Organic Farming Manual

Miracle Farm Blueprint

Miracle Farm Blueprint is a step by step guide for the small-scale farming whose major aim of facilitating individuals in their attempts to have sufficient water supply and pure organic foods. It is a product of Michael, a guy only known by one name. The author teaches the best way of structuring a mini-farm though efficient. The farm will be self-sufficient, something that can help individuals along with their families to manage unforeseen circumstances such as disasters or any kind of emergency. Following this guide will help save thousands of dollars that would otherwise be incurred on groceries. Additionally, it will help you come up with a survival mechanism. The author is of the opinion that the blueprint the program is kind of a miracle and probably the best than any other one in the market. The program is easy and applicable to all individuals. Besides, you will only be required to have simple tools, apart from a reduced total expenditure. Thousands of individuals reap maximum benefits every day. All you need to do is to give it a try and be among them. Continue reading...

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Farming Systems to Enhance General Suppressiveness

Although amending soil with high rates of organic matter can generate suppressive-ness to nematodes and other soilborne pathogens and maintain it for some time after the amendment is applied, it is important to recognise that this approach to disease control is likely to be most useful in high value horticultural production systems. Nurseries where plants are grown in containers, glasshouses producing vegetable or ornamental crops and intensive in-field production of crops with a high monetary value are perhaps the only situations where it is realistic to use amendments in this way to manage nematodes. In all other agricultural systems, applying organic matter at rates of 10-100 t ha annum is never likely to be economically feasible. Importation of organic matter will generally be expensive relative to the income derived from most crops, largely because transportation costs are high and non-agricultural markets compete for the resource. Since high application rates are required to...

Sustainable Agriculture

Environmental impacts (Harrier and Watson, 2004). Sustainable agriculture must, by definition, be ecologically sound, economically viable, and socially responsible. Similarly, sustainable forestry refers to an overall commitment to environmental conservation that integrates the production of trees for useful products with reforestation and conservation of soil, air, water quality, wildlife and aesthetics. Sustainable agriculture relies on long-term solutions using proactive rather than reactive measures at system levels. Several soil fertility factors contribute to sustainable agriculture through control of soil-borne diseases, including increased soil microbial activity leading to increased competition and parasitism within the rhizosphere (Jawson et al., 1993 Knudsen et al., 1995). Research and development strategies are presently focused on the search for suitable alternatives to the use of commercial synthetic pesticides. Progress has also been made, however, in exploring the use...

Organic Farming of Ginger

Organic farming is an approach to sustainable agriculture aiming to create an integrated, ecofriendly and economically sustainable production system. This integrated system includes the protection of soil fertility through the application of organic matter and fostering the soil biological activity. Nutrients are applied through relatively insoluble nutrient sources (organics), maintenance of the nitrogen source through the raising of leguminous crops, recycling organic residues, and disease and insect pest control through crop rotation, use of natural predators, biopesticides, and resistant varieties as well as by maintaining diversity in crop plants.

Features of Organic Farming

Organic farming is widespread throughout the world and is growing rapidly. In Germany alone there are about eight thousand organic farms occupying about 2 percent of the total arable land. In Italy organic farms number around eighteen thousand, and in Austria about twenty thousand organic farms account for 10 percent of total agricultural output. In 1980 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that there were at least eleven thousand organic farms in the United States and at least twenty-four thousand farms that use some organic techniques. In California, organic foods are one of the fastest-growing segments of the agricultural economy, with retail sales growing at 20 percent to 25 percent per year. Cuba was the only country undergoing a massive conversion to organic farming, promoted by the drop of fertilizer, pesticide, and petroleum imports after the collapse of trade relations with the Soviet bloc in 1990. Although research on organic farming systems was very limited...

Potential Tool for Organic Farming

In recent years, the world has seen a growing awareness of health and environmental issues, and sustainability has become a key word in discussions on economic development, particularly in relation to developing countries. The community is becoming more and more conscious of these issues globally, and government policies in industrialized as well as developing countries are increasingly being formulated to encourage organic and sustainable agriculture. Producers are turning to certified organic farming systems as a means of lowering input costs, decreasing reliance on non-renewable resources, capturing high-value markets and premium prices, and boosting farm income. Organic farming severely restricts the use of artificial chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Instead, it relies on developing a healthy, fertile soil and growing a mixture of crops. Supplementing the nutrient requirement of crops through organic composts manures is essential for sustaining soil fertility and crop...

Conversion to Organic Farming

In order for farmers to become certified organic producers, they must complete a certification procedure. The United States and most European countries have created regulations that apply to the production and sale of organically grown produce. All organic produce must carry a quality mark authorized by the government and provided to farmers by legal organizations that conduct strong verification systems with on-site annual inspections. Farmers willing to convert to organic farming must adhere to specific production standards and can be certified as organic only after three years of strictly following such standards. 4. Redesign of diversified farming systems with an optimal crop animal assemblage so that the system can support its own soil fertility, natural pest regulation, and crop productivity. It is important to note that the conversion process can take anywhere from one to five years depending on the level of artificialization or degradation of the original high-input system. In...

Developing More Sustainable Farming Systems

One of the biggest changes to world agriculture in the last 30 years has been the development of no-till farming. Various forms of conservation tillage are now applied to many millions of hectares of cropped land, and when combined with practices such as crop rotation and cover cropping, it has resulted in farming systems that are much more profitable and sustainable than they were in the past. One of the benefits from this change will be an increase in the suppressiveness of soils to soilborne disease (Stone et al. 2004). Given the economics of broad-scale agriculture and the cropping area involved, enhancing general suppressiveness through the farming system is probably the only realistic way of improving the level of biological control in most of the world's agricultural land. The role of farming systems in enhancing suppressiveness should therefore be a major focus of future research. We need to know how the main soil management practices available to farmers (e.g. tillage,...

Am Fungi And Alleviation Of Soil Heavy Metal Stress

The significance of AM fungi in soil remediation has been recognized (Gaur and Adholeya, 2004 Khan, 2005). A vast amount of literature is available on the effects of mycorrhizal colonization on plants under heavy metal stress but contradictory observations and wide variations in results are reported (Khan, 2005). Enhanced understanding of heavy metal tolerance of plants and AM fungi has defined valuable parameters for improving phyto-remediation, i.e., the engineered use of green plants to remediate an affected site. The utility of AM fungi in soil remediation is also important for sustainable agriculture. Application of these fungi is generally useful to overcome heavy metal problems and to alleviate soil stress, and ultimately increases agricultural production.

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Phosphate Acquisition

Phosphate is an essential nutrient and is limiting for plant growth in many environments (Bucher, 2007). Phosphate is present in the soil in the form of inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) and is readily sequestered by cations, especially in acidic conditions, of which the most abundant are iron, aluminium and calcium. The mobility of sequestered phosphate is reduced and, as a consequence, plant uptake rapidly exhausts the phosphate available in the vicinity of the root system and creates a localised depletion zone (Bucher, 2007). In modern agriculture, the problem of phosphate limitation has been addressed by the extensive use of phosphate-additions, more than 4,000,000 tons annually in the USA alone ( However, as supplies are reduced, phosphate becomes increasingly difficult and costly to extract. Furthermore, the efficiency of phosphate uptake may be as low as 20 (Zhu et al., 2003) and much of the added phosphates will pass to adjacent water

Am Fungal Communities And Grain Production

Fertilizer use represents a common agricultural management practice, but a growing body of evidence has demonstrated an array of negative impacts on ecosystems from their use. No matter which form of fertilizer is applied (organic or mineral), conventional farming generates large N and P surpluses, which can lead to N leaching through the soil profile and P losses in runoff (Brady and Weil, 2002). Not only is there a high financial cost to farmers associated with this loss, but the phenomenon also resulted in soil contamination. In addition, excess fertilizer inputs can be a major threat to aquatic ecosystems through surface and groundwater degradation (Kirchmann and Thorvaldsson, 2000). Recently, fertilizer runoff from agricultural fields was emphasized among the causes of excessive cyanobacterial growth and increasing of potentially harmful blooms leading to restricted access to lakes. of fertilizers. Conventional farming systems using lower application rates of fertilizers and...

