming the leaves, cut into 2-3 nodes and plant either in nursery beds or polythene bags filled with fertile soil mixture with sand and farmyard manure. Studies by various workers indicated that application of IBA 200 ppm improved the rooting percentage of cuttings, and it was the best for defoliated single node cuttings (Suparman and Zaubin 1988). Two node cuttings dipped in IBA at 1000 ppm for 45 seconds produced highest root numbers (Pillai et...

Chemically induced flowering

The active ingredient in smoke was shown to be ethylene (Rodriquez, 1932) and later work (Kerns, 1936) showed that acetylene also forced flower induction. This finding prompted the use of carbide as a source of acetylene, a method still widely used on small farms. A pea-sized amount of calcium carbide is dropped into the centre of the rosette of leaves of a vegetative plant of sufficient size. The carbide reacts with water to release acetylene, which is taken up by the leaves. Acetylene (Aldrich and Nakasone, 1975) and ethylene, which much research shows is the most effective forcing agent (Bartholomew and Criley, 1983), are both more effective if applied at night when the stomata are open.

Nutrient Requirements

Thakur and Sharma (1997) showed that N and P up to 100 and 60 kg ha, respectively, increased the rhizome yield significantly. N, P, and K uptake by ginger increased with the increase in application of N and P rate up to 150 and 90 kg ha. Chenghat (1997) studied the influence of organic manures and Azospirillum on uptake of N, P and K and found that the uptake was more in plots incorporated with FYM (48 t ha) followed by Azospirillum + 75 percent N. The soil nutrient status in terms of available N and K was found to be high in plots inoculated with Azospirillum + 75 percent N, whereas available P was higher in plots receiving recommended NPK. Per plant yield was better under farmyard manure treatment.

Cost of Seedling Production

Almendras. 1991. Role of symbiotic associations in nutrition of tropical acacias. In Advances m Tropical Acacia Research, ed. J.W. Turnbull 13-19. AC1AR Proceeding No. 35. Canberra. Australia Australian Council for lntcrnauonal Agricultural Research.

Effects of AM Fungal Mycelia on Chemical and Physical Mycorrhizosphere Properties and Implications for Mineral Element

Leaves of Myrica parvifolia, M. pubescens and Paepalanthus sp. Mycorrhiza 14 221-228 Atkinson D, Berta G, Hooker JE (1994) Impact of mycorrhizal colonization on root architecture, root longevity and the formation of growth regulators. In Gianiazzi S, Schuepp H (eds) Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizas on sustainable agriculture and natural ecosystems. Birkhauser, Berlin of root systems. Environ Exp Bot 33 159-173 Bianciotto V, Andreotti S, Balestrini R, Bonfante P, Perotto S (2001) Extracellular polysaccha-rides are involved in the attachment of Azospirillum brasiliense and Rhizobium leguminosarum to arbuscular mycorrhizal structures. Eur J Histochem 45 39-49 Bianciotto V, Perotto S, Ruiz-Lozano JM, Bonfante P (2002) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria From cellular investigations to biotechnological perspectives. In Gianiazzi S, Sch epp H (eds) Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizas on sustainable agriculture and natural ecosystems. Birkhauser, Berlin Blal B, Morel C,...

Genomics Tools For Weeds That Are Under Development

Canada thistle is a diploid (2n 34) with a moderate genome size (slightly more than three times the size of rice) of 15-19Mbp per haploid genome (Bennett and Leitch 2003i . This deep-rooted perennial weed is well adapted to a variety of environmental and edaphic conditions in temperate regions infesting agronomic and horticultural crops, rangelands, turf and urban landscapes, riparian areas, and recreational and natural lands. Canada thistle also serves as an alternate host for insects and pathogenic microorganisms that attack various crops (Donald 1994). Because it has a wide geographic distribution and impacts multiple ecosystems, further research on Canada thistle is likely to garner political support. Recently, the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) and National Science Foundation (NSF) have supported investigations on the population genetics of Canada thistle and related species, and a whole plant normalized cDNA library has been developed and...

