Abnormalities in the concentrations and relative concentrations of various neurotransmitters are thought to play a part in the pathogenesis of MS. Research has found that persons with MS have increased levels of CSF and the excitatory neurotransmitters glutamate, aspartate, and noradrenaline. Increased blood levels of glutamine, asparagine, and glycine were also found in these patients.15 Further suggesting neuronal and axonal dysfunction in MS is the finding of altered levels of myoinositol, creatine, choline, glutamate, glutamine, and N-acetyl-aspartate in surrounding white and gray matter.16
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