Mohd Sayeed Akhtar And Zaki A Siddiqui

Abstract Arbuscular Mycorhizal (AM) fungi are ubiquitous and form symbiotic relationships with roots of most terrestrial plants. Their associations benefit plant nutrition, growth and survival due to their enhanced exploitation of soil nutrients. These fungi play a key role in nutrient cycling and also protect plants against environmental and cultural stresses. The establishment of AM fungi in the plant root has been shown to reduce the damage caused by soil-borne plant pathogens with the enhancement of resistance in mycorrhizal plants. The effectiveness of AM fungi in biocontrol is dependent on the AM fungus involved, as well as the substrate and host plant. However, protection offered by AM fungi is not effective against all the plant pathogens and is modulated by soil and other environmental conditions. AM fungi generally reduce the severity of plant diseases to various crops suggesting that they may be used as potential tool in disease management. AM fungi modify the quality and...

Am Fungi And Plant Disease Control

Plant diseases can be controlled by manipulation of indigenous microbes or by introducing antagonists to reduce the disease-producing pro-pagules (Linderman, 1992). AM fungi and their associated interactions with plants reduce the damage caused by plant pathogens (Siddiqui and Mahmood, 1995 Siddiqui et al., 1999 Harrier and Watson, 2004). With the increasing cost of pesticides and the environmental and public health hazards associated with pesticides and pathogens resistant to chemical pesticides, AM fungi may provide a more suitable and environmentally acceptable alternative for sustainable agriculture and forestry. The interactions between different AM fungi and plant pathogens vary with the host plant and the cultural system. Moreover, the protective effect of AM inoculation may be both systemic and localized. Cropping sequences, fertilization, and plant pathogen management practices affect both AM fungal propagules in soil and their effects on plants (Bethlenfalvay and Linderman,...

Practical Control System

Although AMF are ubiquitous, natural associations of AM fungi are not efficient in increasing plant growth (Fitter, 1985). Cropping sequences, fertilization, and plant pathogen management practices affect both AM fungi propagules in soil and their effects on plants (Bethlenfalvay and Linderman, 1992). The propagation system used for horticultural fruit and micropropagated plants can benefit most from AM biotechnology. Micropropagated plants can withstand transplant stress from in vitro to in vivo systems if they are inoculated with appropriate AM fungi (Lovato et al, 1996 Azcon-Aguilar et al., 2002). In order to use AM fungi in sustainable agriculture, knowledge of factors such as fertilizer inputs, pesticide use, and soil management practices which influence AM fungi is essential (Bethlenfalvay and Linderman, 1992 Allen, 1991, 1992). In addition efficient inoculants should be identified and used as biofertilizers, bioprotectants, and biostimulants for sustainable agriculture.

Bioprotectant Behavior Of Am Fungi

Plant diseases can be controlled by manipulation of indigenous microbes or by introducing antagonists to reduce the disease-producing pro-pagules (Linderman, 1992). AM fungi and their associated interactions with plants reduce the damage caused by plant pathogens (Harrier and Watson, 2004). These interactions have been documented for many plant species (Tables 1 and 2). With the increasing cost of inorganic fertilizers and the environmental and public health hazards associated with pesticides and pathogens resistant to chemical pesticides, AM fungi may provide a more suitable and environmentally acceptable alternative for sustainable agriculture.

Contributors To Volume

Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA TADACHI YOSHIHASHI Postharvest Science and Technology Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan OLGA A. ZABOTINA Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA

Photoprotection Photoinhibition Gene Regulation and Environment

This book was edited by three outstanding authorities in the areas of Photoprotection, Photoinhibition, Gene Regulation, and Environment Barbara Demmig-Adams and William W. Adams III (both at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado) and Autar K. Mattoo (Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland).

Rice research and poverty alleviation

To appreciate the short-term indirect contribution of rice research to poverty alleviation, it is important to understand that not all poor people are farmers who own land, grow rice, and benefit directly from improvements in crop productivity. In fact, several classes of people are very poor but do not reap any direct benefits from rice research. These people are net purchasers of rice, and they reap indirect benefits from rice research in terms of lower prices for the rice they must buy to stay alive. It is true that lower rice prices, holding all else constant, adversely affect poor rice farmers who produce a surplus of rice this is the food price policy dilemma noted by Timmer et al (1983). But agricultural research resolves this dilemma, as will be explained shortly. Low rice prices that are the result of higher productivity induced by agricultural research contribute to this structural transformation of the economy. Low rice prices allow wages to be lower from the employer's...

Trace Elements In The Soils

Trace elements accumulate locally in soils due to weathering of rock minerals. Because trace elements are essential for plants, animals, and human beings, it is necessary to ensure their adequate levels in agricultural products. Apart from trace elements originating in parent materials and entering the soil through chemical weathering processes, soil toxic trace elements have many anthropogenic sources. Campbell et al. 10 compared natural and anthropogenic quantities of trace metals emitted to the atmosphere and showed that around 15 times more Cd 100 times more Pb 13 times more Cu and 21 times more Zn are emitted by man's activities than by natural processes.

Regulation of Populations

Complex interactions between organisms regulate their numbers in natural ecosystems. Competition, mutualisms, and other types of interactions are promoted by the organization and structure of the system. Growing one or very few crops in modern agriculture eliminates many of these interactions, often removing natural control mechanisms and allowing pest outbreaks. An agroecological alternative seeks to reintroduce more complex structures and species arrangements, often including both crop and noncrop species, in order to reduce the use of pesticides and enhance natural controls.

Further Adventures and Advances

My walk through the xanthophyll cycle took several administrative detours from 1980-82, 1982-86, and 1994-96 as Acting Associate Dean of Research, Chair of the Department of Plant Molecular Physiology, and Director of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, respectively. During the second of these, another chance occurrence caused me to refocus on

Us Echinacea germplasm collection

My introduction to the genus Echinacea came as the result of collecting 88 of the 150 accessions now maintained by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agricultural Research Service for the National Plant Germplasm System of the United States. This germplasm represents a comprehensive sampling of Echinacea diversity and includes all species recognized by McGregor

South Central Europe Ljubljana Slovenia

Ljubljana is the capital of Slovenia and also its largest city, located in the middle of the country. Its elevation ranges from 285 to 310 m above sea level. The total residential population of Ljubljana is approaching 340000 inhabitants. Data on current (1997) land use were obtained from Ljubljana municipality sources and corrected using aerial photographs. Within the overall 87 km2 of Ljubljana city area, forests cover 16 , buildings, yards and paved areas cover 33 , agricultural land 47 and other public open space (parks, playgrounds, cemeteries, water) cover 4 of the total area (Pirnat in press Fig. 3.15).

Or Resistance Productivity and Prospects

Combining the resources of classical breeding with modern biotechnology, a novel variety of genotypes and phenotypes can be created, agricultural productivity can be increased, and human survival in the face of population growth and climate change can be achieved (Altman 2003) . This is an important subject for agricultural research, as increased competition with other land uses pushes farms into harsher environments, fresh water becomes scarcer, and the climate change anticipated by some scientists increases environmental stress. Therefore, to increase productivity by engineering plants that are more resistant or tolerant to abiotic stress, genes, and their products are the target of this initiative. However, this task seems more daunting than engineering plants that are resistant to pests and herbicides. Biotic stress is largely dependent on monogenic traits, while abiotic stresses are multigenic and thus more difficult to control and engineer (Vinocur and Altman 2005).

Desalination and Stabilization of Saline Soils

Plant with higher accumulation of Na+ in its shoot parts for desalination purpose in arid and semiarid regions where precipitation is too low to leach salts from rhizosphere. Similarly, successful germination and growth of Hordeum vulgare (barley) was observed on the soil desalinated with salt accumulator halophyte S. portulacastrum (Rabhi et al. 2010++ Taken together, the reports suggest that salt accumulator halophytes can be exploited as a potential source for desalination of agricultural land in the arid and semi-arid regions as well as for the stabilization of saline lands along the coastal regions of the world.

Utilization of Germplasm

In China, seven foreign soybean cultivars have been immediately used in production and 134 cultivars have been bred using foreign germplasm, accounting for a planting area of 25 of the total since 1980 (Liu et al., 2009). Since 2001, 35 germplasm lines have been introduced to China from Ukraine by the Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences. These have been used in breeding programme, and consequently seven superior lines are expected to be released (Wang and Yang, 2009).

