Fish oils from fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, and herring are especially high in theomega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils have anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects because they compete with arachidonic acid in the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. Omega-3 fatty acids suppress COX-2 expression and the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a).24 A study with highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl esters at a dose of 4 g per day was shown to significantly decrease both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in mildly hypertensive individuals.25 Additional studies have shown that 4 g per day of fish oil reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as decreased triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol.26
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