1Chang ST. Global impact of edible and medicinal mushrooms on human welfare in the 21st century: Nongreen revolution. Int J Med Mushrooms. 1999;1:1-8.
2Chang ST, Buswell JA. Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr.) P.Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae)—a mushrooming medicinal mushroom. Int J Med Mushrooms. 1999;1:139-148.
3Ikekawa T, Uehara N, Maeda Y, Nakanishi M, Fukuoka F. Antitumor activity of aqueous extracts of edible mushrooms. Cancer Res. 1969;29:734-735.
4Xu WH. Water-soluble constituents of Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc.—the nucleosides [in Chinese]. Zhong Yao Tong Bao. 1988;13:34-36,63.
5Xiao YQ. Studies on chemical constituents of Cordyceps sinensis I [in Chinese]. Zhong Yao Tong Bao. 1983;8:32-33.
6Yamaguchi Y, Kagota S, Nakamura K, Shinozuka K, Kunitomo M. Antioxidant activity of the extracts from fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps sinensis. Phytother Res. 2000;14:647-649.
7Jiang J, Gao Y. Summary of treatment of 37 chronic renal dysfunction patients with JinShuiBao. J Admin TCM. 1995;5(suppl.):23-24.
8Chiou WF, Chang PC, Chou CJ, Chen CF. Protein constituent contributes to the hypotensive and vasorelaxant activities of Cordyceps sinensis. Life Sci. 2000;66:1369-1376.
9Zhao Y. Inhibitory effects of alcoholic extract of Cordyceps sinensis on abdominal aortic thrombus formation in rabbits [Chinese]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1991;71:612-615,642.
10Yamaguchi Y, Kagota S, Nakamura K, Shinozuka K, Kunitomo M. Inhibitory effects of water extracts from fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps sinensis on raised serum lipid peroxide levels and aortic cholesterol deposition in atherosclerotic mice. Phytother Res. 2000;14:650-652.
11Chen GZ, Chen GL, Sun T, et al. Effects of Cordyceps sinensis on murine T lymphocyte subsets. Chin Med J (English). 1991;104:4-8.
12Liu C, Lu S, Ji MR. Effects of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) on in vitro natural killer cells [in Chinese]. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih. 1992;12:267-269, 259.
13Xu RH, Peng XE, Chen GZ, Chen GL. Effects of Cordyceps sinensis on natural killer activity and colony formation of B16 melanoma. Chin Med J (English). 1992;105:97-101.
14Chen YJ, Shiao MS, Lee SS, Wang SY. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on the proliferation and differentiation of human leukemic U937 cells. Life Sci. 1997;60:2349-2359.
15Zhu XY, Yu HY. Immunosuppressive effect of cultured Cordyceps sinensis on cellular immune response [in Chinese]. Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih. 1990;10:485-487,454.
16Bok jW, Lermer L, Chilton J, et al. Antitumor sterols from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Phy-tochemistry. 1999;51:891-898.
17Kuo YC, Lin CY, Tsai WJ, et al. Growth inhibitors against tumor cells in Cordyceps sinensis other than cordycepin and polysaccharides. Cancer Invest. 1994;12:611-615.
18Nakamura K, Yamaguchi Y, Kagota S, et al. Inhibitory effect of Cordyceps sinensis on spontaneous liver metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma and B16 melanoma cells in syngeneic mice. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1999;79: 335-341.
19Wang SM, Lee LJ, Lin WW, Chang CM. Effects of a water-soluble extract of Cordyceps sinensis on steroidogenesis and capsular morphology of lipid droplets in cultured rat adrenocortical cells. J Cell Biochem. 1998;69:483-489.
20Kubo K, Nanba H. The effect of maitake mushrooms on liver and serum lipids. Alt Ther Health Med. 1996;2:62-66.
21Soldatos G, Cooper ME, Jandeleit-Dahm KA. Advanced-glycation end products in insulin-resistant states. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2005;7:96-102.
22Konno S, Tortorelis DG, Fullerton SA, et al. A possible hypoglycaemic effect of maitake mushroom on Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 2001;18:1010.
Kubo K, Aoki H, Nanba H. Anti-diabetic activity present in the fruit body of Grifola frondosa (Maitake): I. Biol Pharm Bull. 1994;17:1106-1110.
25Kabir Y, Yamaguchi M, Kimura S. Effect of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms on blood pressure and plasma lipids of spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1987;33:341-346.
26Ross GD, Vetvicka V, Yan J, et al. Therapeutic intervention with complement and beta-glucan in cancer. Immunopharmacology. 1999;42:61-74.