Nitrogen Deposition Sources of N pollution

Atmospheric reduced N (NHy) is predominantly an agricultural by-product, increasing in direct proportion to animal numbers and body mass (Asman et al. 1998). NHy dominates N deposition in Europe and dry deposition of NH3 dominates the NHy inputs close to emission sources. Annual average NH3 concentrations range from 20 to 63 .g m-3 down to less than 1 .g m-3 (Fangmeier et al. 1994, Fowler et al. 1998a,b, Krupa 2003). Emissions are linked to farming practices and may vary seasonally and between countries. The fitting of catalytic converters to vehicle exhausts has provided an additional source of NHy. NH4+ ions can travel as aerosols of (NH4)2SO4 that have an atmospheric residence time of 4 to15 days and contribute significantly to the N deposition load to remote ecosystems. NH3 and NOx have relatively short half-lives of less than 3 days and for HNO3 the half-life is less than a few hours (Harrison et al. 2000).

Conclusions and Perspectives

The capacity of cyanobacteria to thrive in high CO2 concentrations makes them an attractive system for beneficial recycling of CO2 from point sources such as coal-fired power plants via biofuel synthesis. Since many cyanobacteria are halophilic, raceway ponds can be sited away from agricultural land, making use of seawater or various sources of saline wastewater. A conceivable future scenario where CO2 recycling is combined with utilization of brine produced from CO2 injections during geological carbon capture and storage (CCS) is shown in Fig. 4.

Payments for watershed services from planted forests

Perhaps the most celebrated case of watershed benefits of forest restoration was the decision by the City of New York to invest about US 1 billion in land protection and conservation practices to avoid spending US 4-6 billion on filtration and treatment plants (Perrot Maitre and Davis, 2001). Much of the effort focused on improving the management of existing forest and changing agricultural land-use practices, but there was some support provided for afforestation. Other examples of payment arrangements for forest watershed services include (Perrot Maitre and Davis, 2001)

A novel growth modulator interconnects ethylene ABA and sugar signaling

Unit Plant Hormone Signaling and Bio-imaging, Department of Molecular Genetics, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium, Jasper.Dugardeyn 2Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China. (*Corresponding author dominique.vanderstraeten

Fertility Promoting Lifestyle Factors What to Tell Your Patients

Commercially prepared food, if not foods from organic farms or derived from similar production means. Secondhand cigarette smoke presents a problem due to cadmium, a toxic metal in smoke, which is absorbed in the body and is known to have negative effects on fertility, as well as other components of cigarette smoke.6 It is easy to become overwhelmed by the numerous ways in which the world has become increasingly nonconducive to optimal fertility levels patients must be trained to be diligent in protecting themselves without becoming overwhelmed.

A PPR protein required for normal plant development may be involved in control of the ethylene pathway at the

Unit Plant Hormone Signalling and Bio-imaging, Department of Molecular Genetics, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium, Dik.Hagenbeek 2 Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China. (*Corresponding author Dominique.VanDerStraeten

Comparison of Proteomics and Transcriptomics Profiling of Rice Anthers

Professor Koike's group at the National Agricultural Research Center, Japan has also been working on cold-induced male sterility in rice, and they have recently reported a microarray analysis of rice anther genes under chilling stress at the microsporogenesis stage 10 . They treated cold-sensitive cv. Hayayuki at 12 C for 5 days for the microar-ray analysis. The gene expression profile during the microspore development process under chilling stress was revealed using a microarray that included 8987 rice cDNAs. As many as 160 cDNAs were up or down-regulated (at least twofold) by chilling during the microspore release stage. This microarray analysis should be comparable with proteomic analysis of cv. Doongara, since both rice cultivars are cold-sensitive and conditions used are very similar. However, only expression of a few transcripts (cysteine synthases and APX) seems to correlate positively with the accumulation of actual protein products. It is not surprising, given the fact that...

Stand density management initial spacing and thinning

In temporal sequence, the effects of thinning operations follow those of initial spacing. An often studied subject is the influence of canopy opening on the abundance and diversity of understorey vegetation. There is abundant evidence that the reduction in canopy density through thinning promotes the development of the understorey in the form of grass, herb and shrub layers (Harrington and Ewel, 1997 Bailey and Tappeiner, 1998) resulting in a positive relationship between the degree of opening and the increase in understorey biomass (Bone et al, 1997 Harrington and Edwards, 1999 Battles et al, 2001 Elliott and Knoepp, 2005). A positive relationship between vascular plant diversity and richness, and management-induced canopy openings have been found in several studies (Battles et al, 2001 Muir et al, 2002). However, there are also many studies that could not find a significant increase in floristic diversity following canopy opening in native forests (Bauhus et al, 2002 Gilliam, 2002...

Herbicideresistant Soybean

Crop management, higher productivity and net returns ha-1 to a safer environment through the decreased use of conventional pesticides, all of which collectively contribute to more sustainable agriculture. Despite growing controversy, the area under transgenic crops is increasing at a fast rate. The global area of transgenic crops increased from 1.7 million ha in 1996 to 114.3 million ha in 2007 (James, 2007), of which 63 of crops were tolerant to a specific herbicide. Transgenic or herbicide-resistant soybeans are genetically altered to tolerate herbicides that would normally kill or injure conventional or non-transgenic varieties. The first use of herbicide-resistant soybean was in 1994 with the introduction of sulphonylurea-tolerant varieties. Glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glufosinate-resistant soybeans (Roundup Ready and Liberty Link, respectively) are now commercially available. Herbicide-tolerant soybean is the most dominant transgenic crop, followed by genetically modified corn,...

Bacterial breeding for increased microbial fixation

Considerable effort has been expended in attempts to create bacteria that provide enhanced growth of soybean symbioses through enhanced fixation, either across all environments or in particular situations. Efforts have included traditional selection of bacteria through direct responses of the bacteria or responses of the inoculated plant (selected for nitrate tolerance McNeil, 1982), mutation of bacteria and use of genetic-engineering technologies to produce altered bacteria. Attempts have also been made to improve bacterial field survival to improve their ability to nodulate plants at a later date. There is no doubt that under laboratory conditions and in the field (if they can form a substantial proportion of the nodules), selected strains can increase soybean fixation. As a consequence, numerous Rhizobium culture collections exist worldwide (e.g. the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the National Rhizo-bium Germplasm Collection, the Australian National Rhizobium Programme...

Smallholders in the tropics demands and capacities

In keeping with the general goal of poverty alleviation as stated at the world summit in Johannesburg in 2002 (UN, 2002), we use the term smallholder for people living in the rural tropics who own small areas of land that they cultivate for subsistence or commercial purposes, relying principally on family labour. In our simplified analysis, we distinguish between two idealized smallholder types traditional communities and individual farmers. The term individual farmers refers to farmers working individually in family units who focus on the cultivation of agricultural crops for local markets. They usually manage smaller plots than traditional communities. Often they have acquired land through initiatives promoting large settlements or individual efforts to improve their quality of life (Marquette, 2006). They are located in already fragmented landscapes with adequate infrastructure and connection to markets. Some families also have a complementary off-farm income. Forest use...

Stem Reserves In Grain Filling

Wheat plants were frozen in the field at the Purdue Agricultural Research Station in 1999, freeze dried, ground, extracted and the total ketose sugars determined as fructose equivalents using cold anthrone. Kernel dry weight was determined on 12 kernels from the 6 central spikelets of six different main stems. Plants were marked at anthesis when the anthers extruded from the central portion of the head.

Ethylene and volatile accumulation in citrus fruit

1The Kennedy-Leigh Centre for Horticultural Research, The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Department of Postharvest Science of Fresh Produce, ARO, the Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet-Dagan 50250, Isreal. 3Department of Food Science, ARO, the Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet-Dagan 50250, Isreal. 4Department of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants, ARO, Newe Ya'ar Research Center, P.O. Box 1021, Ramat Yishay 30095, Isreal. aPermanent Address Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan 030031, Shanxi, China. (*Corresponding author rgoren

Fruit Development

Fruit is a unique and important organ that developed in higher plants during evolution. Fruits protect seeds during development and serve as vehicles for seed dispersal to different habitats for species propagation (Tanksley 2004). Fleshy fruits are important in agricultural sciences because of their nutritional and economic values for humans. Important plant families that produce fleshy fruits include the Solanaceae (e.g. tomato, eggplant, pepper), the Cucurbitaceae (e.g. melon, cucumber, watermelon, pumpkin), the Roseaceae (e.g. apple, pear, strawberry), the Rutaceae (e.g. citrus) and the Vitaceae (e.g. grape).

Early Life and Career

Vavilov rose to prominence shortly following the Russian Revolution. He drew the favorable attention of Lenin and was placed in charge of the Bureau of Applied Botany in St. Petersburg. Under his direction, it became one of the world's most active research institutions. By 1934 it had a staff of approximately twenty thousand persons and was known as Lenin's AllUnion Academy of Agricultural Sciences. His success was recognized both at home and abroad. Though he was never a Communist, he was made a member of the Soviet Central Executive Committee. He occupied many important international positions including being named President of the International Congress of Genetics in 1939.