For Engineering Tolerance

Engineering metabolic and stress-signalling pathways to produce stress-tolerant crops is one of the major interests of agricultural research. Genetic transformation with stress-inducible genes has been employed to gain an understanding of their functional role in the tolerance response and ultimately to improve the tolerance trait in the target genotype (Zhang et al. 2004, Cuartero et al. 2010). To date, by far, majority of these studies have been limited to single-gene transfers within known multigenic pathways and mostly those involved in signalling and regulatory pathways, or effector genes that code for enzymes catalysing the synthesis of structural

Factors Affecting Water Use and Wateruse Efficiency in Soybean

An optimally fertilized crop exhibits proper growth and development, high yield and high WUE. The highest ET and WUE in soybean have been reported with the application of 100 of recommended nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) levels plus 10 t farmyard manure ha-1 compared to with 100 of recommended NPK levels alone or no fertilizer (Hati et al., 2000).

Sulfur in grapevine nutrition and health

In grapevine organic farming, incorporation into the soil of fine-granule sulfur and Thiobacillus microorganisms, restricted powdery mildew infected berries and leaves by more than 80 , in comparison with 90 after treatment with a conventional fungicide used as control (Bourbos et al. 2000). In fact, after the introduction of powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator, previously Uncinula necator) in Europe, in the XIX century, it was noticed that sulfur applied to vine leaves and berries significantly protected from powdery mildew infection. Tra

Future trends in rice demand

To summarize, although demand growth is slowing down, so is growth in yields, and it is unclear how prices will evolve during the next 20 years. The discussion in an earlier section of this chapter explained why low rice prices contribute to poverty alleviation, so it will be beneficial for prices to be as low as possible in the future, provided that the low prices are due to increased productivity. Thus, the goal of rice research should not be to meet some fixed hypothetical growth rate of future demand, but should be to increase production and yield as much as possible. If the growth of supply exceeds the growth in demand, that will not generate stockpiles of useless grain. Instead, it will push prices lower, and this will hasten the escape from poverty. Without such research, however, there is a real risk of stagnant yields and higher prices, which would throw millions of already poor Asians deeper into poverty. One hopes that it does not take a major food crisis to elicit more...

Variety selection and screening for tolerance

Regardless of the screening breeding method used, the identification and planting of chlorosis resistant cultivars is the most important method of controlling Fe chlorosis development in field crops. A concern of planting these chlorosis tolerant plants over the whole field is lower yield potential in parts of the field where chlorosis is not a problem. Currently, some regions plant with separate seed in different parts of the field, i.e. a chlorosis tolerant cultivar in projected trouble spots and a high yielding cultivar in the rest of the field (J. Goos, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, personal communication). Blending high yielding seed with chlorosis tolerant seed has been used (W. Fehr, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, personal communication). While efforts to develop high yielding chlorosis tolerant plants continue, precision farming methods may enable growers to plant different seed sources within the same field to maximize yield i.e. lower yielding chlorosis...

Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration

In addition to these contracted books, invitations are out for several books. Topics planned are Archael, Bacterial and Plant Respiration Protein Complexes of Photosynthesis and Respiration Photoinhibition and Photoprotection Photosystem I Protonation and ATP Synthesis Global Aspects of Photosynthesis Functional Genomics History of Photosynthesis The Chlorophylls The Cytochromes The Chloro-plast Laboratory Methods for Studying Leaves and Whole Plants and C-3 and C-4 Plants. In view ofthe interdisciplinary character of research in photosynthesis and respiration, it is my earnest hope that this series of books will be used in educating students and researchers not only in Plant Sciences, Molecular and Cell Biology, Integrative Biology, Biotechnology, Agricultural Sciences, Microbiology, Biochemistry, and Biophysics, but also in Bioengineering, Chemistry, and Physics.

Conclusion Of Medicinal Plant

Different spices produced through organic cultivation practices, the demand for organic cardamom is not much at present. However, production of cardamom through low input sustainable agriculture incorporating integrated nutrient management system involving use of various kinds of organic manures and bio-fertilizers should be aimed at in the present day context of preservation of natural ecosystem and environmental protection.

Basic Practices of Modern Agricultural Systems

Modern agricultural systems have been developed with two related goals in mind to obtain the highest yields possible and to get the highest economic profit possible. In pursuit of these goals, six basic practices have come to form the backbone of production intensive tillage, monoculture, application of inorganic fertilizer, irrigation, chemical pest control, and genetic manipulation of crop plants. Each practice is used for its individual contribution to productivity, but when they are all combined in a farming system each depends on the others and reinforces the need for using the others. The work of agronomists, specialists in agricultural production, has been key to the development of these practices. Monoculture. When one crop is grown alone in a field, it is called a monoculture. Monoculture makes it easier to cultivate, sow seed, control weeds, and harvest, as well as expand the size of the farm operation and improve aspects of profitability and cost. At the same time,...

