Conclusions

Optimization of nutrition in <a title="Hydroponics: A Practical Guide for the Soilless Grower" class="intexttaglink" data-tid="10515" href="/soilless.html">soilless systems can be achieved by means of an accurate management of all factors involved (i.e. nutrient solution composition and concentration, water supply, nutrient solution temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, EC and pH of the nutrient solution). If any factor affecting plant nutrition is under non-optimal conditions, plants may suffer from stress (Table II), and yields (quantity and/or quality) may diminish. A precise diagnosis of plant stress caused by these factors is, hence, of great importance so that non-optimal levels of each factor could be determined and strategies for maximum benefits for growers can be planned (Fig. 3). Regarding methods for diagnosis of plant stress, many physiological techniques are available (Fig. 1). These methods are based on the fact that the above-mentioned factors affect the functioning of several plant physiological processes, and changes in these processes may be a sign of stress. The most important plant processes/traits that have been most

Low level of the factor

High level of the factor

Low level of the factor

High level of the factor

♦ i

; t

? *

Severe stress

Mild stress

Optimum range

Mid stress

Severe stress

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Growing Soilless

Growing Soilless

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