Mycorriza In Disease Resistance

Root rot caused by Fusarium solani significantly contributes to crop yield decline, up to 50 . The inoculation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with Glomus mosseae, besides decreasing propagule number of F. solani in the rhizosphere, decreased root rot by 34 to 77 (Dar et al., 1997). In the presence of the root nodulating symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum, mycorrhizal inoculated plants were more tolerant to the fungal root pathogen. This indicates that interactions between mycorrhizal fungi and other rhizosphere microbes might have greater effects on soil-borne pathogens than mycorrhizal fungi alone. Davis and Menge (1980) found that Glomus fasciculatum reduced Phytophthora root rot of citrus at low level of soil phosphorus but had no effect in high phosphorus soil. The VAM fungi has also been employed as biocontrol agents for Macrophomina root rot of cowpea and Fusarium wilt of tomato (Ramaraj et al., 1988). The understanding of the mechanisms of plant disease resistance in...

Summary and Future Prospects

Acknowledgements The Chase laboratory research on CMS and fertility restoration is supported by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and by USDA Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service NRI grant numbers 2001-0534-10888 and 2005-35301-1570. Alexandra Ribarits and Erwin Heberle-Bors are at the Department of Plant Molecular Biology, Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Vienna, Austria. Their work on male sterility has been supported by the HYBTECH project No. QKL5-CT-1999-30902 of the European Commission.

Global Soybean Marketing and Trade a Situation and Outlook Analysis

Agriculture 2 Division (OSAN.2), Agriculture & Agro Industry Department (OSAN), African Development Bank, Tunis, Tunisia 2Department of Agricultural Economics, School of Agricultural Sciences and Agribusiness, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa 3International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Organic Production Systems

A few studies have evaluated the impact of substantial changes in production practices, such as organic farming, on the level of biological control or on densities of antagonists. Organic farming replaces synthetic fertilizers and pesticides with organic fertilizers (plant material and animal manure), crop rotation, and resistant cultivars. Persmark (1997) sampled 11 pairs of organically and conventionally managed farms and found no difference between the two management systems in either the densities of nematode-trapping fungi, numbers of nematodes in the rhizosphere of pea, or organic matter. In a field plot experiment, organically managed plots had more species of nematophagous fungi and two species, Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Nematoctonus leiosporus, were more abundant than in conventionally managed plots (Jaffee et al. 1998). However, soils from organic and conventionally managed plots did not differ in level of suppression of M. javanica. In another similar study, the number...

Formation of Polyploids

Finally, many crops that are grown for vegetative parts are bred based on crosses between genotypes of different ploidy, which produce sterile progeny. For example, many cultivated types of banana (Musa spp.) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon spp.) are triploid, made from crosses between a diploid and a tetraploid. In each of these crops, seed production is undesirable for human purposes, and the unbalanced genetic constitution of the triploids usually results in seed abortion. Each of these crops is propagated clonally by cuttings. This is a good example of how humans have applied basic research knowledge to improved quality and productivity of agricultural products.

Economic growth rising per capita income and urbanization in developing countries

The changing world food demand for high-value agricultural products (including livestock products) and processed foods has mainly been attributed to strong economic growth and rising per capita income in developing countries (USDA, 2005 ASARECA, 2008). With economic growth, urbanization and changing diets, the world demand for plant-derived oils and their derivatives has soared (Smaling et al., 2008). In North Africa, the Middle East region, Central America and the Caribbean, income and population growth are driving strong gains in soybean oil imports (USDA, 2005). North Africa and the Middle East are projected to experience a continued growth in import demand for grain and high-protein meals through 2014, as rising populations and incomes sustain a strong growth in the demand for animal products (USDA, 2005). Strong income and population growth in developing countries generate increasing demand for vegetable oils for human food and high-protein meals are used in livestock production....

Climate change mitigation

The greatest realistic potential for plantations appears to be in the first and in the fifth options. However, carbon sequestration in the forest-based sector is largely a non-permanent strategy. The sequestration phase is finite. In plantations it may last only for some decades and then the gained carbon stocks would need to be protected to keep carbon withdrawn from the atmosphere. While this is not possible within a single plantation stand, it may well possible over larger temporal and spatial scales, if plantations are maintained and not converted back into agricultural land use. Sequestration therefore always needs to be protected by safeguarding measures to make mitigation strategies effective.

Endoparasitic Fungi 4221 Introduction

Nematode endoparasites were usually found in deciduous and conifer litter, old dung, moss cushions, and decaying vegetation 97 . Addition of farmyard manure to agricultural soil increased the population of endoparasites 102 . Nematodes are attracted toward Drechmeria coniospora, Haptocillium balanoides, and other endoparasites colonies 23, 69, 103-105 .

Third Arab Conference Of Medicinal And Aromatic Plants

Feibert, E., Shock, C.C. and Saunders, M. (1992) Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) research at Ontario in 1991. In Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station Special Report, 924,125-130. Shock, C.C. and Stieber, T. (1988) Preliminary observations on sweet wormwood production in the Treasury Valley. In Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station Special Report, 832, 125-130.

Approaches for Developing Salt Tolerant Crop Plants

Pepper Dihaploid 2012

The success of the crop-breeding program largely depends on the availability of natural genetic variation among the germplasm resources. Large number of cultivated and wild germplasm in major crops, preserved in the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) institutions and national centers, provide unique resources for systematic screening for discovery of novel variability to improve adaptation of crop plants in saline environments. Particularly, the wild relatives, land races, and traditional culti-vars are the potential reservoirs of novel alleles to improve abiotic stress tolerance. Accurate pheno-typing procedures are critical for identifying useful germplasm for crop improvement program as well as for deciphering the genetic basis of the mechanisms associated with salinity tolerance. Several parameters for salinity tolerance are studied by growing the germplasm in a variety of culture techniques such as hydroponics, pot culture, and field screening....

Plant Nutritional Status

Nutrient Deficiency Pineapple

The nutritional status of the pineapple plant has a large influence on plant growth and, consequently, on yield and fruit quality. For pineapple, plant indicators that reflect plant nutritional status have been identified and, in conjunction with soil analysis, can be used to manage fertilization of the pineapple crop. The alternative to the use of plant indicators and soil analysis is the use of calibrated fertilizer trials in each area where the crop is grown. This practice is more common where pineapple is grown on small farms and where access to technology is limited (Souza, 1999). To sustain growth and obtain good yields, it is important to provide adequate supplies of all nutrients in proper balance. Balanced nutrition based on the principles of best management practices ensures that excess nutrients of one type do not induce deficiencies of others or, in the case of N and P, lead to environmental degradation.

Role Of Cactus Opuntia Ficus Indica In Waste Water Treatment Scuience Direct

Abid N, Lal R (2008) Tillage and drainage impact on soil quality I. Aggregate stability, carbon and nitrogen pools. Soil Till Res 100 89-98 Aganchich B, El Antari A, Wahbi S, Tahi H, Wakrim R, Serraj R (2008) Fruit and oil quality of mature olive trees under partial rootzone drying in field conditions. Grasas Aceites 59(3) 225-233 Aiyelaagbe I, Orodele O (2007) Leaf gas exchange and growth response of juvenile 'Valencia' orange trees to dry season irrigation in south western Nigeria. Proceedings conference on international agricultural research for development tropentag 2007. University of Kassel-Witzenhausen and University of Gottingen, Germany, October 9-11, 2007 Alar on JJ, Domingo R, Green SR, S nchez-Blanco MJ, Rodr iguez P, Torrecillas A (2000) Sap flow as an indicator of transpiration and the water status of young apricot trees. Plant Soil 227 77-85 Allouche N, Fki I, Sayadi S (2004) Toward a high yield recovery of antioxidants and purified hydroxytyrosol from olive mill...