Leveraging From Other Models

Common wheat genome, and the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA) led the project to sequence the largest wheat chromosome (3B) based on a chromosome i specific approach (Leroy et al. 2006). Transformation protocols also exist for wheat (Jones 2005). Many of these resources can be used to study a serious weed, jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrical Host).

Food Versus Fuel And The Case For Highyielding Crops

Biomass energy may help revitalize languishing rural economies (Solomon, 2010). Even as industrial agriculture has delivered record crop yields and gross revenue in the past 50 years, farmer employment and profit have deteriorated (Fig. 1). The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) reports that a rural society that used to be characterized by small farms supported by farm sales has changed to large, concentrated farms, and over 40 of documented farms are in the 'residential lifestyle' category. While the majority of US farms are still small farms, over 50 of their operators are retired or rely on another job as their principal occupation (NASS, 2007). Conversely, large farms, that is, those with revenue over 100,000 per year, comprise only 15 of all US farms, yet account for 88 of sales. In short, only a fraction of farmers can still make a living from farming (Duffy, 2008), and this is reflected in the steady decline of rural populations (US Census Bureau,...

Uses and Economic Importance of Vetiver

Recently, many projects have been launched with the aim of increasing the use of vetiver in erosion control. Given its morphological, physiological, and ecological characteristics, as discussed in the previous chapters, it is particularly suited to the formation of hedges with a deep root system. In these countries vetiver is used to slow the run-off of the torrential rains (monsoons) and to slow and stop topsoil erosion, but only in the last decade have such farming practices been seriously considered to the point of study and a clearer definition of both the botanical and agronomic characteristics of the plant, and the technical aspects concerning its planting and cultivation. In this way not only can large enterprises with construction projects on a vast scale make use of vetiver as a plant to control soil erosion, but also, and most importantly, individual farmers who, with their own business, have to fight the process of erosion which reduces the fertility of the plots and...

Introduction Abiotic Stress Responses Importance

Those responses that follow a similar pattern can be useful in developing sustainable agriculture by reducing the need for chemicals (e.g., fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides) and preserving optimizing natural resources (e.g., water, reclaiming wasteland for intensive agriculture) (Wang et al. 2003 Agrawal et al. 2010).

Spacing and Method of Planting

Mohanty and Sarma (1978) reported that best growth and the highest rhizome yield (23.4 t ha) was obtained with Ceresan wet-treated rhizomes, planted in raised beds, with farmyard manure (FYM) at 25 t ha + N, P2O5, and K2O at 75, 50, and 50 kg ha, respectively, and mulched with green leaves at 15 t ha at planting followed by two mulches using 7.5 t ha at 45 and 90 days after planting (Figure 5.4). A good crop of ginger raised in this way is shown in Figure 5.5.

Transition in Concept from Wet to Dry

Many foundations of biostatistics are rooted in agricultural sciences, particularly agricultural genetics. Exponentially-growing quantities of DNA sequence, gene expression, nucleotide variation and other genetic and genomic data have compelled researchers to add new dimensions to systems for analyzing the data. Indeed, the availability of enormous data sets via the internet, and their comparison in novel

Allelopathic Plant Materials

The residues of crops grown during preceding seasons or tree components of the farm are incorporated in the field before raising field crops to serve as manures. However, such crop residues also offer other environmental benefits that include protection from soil erosion, increase in biological diversity including beneficial organisms and suppression of pests and weeds (Sustainable Agriculture Network, 1998). The residues of such crops can suppress weeds by releasing allelochemicals (Teasdale, 2003). Living mulches, intercrops or smother crops may provide physical weed suppression but their effects in part depend on allelopathy (Bond, 2002). Cover crops suppress weeds to enhance absorption through foliage. In India, when the sources of irrigation water recede during the summer, the smaller volume of water is more accessible for treating with C. amboinicus at 10 g L-1 (1 w v). C. amboinicus also hold promise for bio-control of water hyacinth on small farms. In another aquatic habitat,...

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