27Adachi K, Nanba H, Kuroda H. Potentiation of host-mediated anti-tumor activity in mice by beta-glucan obtained from Grifola frondosa (maitake). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1987;35:262-270.
28Nanba H. Activity of maitake D-fraction to inhibit carcinogenesis and metastasis. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1995;768:243-245.
29Nanba H, Kubo K. Effect of Maitake D-fraction on cancer prevention. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1997;833: 204-207.
30Jones K. Reishi: Ancient Herb for Modern Times. Issaquah, WA: Sylvan Press, 1990, 6.
31Shu HY. Oriental Materia Medica: A Concise Guide. Palos Verdes: Oriental Healing Arts Press, 1986, 640-641.
32Zhu M, Chang Q, Wong LK, Chong FS, Li RC. Triterpene antioxidants from Ganoderma lucidum. Phytother Res. 1999;13:529-531.
LingZhi. In: Chang H-M, But RP-H, eds. Pharmacology and Application of Chinese Materia Medica, vol. 1. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Ltd. 1986, 642-653.
34Morigiwa A, Kitabatake K, Fujimoto Y, Ikekawa N. Angiotension converting enzyme-inhibitory tri-terpenes from Ganoderma lucidum. Chem Pharmaceutical Bull. 1986;34:3025-3028.
Tao J, Feng KY. Experimental and clinical studies on inhibitory effect of Ganoderma lucidum on platelet aggregation. J Tongji Med Univ. 1990;10:240-243.
Yoshiaki S, et al. Structures and anti-tumor activities of the polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body and the growing culture of mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum. Agric Biol Chem. 1985;49:2641-2653.
37Kino K, Yamashita A, Yamaoka K, Watanabe J, Tanaka S, Ko K, Shimizu K, Tsunoo H. Isolation and characterization of a new immunomodulatory protein, Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8), from Ganoderma lucidum. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:472-478.
38Wang SY, et al. The anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum is mediated by cytokines released from activated macrophage and T lymphocytes. Int J Cancer. 1997;70:699-705.
39Mau JL, et al. Antioxidant properties of several medicinal mushrooms. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50: 6072-6077.
40Nakamura K, et al. Susceptibility of natural killer (NK) cells to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their restoration by the mimics of superoxide dismutase (sOd). Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 1998;13:275-290.
41Chu KK, et al. Coriolus versicolor: A medicinal mushroom with promising immunotherapeutic values. J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;42:976-984.
42Dong Y, Yang MM, Kwan CY. In vitro inhibition of proliferation of HL-60 cells by tetrandrine and Coriolus versicolor peptide derived from Chinese medicinal herbs. Life Sci. 1997;60:PL135-140.
43Suto T, Fukuda S, Moriya N, et al. Clinical study of biological response modifiers as maintenance therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1994;33(suppl.)S145-S148.
44Nakazato H, Koike A, Saji S, et al. Efficacy of immunochemotherapy as adjuvant treatment after curative resection of gastric cancer: Study Group of Immunochemotherapy with PSK for Gastric Cancer. Lancet. 1994;343:1122-1126.
45Ng TB. A review of research on the protein-bound polysaccharide (polysaccharopeptide, PSP) from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor (Basidiomycetes: Polyporaceae). Gen Pharmacol. 1998;30:1-4.
46Collins RA, Ng TB. Polysaccharopeptide from Coriolus versicolor has potential for use against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Life Sci. 1997;60:PL383-387.
47Tochikura TS, Nakashima H, Hirose K, et al. A biological response modifier, PSK, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus infection in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987;148:726-733.
48Kobayashi H, Yoshida R, Kanada Y, Fukuda Y, Yagyu T, Inagaki K, Kondo T, Kurita N, Suzuki M, Kanayama N, Terao T. Suppressing effects of daily oral supplementation of beta-glucan extracted from Agaricus blazei Murill on spontaneous and peritoneal disseminated metastasis in mouse model. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2005 Aug;131(8):527-538. Epub 2005 May 10.
49Kimura Y, Kido T, Takaku T, Sumiyoshi M, Baba K. Isolation of an anti-angiogenic substance from Agaricus blazei Murill: Its anti-tumor and antimetastatic actions. Cancer Sci. 2004 Sep;95(9):758-764.
50Ahn WS, Kim DJ, Chae GT, Lee JM, Bae SM, Sin JI, Kim YW, Namkoong SE, Lee IP. Natural killer cell activity and quality of life were improved by consumption of a mushroom extract, Agaricus blazei Murill Kyowa, in gynecological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004 Jul-Aug; 14(4):589-594.
51Takimoto H, Wakita D, Kawaguchi K, Kumazawa Y. Potentiation of cytotoxic activity in naive and tumor-bearing mice by oral administration of hot-water extracts from Agaricus brazei fruiting bodies. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Mar;27(3):404-406.