Disease Management in Nurseries

Anandaraj, M., Ramana, K.V. and Sarma, Y.R. (1991b) Interaction between vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Meloidogyne incognita in black pepper. In D.J.Bagyaraj and A.Manjunath (eds.), Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Plant Growth, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, pp. 110-112. Dutta, P.K. (1984) Studies on two Phytophthora diseases (koleroga of arecanut and blackpepper wilt) in Shimoga district, Karnataka state. Ph.D thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, College of Agriculture, Dharwad 121 pp. Kueh, T.K. (1979) Pests, diseases and disorders of black pepper in Sarawak. Semongok Agricultural Research Centre, Dept of Agriculture, Sarawak, Malaysia, 68 pp. Santhakumari, P. (1987) Studies on Phytophthora Diseases of Plantation Crops. Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of plant pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 139 pp. Sasikumaran, S., Mammootty, K.P., Abicheeran and Pillay S.V. (1981) Field trial for the control of quick wilt (foot rot) disease of pepper. In...

Ambika Mango Hybrid In India

Two excellent, regular-bearing hybrids, 'Mallika' and 'Amrapali', were developed and released by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi (Singh et al., 1972). 'Mallika' is a hybrid between 'Neelum' and 'Dashehari' with a high total soluble solids (TSS) content, a higher percentage of pulp, fibreless flesh and a fruit size of about300 g. 'Amrapali' ('Dashehari' x 'Nee-lum') is precocious, distinctly dwarf and hence amenable to high-density planting, a regular bearer with excellent quality and is also very rich in vitamin A. Recently, two more cultivars, 'Arunima' ('Amrapali' x 'Sensation') and 'Pusa Surya' (a selection from 'Eldon') have been released from the IARI. A promising mango hybrid 'Ambika', a cross between 'Amrapali' and 'Janardhan Pasand', having a yellow colour with red blush, firm flesh and scanty fibre was released from the Central Institute of Sub-Tropical Horticulture, Lucknow.

Rooted Cuttings Production

When the large scale production of pepper cuttings started in India (in Kerala), three node cuttings from runner shoots were used. The success rates were often very low. The runner shoots from high yielding and healthy plants are kept coiled on wooden pegs fixed at the base of the vine to prevent the shoots from coming in contact with soil and striking roots. The runner shoots can be separated from the mother plant in Jan-Feb., dip in a fungicide like copper oxychloride or Bordeaux mixture for 1 minute, surface dry in the shade and after trimming the leaves, cut into 2-3 nodes and plant either in nursery beds or polythene bags filled with fertile soil mixture with sand and farmyard manure. Studies by various workers indicated that application of IBA 200 ppm improved the rooting percentage of cuttings, and it was the best for defoliated single node cuttings (Suparman and Zaubin 1988). Two node cuttings dipped in IBA at 1000 ppm for 45 seconds produced highest root numbers (Pillai et...

Chemically induced flowering

The active ingredient in smoke was shown to be ethylene (Rodriquez, 1932) and later work (Kerns, 1936) showed that acetylene also forced flower induction. This finding prompted the use of carbide as a source of acetylene, a method still widely used on small farms. A pea-sized amount of calcium carbide is dropped into the centre of the rosette of leaves of a vegetative plant of sufficient size. The carbide reacts with water to release acetylene, which is taken up by the leaves. Acetylene (Aldrich and Nakasone, 1975) and ethylene, which much research shows is the most effective forcing agent (Bartholomew and Criley, 1983), are both more effective if applied at night when the stomata are open.

Nutrient Requirements

Thakur and Sharma (1997) showed that N and P up to 100 and 60 kg ha, respectively, increased the rhizome yield significantly. N, P, and K uptake by ginger increased with the increase in application of N and P rate up to 150 and 90 kg ha. Chenghat (1997) studied the influence of organic manures and Azospirillum on uptake of N, P and K and found that the uptake was more in plots incorporated with FYM (48 t ha) followed by Azospirillum + 75 percent N. The soil nutrient status in terms of available N and K was found to be high in plots inoculated with Azospirillum + 75 percent N, whereas available P was higher in plots receiving recommended NPK. Per plant yield was better under farmyard manure treatment.

Cost of Seedling Production

Almendras. 1991. Role of symbiotic associations in nutrition of tropical acacias. In Advances m Tropical Acacia Research, ed. J.W. Turnbull 13-19. AC1AR Proceeding No. 35. Canberra. Australia Australian Council for lntcrnauonal Agricultural Research.

Effects of AM Fungal Mycelia on Chemical and Physical Mycorrhizosphere Properties and Implications for Mineral Element

Leaves of Myrica parvifolia, M. pubescens and Paepalanthus sp. Mycorrhiza 14 221-228 Atkinson D, Berta G, Hooker JE (1994) Impact of mycorrhizal colonization on root architecture, root longevity and the formation of growth regulators. In Gianiazzi S, Schuepp H (eds) Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizas on sustainable agriculture and natural ecosystems. Birkhauser, Berlin of root systems. Environ Exp Bot 33 159-173 Bianciotto V, Andreotti S, Balestrini R, Bonfante P, Perotto S (2001) Extracellular polysaccha-rides are involved in the attachment of Azospirillum brasiliense and Rhizobium leguminosarum to arbuscular mycorrhizal structures. Eur J Histochem 45 39-49 Bianciotto V, Perotto S, Ruiz-Lozano JM, Bonfante P (2002) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria From cellular investigations to biotechnological perspectives. In Gianiazzi S, Sch epp H (eds) Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizas on sustainable agriculture and natural ecosystems. Birkhauser, Berlin Blal B, Morel C,...

Kna1 Saltol Nax Torelant Salinity

To enhance salinity tolerance in crop plants. Development of transgenic plants with improved tolerance to abiotic stresses has brought some hope for sustainable agriculture under harsh environmental conditions. Genetic engineering is an attractive option when genes of interest are present in cross barrier species, distant relatives, or non-plant sources (Bhatnagar-Mathur et al. 2008). It is also faster to introduce beneficial genes than the conventional or molecular breeding. Due to the complexity associated with salt tolerance mechanism, effort should be made to introduce and fine tune multiple genes with synergistic effect under suitable stress inducible promoters for controlling their expression at a specific time, in a specific organ, or under specific conditions of stress.

Genomics Tools For Weeds That Are Under Development

Canada thistle is a diploid (2n 34) with a moderate genome size (slightly more than three times the size of rice) of 15-19Mbp per haploid genome (Bennett and Leitch 2003i . This deep-rooted perennial weed is well adapted to a variety of environmental and edaphic conditions in temperate regions infesting agronomic and horticultural crops, rangelands, turf and urban landscapes, riparian areas, and recreational and natural lands. Canada thistle also serves as an alternate host for insects and pathogenic microorganisms that attack various crops (Donald 1994). Because it has a wide geographic distribution and impacts multiple ecosystems, further research on Canada thistle is likely to garner political support. Recently, the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) and National Science Foundation (NSF) have supported investigations on the population genetics of Canada thistle and related species, and a whole plant normalized cDNA library has been developed and...

For Engineering Tolerance

Engineering metabolic and stress-signalling pathways to produce stress-tolerant crops is one of the major interests of agricultural research. Genetic transformation with stress-inducible genes has been employed to gain an understanding of their functional role in the tolerance response and ultimately to improve the tolerance trait in the target genotype (Zhang et al. 2004, Cuartero et al. 2010). To date, by far, majority of these studies have been limited to single-gene transfers within known multigenic pathways and mostly those involved in signalling and regulatory pathways, or effector genes that code for enzymes catalysing the synthesis of structural

Factors Affecting Water Use and Wateruse Efficiency in Soybean

An optimally fertilized crop exhibits proper growth and development, high yield and high WUE. The highest ET and WUE in soybean have been reported with the application of 100 of recommended nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) levels plus 10 t farmyard manure ha-1 compared to with 100 of recommended NPK levels alone or no fertilizer (Hati et al., 2000).

Sulfur in grapevine nutrition and health

In grapevine organic farming, incorporation into the soil of fine-granule sulfur and Thiobacillus microorganisms, restricted powdery mildew infected berries and leaves by more than 80 , in comparison with 90 after treatment with a conventional fungicide used as control (Bourbos et al. 2000). In fact, after the introduction of powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator, previously Uncinula necator) in Europe, in the XIX century, it was noticed that sulfur applied to vine leaves and berries significantly protected from powdery mildew infection. Tra

Future trends in rice demand

To summarize, although demand growth is slowing down, so is growth in yields, and it is unclear how prices will evolve during the next 20 years. The discussion in an earlier section of this chapter explained why low rice prices contribute to poverty alleviation, so it will be beneficial for prices to be as low as possible in the future, provided that the low prices are due to increased productivity. Thus, the goal of rice research should not be to meet some fixed hypothetical growth rate of future demand, but should be to increase production and yield as much as possible. If the growth of supply exceeds the growth in demand, that will not generate stockpiles of useless grain. Instead, it will push prices lower, and this will hasten the escape from poverty. Without such research, however, there is a real risk of stagnant yields and higher prices, which would throw millions of already poor Asians deeper into poverty. One hopes that it does not take a major food crisis to elicit more...

Variety selection and screening for tolerance

Regardless of the screening breeding method used, the identification and planting of chlorosis resistant cultivars is the most important method of controlling Fe chlorosis development in field crops. A concern of planting these chlorosis tolerant plants over the whole field is lower yield potential in parts of the field where chlorosis is not a problem. Currently, some regions plant with separate seed in different parts of the field, i.e. a chlorosis tolerant cultivar in projected trouble spots and a high yielding cultivar in the rest of the field (J. Goos, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, personal communication). Blending high yielding seed with chlorosis tolerant seed has been used (W. Fehr, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, personal communication). While efforts to develop high yielding chlorosis tolerant plants continue, precision farming methods may enable growers to plant different seed sources within the same field to maximize yield i.e. lower yielding chlorosis...

Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration

In addition to these contracted books, invitations are out for several books. Topics planned are Archael, Bacterial and Plant Respiration Protein Complexes of Photosynthesis and Respiration Photoinhibition and Photoprotection Photosystem I Protonation and ATP Synthesis Global Aspects of Photosynthesis Functional Genomics History of Photosynthesis The Chlorophylls The Cytochromes The Chloro-plast Laboratory Methods for Studying Leaves and Whole Plants and C-3 and C-4 Plants. In view ofthe interdisciplinary character of research in photosynthesis and respiration, it is my earnest hope that this series of books will be used in educating students and researchers not only in Plant Sciences, Molecular and Cell Biology, Integrative Biology, Biotechnology, Agricultural Sciences, Microbiology, Biochemistry, and Biophysics, but also in Bioengineering, Chemistry, and Physics.

Conclusion Of Medicinal Plant

Different spices produced through organic cultivation practices, the demand for organic cardamom is not much at present. However, production of cardamom through low input sustainable agriculture incorporating integrated nutrient management system involving use of various kinds of organic manures and bio-fertilizers should be aimed at in the present day context of preservation of natural ecosystem and environmental protection.

Basic Practices of Modern Agricultural Systems

Modern agricultural systems have been developed with two related goals in mind to obtain the highest yields possible and to get the highest economic profit possible. In pursuit of these goals, six basic practices have come to form the backbone of production intensive tillage, monoculture, application of inorganic fertilizer, irrigation, chemical pest control, and genetic manipulation of crop plants. Each practice is used for its individual contribution to productivity, but when they are all combined in a farming system each depends on the others and reinforces the need for using the others. The work of agronomists, specialists in agricultural production, has been key to the development of these practices. Monoculture. When one crop is grown alone in a field, it is called a monoculture. Monoculture makes it easier to cultivate, sow seed, control weeds, and harvest, as well as expand the size of the farm operation and improve aspects of profitability and cost. At the same time,...

Leveraging From Other Models

Common wheat genome, and the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA) led the project to sequence the largest wheat chromosome (3B) based on a chromosome i specific approach (Leroy et al. 2006). Transformation protocols also exist for wheat (Jones 2005). Many of these resources can be used to study a serious weed, jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrical Host).

Food Versus Fuel And The Case For Highyielding Crops

Biomass energy may help revitalize languishing rural economies (Solomon, 2010). Even as industrial agriculture has delivered record crop yields and gross revenue in the past 50 years, farmer employment and profit have deteriorated (Fig. 1). The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) reports that a rural society that used to be characterized by small farms supported by farm sales has changed to large, concentrated farms, and over 40 of documented farms are in the 'residential lifestyle' category. While the majority of US farms are still small farms, over 50 of their operators are retired or rely on another job as their principal occupation (NASS, 2007). Conversely, large farms, that is, those with revenue over 100,000 per year, comprise only 15 of all US farms, yet account for 88 of sales. In short, only a fraction of farmers can still make a living from farming (Duffy, 2008), and this is reflected in the steady decline of rural populations (US Census Bureau,...

Uses and Economic Importance of Vetiver

Nacl Dissolve 10ml Water

Recently, many projects have been launched with the aim of increasing the use of vetiver in erosion control. Given its morphological, physiological, and ecological characteristics, as discussed in the previous chapters, it is particularly suited to the formation of hedges with a deep root system. In these countries vetiver is used to slow the run-off of the torrential rains (monsoons) and to slow and stop topsoil erosion, but only in the last decade have such farming practices been seriously considered to the point of study and a clearer definition of both the botanical and agronomic characteristics of the plant, and the technical aspects concerning its planting and cultivation. In this way not only can large enterprises with construction projects on a vast scale make use of vetiver as a plant to control soil erosion, but also, and most importantly, individual farmers who, with their own business, have to fight the process of erosion which reduces the fertility of the plots and...

Introduction Abiotic Stress Responses Importance

Those responses that follow a similar pattern can be useful in developing sustainable agriculture by reducing the need for chemicals (e.g., fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides) and preserving optimizing natural resources (e.g., water, reclaiming wasteland for intensive agriculture) (Wang et al. 2003 Agrawal et al. 2010).

Spacing and Method of Planting

Soil Bed For Ginger

Mohanty and Sarma (1978) reported that best growth and the highest rhizome yield (23.4 t ha) was obtained with Ceresan wet-treated rhizomes, planted in raised beds, with farmyard manure (FYM) at 25 t ha + N, P2O5, and K2O at 75, 50, and 50 kg ha, respectively, and mulched with green leaves at 15 t ha at planting followed by two mulches using 7.5 t ha at 45 and 90 days after planting (Figure 5.4). A good crop of ginger raised in this way is shown in Figure 5.5.

Transition in Concept from Wet to Dry

Many foundations of biostatistics are rooted in agricultural sciences, particularly agricultural genetics. Exponentially-growing quantities of DNA sequence, gene expression, nucleotide variation and other genetic and genomic data have compelled researchers to add new dimensions to systems for analyzing the data. Indeed, the availability of enormous data sets via the internet, and their comparison in novel

Allelopathic Plant Materials

The residues of crops grown during preceding seasons or tree components of the farm are incorporated in the field before raising field crops to serve as manures. However, such crop residues also offer other environmental benefits that include protection from soil erosion, increase in biological diversity including beneficial organisms and suppression of pests and weeds (Sustainable Agriculture Network, 1998). The residues of such crops can suppress weeds by releasing allelochemicals (Teasdale, 2003). Living mulches, intercrops or smother crops may provide physical weed suppression but their effects in part depend on allelopathy (Bond, 2002). Cover crops suppress weeds to enhance absorption through foliage. In India, when the sources of irrigation water recede during the summer, the smaller volume of water is more accessible for treating with C. amboinicus at 10 g L-1 (1 w v). C. amboinicus also hold promise for bio-control of water hyacinth on small farms. In another aquatic habitat,...

Cuscuta Reflexa Medicinal Uses

Meng, QHHLYLXWSZC Key Laboratory of Weed and Rodent Biology and Management, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China). Chemical compositions and allelopathic potential of volatile oil from Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 2009-03.

Allelopathy and Allelochemicals

Allelopathy refers to any process involving secondary metabolites produced by plants, microorganisms, viruses and fungi that influence the growth and development of agricultural and biological systems (Narwal, 1994). It has been established that allelopathy offers great potential to (a) increase agricultural production (food grains, vegetables, fruits and forestry), (b) decrease harmful effects of modern agricultural practices multiple cropping, leaching losses from N fertilizers, indiscriminate use of pesticides (weedicides, fungicides, insecticides and nematicides), tolerant resistant biotypes in pests on soil health productivity and on environment and (c) maintain soil productivity and a pollution-free environment for our future generations. It is likely that in the near future allelopathy will be used in crop production, crop protection, agroforestry and agrohorticultural practices in developed and developing countries. Allelopathy may become one of the strategic sciences to...

Molecular Markers for Ecological Studies

Although not yet applied to nematode-trapping fungi, quantitative PCR (QPCR) has been used in numerous studies to measure the abundance and expression of functional gene markers of microorganisms within the environment (Smith and Osborn 2009). So far, QPCR analyses have mainly been done on functional genes that code for enzymes catalyzing various biogeochemical processes including the carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur cycles, and for genes encoding key reactions in biodegradation pathways. Several recent studies have investigated how the numbers and expression of such genes relates to the activity of the processes that they encode, and how these measurements are affected by changes in the environment and experimental manipulations (Nicolaisen et al. 2008 Blackwood et al. 2007 McKew et al. 2007). In the future, similar approaches may be used for assessing the abundance and activity of nematode-trapping fungi in soils, identifying the environmental factors that determine their distribution...