52Ker YB, Chen KC, Chyau CC, Chen CC, Guo JH, Hsieh CL, Wang HE, Peng CC, Chang CH, Peng RY. Antioxidant capability of polysaccharides fractionated from submerge-cultured Agaricus blazei mycelia. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Sep 7;53(18):7052-7058.
Kim YW, Kim KH, Choi HJ, Lee DS. Anti-diabetic activity of beta-glucans and their enzymatically hydrolyzed oligosaccharides from Agaricus blazei. Biotechnol Lett. 2005 Apr;27(7):483-487.
54Hsu CH, Liao YL, Lin SC, Hwang KC, Chou P. The mushroom Agaricus Blazei Murill in combination with metformin and gliclazide improves insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: A randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):97-102.
55Fang N, Li Q, Yu S, Zhang J, He L, Ronis MJ, Badger TM. Inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cell lines by an ethyl acetate fraction from shiitake mushrooms. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Mar;12(2):125-132.
56Unursaikhan S, Xu X, Zeng F, Zhang L. Antitumor activities of O-sulfonated derivatives of (1i 3)-alpha-D-glucan from different Lentinus edodes. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 Jan;70(1):38-46.
57Ng ML, Yap AT. Inhibition of human colon carcinoma development by lentinan from shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes). J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Oct;8(5):581-589.
58Zheng R, Jie S, Hanchuan D, Moucheng W. Characterization and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005 May;5(5):811-820. Epub 2004 Dec 2.
Kuznetsov OIu, Mil'kova EV, Sosnina AE, Sotnikova NIu. [Antimicrobial action of Lentinus edodes juice on human microflora]. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2005 Jan-Feb;(1):80-82.
60Yang BK, Kim DH, Jeong SC, Das S, Choi YS, Shin JS, Lee SC, Song CH. Hypoglycemic effect of a Lentinus edodes exo-polymer produced from a submerged mycelial culture. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 May;66(5):937-942.
61Kiho T, Kochi M, Usui S, Hirano K, Aizawa K, Inakuma T. Antidiabetic effect of an acidic polysaccharide (TAP) from Tremella aurantia and its degradation product (TAP-H). Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Dec; 24(12):1400-1403.
62Lo HC, Yang JG, Liu BC, Chen YW, Huang YL, Poon SL, Liu MY, Huang BM. The effects of Tremella aurantia on testosterone and corticosterone productions in normal and diabetic rats. Arch Androl. 2004 Nov-Dec;50(6):395- 404.
63Gao Q, Killie MK, Chen H, Jiang R, Seljelid R. Characterization and cytokine-stimulating activities of acidic heteroglycans from Tremella fuciformis. Planta Med. 1997 Oct;63(5):457-460.
64Wang JC, Hu SH, Su CH, Lee TM. Antitumor and immunoenhancing activities of polysaccharide from culture broth of Hericium spp. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2001 Sep;17(9):461-467.
65Yang BK, Park JB, Song CH. Hypolipidemic effect of an Exo-biopolymer produced from a submerged mycelial culture of Hericium erinaceus. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003 Jun;67(6):1292-1298.
66Yuan Z, He P, Cui J, Takeuchi H. Hypoglycemic effect of water-soluble polysaccharide from Auricularia auricula-judae Quel. on genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1998 0ct;62(10): 1898-1903.
67Yoon SJ, Yu MA, Pyun YR, Hwang JK, Chu DC, Juneja LR, Mourao PA. The nontoxic mushroom Auricularia auricula contains a polysaccharide with anticoagulant activity mediated by antithrombin. Thromb Res. 2003;112(3):151-158.
68Acharya K, Samui K, Rai M, Dutta BB, Acharya R. Antioxidant and nitric oxide synthase activation properties of Auricularia auricula. Indian J Exp Biol. 2004 May;42(5):538-540.
69Ishikawa NK, Fukushi Y, Yamaji K, Tahara S, Takahashi K. Antimicrobial cuparene-type sesquiterpenes, enokipodins C and D, from a mycelial culture of Flammulina velutipes. J Nat Prod. 2001 Jul;64(7): 932-934.
70Leung MY, Fung KP, Choy YM. The isolation and characterization of an immunomodulatory and antitumor polysaccharide preparation from Flammulina velutipes. Immunopharmacology. 1997 Jan;35(3):255-263.
71Wang PH, Hsu CI, Tang SC, Huang YL, Lin JY, Ko JL. Fungal immunomodulatory protein from Flammulina velutipes induces interferon-gamma production through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 May 5;52(9):2721-2725.
Was this article helpful?
All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.