Key Nematodes on Food Staples for Food Security in Developing Countries

Maize (Zea mays) has the highest production of all three cereal staples (752 Mt). It is grown largely in tropical and subtropical regions with the three largest producers found in North America Asia and Europe (Tables 2.1 and 2.3). Over 60 nematode species have been found associated with maize in different parts of the world. Most of these have been recorded from roots, or soil around maize roots, with information on the biology or pathogenicity of many of these species not readily available. The most important groups of plant parasitic nematodes demonstrated to be important limiting factors in maize production from all over the world include the root knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., the root lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus spp. and the cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. A questionnaire survey to agricultural research institutions in South Africa put Pratylenchus species second overall after root knot nematodes in terms of economic importance (Keetch 1989). Pratylenchus, along with...

Journal References On Soybean Production

Arunkumar, N.P., Swamy, M., Chandrappa, M. and Manja, N.C. (2009) Identification of drought tolerant genotypes of soybean (Glycine max L.). In Qiu, L., Guan, R., Jin, J., Song, Q., Guo, S., Li, W., Wang, Y., Han, T., Liu, X., Yu, D., Jiang, L. and Peng, D. (eds) Developing a Global Soy Blueprint for a Safe Secure and Sustainable Supply. Abstracts for oral presentations and posters of the World Soybean Research Conference VIII, Beijing, China, 10-15 August 2009. The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China, p. 6. Ashraf, M. and Ghafoor, A. (2009) Collection and evaluation of germplasm for soybean development in Pakistan. In Qiu, L., Guan, R., Jin, J., Song, Q., Guo, S., Li, W., Wang, Y., Han, T., Liu, X., Yu, D., Jiang, L. and Peng, D. (eds) Developing a Global Soy Blueprint for a Safe Secure and Sustainable Supply. Abstracts for oral presentations and posters of the World Soybean Research Conference VIII, Beijing, China, 10-15 August 2009. The Chinese Academy of...

Impact Of Irrigation Management And Land Configuration On Yield Of Chickpea

Al-Assily, K.A. and Mohamed, K.A. (2002) Soil moisture deficit effect on some soybean genotypes production in Upper Egypt. Arab Universities Journal of Agricultural Sciences 10, 153-163. Bhatia, V.S. and Ramesh, A. (2009) Matching soybean (Glycine max) phenology for optimum yield under rainfed production system of central India. In Qiu, L., Guan, R., Jin, J., Song, Q., Guo, S., Li, W., Wang, Y., Han, T., Liu, X., Yu, D., Jiang, L. and Peng, D. (eds) Developing a Global Soy Blueprint for a Safe Secure and Sustainable Supply. Abstracts for oral presentations and posters of the World Soybean Research Conference VIII, Beijing, China, 10-15 August 2009. The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China, p. 26. Lakpale, R., Tuteja, S.S, Shrivastava, G.K. and Swamy, S.L. (2009) Broadbed furrow and ridge and furrow method of sowing of soybean (Glycine max L.) for high rainfall areas of Chhattisgarh plains of India. In Qiu, L., Guan, R., Jin, J., Song, Q., Guo, S., Li, W., Wang, Y.,...

Medicinal Uses Of Crown Of Pineapple

Akamine, E.K. and Goo, T. (1971) Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Fresh Pineapples (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. 'Smooth Cayenne'). Research Bulletin 152, Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, Honolulu, Hawaii, 8 pp. Cancel, H.L. (1974) Harvesting and storage conditions for pineapples of the Red Spanish variety. Journal of Agricultural Research, Puerto Rico 58, 162-169. Parsons, A.W. (1853) Report respecting the agricultural products of the district of Hamakua, Maui. Transactions Royal Hawaiian Agricultural Society 1(4), 96. Schappelle, N.A. (1941) A Physiological Study on the Effects of Waxing Pineapples of Different Stages of Maturity. Research Bulletin No. 3, Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, 31 pp.

World Production and Trade

Pineapple Fruit Longitudinal Section

Pineapple produced in Thailand and the Philippines dominates world trade. The former country processes approximately 1.6 million t of its total production of 2 million t. Thailand's pineapple is produced on almost 100,000 ha of small farms of 1-5 ha (Anupunt et al., 2000). In contrast to Thailand, production and marketing in the Philippines is almost exclusively run by multinational corporations using large plantation production systems. Export and marketing from the

Photosynthesis Sucrose Flux Starch Pod Flower Number Soybean

Donald, C.M. (1968) In search of yield. Journal of Australian Institute of Agricultural Science 28, 171-178. Egli, D.B. (2006) The role of the seed in the determination of yield of grain crops. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 57, 1237-1247. Egli, D.B. and Bruening, W.P. (2004) Water stress, photosynthesis, seed sucrose levels and seed growth in soybean. Journal of Agricultural Science 142, 1-8.

Wetland Restoration and Revegetation

Therefore, restoration and re-vegetation of mangrove forest has become important for the development of sustainable agriculture and to avoid the destructive natural calamities. In this context, restoration or rehabilitation of saline lands using potential halophytes will act as an effective strategy. Restoration or rehabilitation is recommended when an ecosystem is altered to such an extent that it can no longer self-correct or self-renew. This could result in total disturbance to ecosystem homeostasis and permanent stopping of the normal processes of secondary succession or natural recovery from damage. Wetlands play an important role in nutrient cycling, sediment accretion, pollution filtration, and erosion control in the world. In addition, they are known for their distinctive flora and rich spectrum of wildlife, especially waterfowl, which makes them more valuable and more prone to human impact than other ecosystems (Mitsch and Gosselink 2007). However, only a small percentage of...

Rice Varietal Improvement

Thus farmers themselves were responsible for most rice improvement from the time of its domestication to about 1900. The best known examples are the rono varieties such as Shinriki that Japanese farmers selected in the 1890s. The rono varieties are shorter and therefore responded to nutrient inputs with higher yields. Rice-breeding stations were established in China, India, and Japan in the early 20th century. Rice breeders' initial activities were the purification of existing varieties (landraces) through pure line selection. This resulted in pure line varieties. Up to the 1960s rice farmers in tropical and subtropical Asia grew thousands of landraces or pure line varieties, and few had been touched by modern agricultural science. These varieties were tall and weak stemmed and late maturing. When nitrogenous fertilizer was applied at rates exceeding 40 kg ha, traditional varieties tillered profusely, grew excessively tall, lodged early, and yieldedlessthantheywould have with lower...

Northern Silver Wattle

Northern silver wattle grows mainly on gravely, sandy clay loams and sandy loams in hilly, undulating terrain or along creek banks. Many of its populations occur along degraded roadsides and in remnant vegetation on agricultural land, particularly in the south of its range. Soils are derived from a range of metasedimen-tary, granitic and volcanic substrates.

Understanding the Impact of Soil Organic Matter on Suppressiveness

Since Linford's initial work in the 1930s, there have been numerous studies on the role of organic inputs in enhancing suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nema-todes (see reviews by Muller and Gooch 1982 Stirling 1991 Akhtar and Malik 2000 Widmer et al. 2002). However, the results of many of these studies cannot be readily extrapolated to the field because they focused on the relatively short-term effects of amendments when applied at rates that are unrealistically high for broad-scale agriculture. There is therefore an urgent need to study the medium and long-term biological changes that take place when soil organic matter is conserved and enhanced in ways that are feasible to introduce into a farming system, and understand how they affect the development of suppressiveness. We need to measure parameters such as total and labile C, microbial activity and biological diversity and relate them to suppressiveness identity the key groups of organisms involved in suppression understand how...

An Example of QTL Analyses for Utilization of Wild Species to Increase Salt Tolerance in Tomato

About 20 of irrigated agricultural land and 2 of dry land agriculture are affected by salinity (Yeo et al. 1999). Since salt tolerance, such as tolerance to any abiotic stress, means adaptation, breeding for salt tolerance should take advantage of the evolution of Solanum species occurred through adaptation to marginal environments. In this sense, two tomato wild species have been considered as possible donors of salt tolerance S. pimpinellifolium L. (Bolarin et al. 1991 Cuartero et al. 1992 Asins et al. 1993 Foolad and Lin 1997) and S. cheesmaniae (L. Riley) Fosberg (Rush and Epstein 1976 Tal and Shannon 1983 Mahmoud et al. 1986 Asins et al. 1993). However, in spite of the great effort devoted to breed for salt tolerance, only a small number of cultivars, partially tolerant to salinity, have been developed (Owen et al. 1994 Al-Doss and Smith 1998 Dierig et al. 2001 Steiner and Banuelos 2003). Two major problems are encountered the definition, or selection criteria, for salt tolerance...

Food Production On Limited Resources

About 70 of the land (23 billion acres) cannot be used for food production. This land is located where it is either too cold, too dry, or too steep, or the soil is too thin (Table 2). About 10 , or 3.2 billion acres, of our best agricultural land is developed for food production. There is another 20 or 6.5 billion acres in pasture and meadow which has the potential for cultivation but at greater costs. You can see that if the 6.5 billion acres in pasture and meadows are put in cultivation, that will bring us up to 9.7 billion acres. This is an important factor if we haven't developed control of the world population by 2025-2050 AD. There are certain restraints to the production of food and other agricultural products. These are the effects of fertilizer, weather, pestilence, water (including irrigation), soil, energy, variety of new crops, and temperature (for example, compare Tibet (cold) and Sahara (hottest and driest, 1800 miles north of the equator), which are at the same latitude...

System Stability and Change

Agroecologists use the idea of an agricultural ecosystem as a focus for the study of farming systems that are converting from single crops and synthetic inputs to ecologically based design and management. Ecological concepts and principles are applied for the development of alternative practices and inputs. A good example is research done by Sean Swezey and his colleagues on apples in California. After three years of using organic farming techniques, an apple orchard had begun to show a reduction in the use of fossil fuel energy. Nutrients were supplied from compost and annual cover crops planted in the rows between the trees during the winter season. Nutrient recycling and storage in leaves and branches within the apple agro-ecosystem improved soil conditions, reduced the need for fertilizer, and even led to increased yields. Insect pests normally controlled by synthetic pesticides were reduced instead by beneficial predatory insects that were attracted to the organic orchard by...

Selection and Breeding

The irony of using elite improved varieties and commercial seed is that they have a tendency to eliminate the resources upon which they are based and from which they have been derived. Current elite varieties yield better than their parents and they displace them from farmers' fields. Once a displaced variety is no longer planted, its genes are lost to future generations unless it is conserved, usually in a seed bank collection or as a heirloom variety. The saving of old folk varieties, farmer landraces and garden seed passed down through a family, maintaining them in home gardens, has become increasingly widespread. Many of these heirloom varieties taste better, cook better, or possess other unique characteristics that set them apart, but they lack the productivity mechanized farming demands in modern agriculture. see also Agriculture, Modern Agriculture, Organic Agronomist Green Revolution Seed Preservation Seeds Vavilov, N. I.

Leaf and Branch Problems

Many natural predators keep aphids in check, including parasitic wasps, lady beetles, and hover flies. To attract aphid predators, grow nectar-producing flowers, such as dill and buckwheat, near your trees, or spray commercial or homemade yeast-and-sugar mixtures on your trees. Introduced lacewings often control aphids. Buy these at commercial insec-taries or from organic farm supply companies. Ants often introduce an aphid infestation trap ants with sticky barriers around the trunks. Avoid excessive use of high-nitrogen fertilizer, which favors aphid reproduction.

Strategies for Minimizing N Pollution in Agriculture

Applications are recommended for short and medium duration varieties, while three split applications are recommended for long duration varieties (Prasad 1999). Another way is NIs, these are a group of chemicals that are toxic to Nitrosomonas sp. and Nitrosomonas sp. involved in the conversion of NH4 to NO2- as well as to Nitrobacter sp. involved in the conversion of NO2 to NO3 and therefore, inhibits nitrification, which reduces losses due to leaching and denitrification. The most widely tested NIs are 2-chloro-6-trichloromethyl pyridine (N-serve), 2 amino-4-chloro-6 methyl pyrimidine (AM), dicyandiamide (DCD), and sulfathiazole (ST) (Prasad and Power 1995) . Research on the use of NIs for reducing N losses and increasing NUE from the soil was initiated in India by Prasad (1999) at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi, with a field experiment on rice. Treatment of ammonium sulfate with N-serve significantly increased rice yield and nitrogen uptake by the rice...

Journal References On Soybean

Oerke, E.C. (2006) Crop losses to pests. Journal of Agricultural Science 144, 31-43. Rajput, R.P. (1980) Response of soybean to climate and soil environment. PhD. thesis, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India. Singh, V.P., Dixit, A., Mishra, J.S. and Yaduraju, N.T. (2004) Effect of period of soil solarization and weed control measures on weed growth and productivity of soybean (Glycine max). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 74, 324-328. Tiwari, J.P. and Kurchania, S.P. (1990) Survey and management of weeds in soybean ecosystem in Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 60, 672-676. Tiwari, J.P., Kurchania, S.P., Paradkar, N.R. and Bhalla, C.S. (1996) Bioefficacy of chlorimuron ethyl for weed control in soybean (Glycine max). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 66, 583-588. Tiwari, J.P., Kurchania, S.P., Paradkar, N.R. and Bhalla, C.S. (1997) Varietal susceptibility and weed control efficiency of fluazifop-p-butyl in soybean (Glycine max)....

Maintenance of Suppressiveness

Since root-knot and cyst nematodes have relatively short generation times, high reproductive capacities and relatively low damage thresholds, one shortcoming of host-specific parasites is that populations of the target pest are only reduced when levels of parasitism are high, largely because the nematodes killed by the parasite are often in excess of those required to maintain high population densities. Another potential deficiency is that some host-specific parasites (e.g. Pasteuria) do not always prevent the nematode from feeding, while others only act after feeding has occurred (e.g. egg-parasitic fungi). These parasites may therefore have little or no impact on crop damage. In such situations, the challenge is to find ways of maintaining high levels of specific suppressiveness while integrating other management tactics into the farming system. With the move towards minimum till farming systems in the last 20-30 years, one area that requires more research is the role of organic...

Carver George Washington

George Washington Carver

Carver accepted the invitation and remained at Tuskegee until his death forty-seven years later in 1943. During his tenure at Tuskegee he taught classes, directed the Agricultural Experiment Station, managed the school's farms, served on various councils and committees, and directed a research department. One of Carver's first efforts was to find methods within reach of the farmer with limited technical and financial means for enriching the soils. He conducted soil analysis to determine what was needed to make soils more productive. Then Carver proceeded to set up scientific experiments to determine organic methods for building up the soil. He also tried planting and cultivating various plants and plant varieties so he could identify ones that could be successfully grown. Sweet potatoes, peanuts, and cowpeas were considered the most promising. These plants were favored because they could help enrich the soil, they could offer good nutritional value to...

Developments in Europe

Across Europe, other institutions have developed urban forestry programs. Most have had a national scope, and many have in recent years experienced difficulties in rooting itself - in several cases due to lack of students. To our knowledge urban forestry related programs have been offered or are under preparation in the following countries Ireland, The Netherlands, Germany, Norway, Greece, Italy and Denmark Sweden. Examples of programs are provided in Boxes 17.1 and 17.2. Based on their long tradition in urban green establishment, forestry, landscape architecture and landscape planning, the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University of Copenhagen, Denmark and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences have developed, jointly with other partners, a Master education in Urban Forestry and Urban Greening. This program will have an international scope and starts in autumn 2005.

Fire and grazing influenced types of forest degradation in the Mediterranean region after Le Houerou 1992

Typical types of agricultural land use in countries around the Mediterranean. A Subsistence farming on a small area with mixed crops and many cultivated plant species (Central Atlas, Morocco). B Grain crops and fodder plants for the national market on large-scale farms with high input of agrochemicals and machinery (Tuscan Hills, Italy). C Mixed agroforestry with grain crops for the growers consumption, and cork (Quercus suber) for the national market (Extremadura, Spain). D Unregulated, excessive grazing with severely degraded forests and soil erosion (Central Atlas, Morocco). (Photos K. M ller-Hohenstein) Fig. 4.1.24. Typical types of agricultural land use in countries around the Mediterranean. A Subsistence farming on a small area with mixed crops and many cultivated plant species (Central Atlas, Morocco). B Grain crops and fodder plants for the national market on large-scale farms with high input of agrochemicals and machinery (Tuscan Hills, Italy). C Mixed...

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