Note: Organic foods are recommended to minimize exposure to organotoxins.
were frequently lower and attributable to fiber inhibition of steroid reabsorption from the gut.34-36 Measurement of postprandial and fasting plasma insulin levels has consistently shown that specific single-fiber supplementation has less effect on plasma SHBG than consumption of whole-grain food.37 In short, consuming fiber-rich foods provides broader health benefits than swallowing fibers via supplements.
This unique calcium nutraceutical is derived from fruits and vegetables. Within the liver, hormone residues and other fat-soluble toxins are bound by glucuronic acids so that they are increasingly eliminated by means of glucuronidation via the beta-glucuronidase enzyme pathway. Conjugation with glucuronic acid is the process by which many fat-soluble hormones and xenobiotics are converted into polar compounds so they can be excreted in the bile. Beta-glucuronidase is made by intestinal flora, mainly from unhealthy bacteria associated with dysbiosis. When glucuronidated compounds are excreted into the gut, via the bile ducts, beta-glucuronidase cleaves the glucuronic acid, which allows the compound to be reabsorbed back into the bloodstream, thus beta-glucuronidase reverses the body's efforts at detoxification. Calcium D-glucarate has been shown to inhibit b-glucuronidase activity and prevent enterohepatic recirculation.
This critical trace mineral can be particularly helpful for balancing insulin response directly and for reducing body fat and weight, thereby reducing the hyperinsulinemiaand elevated sex-steroid levels that are associated with an increase risk for developing diseases.38,39
Men and women should be told to add cruciferous vegetables to their diets, but consistent dietary intake of these vegetables can be hard to achieve. Extracted indole-3-carbinol can provide significant protection by shunting estrogen metabolism away from the 16-alpha-hydroxylation pathway tothe2-hydroxylation pathway. Thisshunting produces a predominance
Table 16-1. Specific Nutraceuticals for Promoting Hormonal Health
Indole (3i3i-di-indolymethane; DIM)
1,000 mg, 2-3 times per day 100 mg, 1-3 times per day 1,000 mg, 2-3 times per day of 2-hydroxy and 2-methoxy estrogens. The 2-methoxy estrogens are only produced when there is an abundant source of methyl groups, such as from folic acid, and a functional COMT enzyme. These active ''good'' metabolites serve as antioxidants and decrease the likelihood of cell division, whereas 16-alpha-hydroxy and 4-hydroxy compounds promote cellular division and, thus, can enhance cancer risk. Cruciferous vegetables, which are high in glucosinolates, have significant amounts of folic acid, a vitamin that is also essential for the methylation of estrogen metabolites. When cruciferous vegetables are chewed or macerated, glucobrassicin is hydrolyzed with the assistance of myrosinase to create indole-3-carbinol. In turn, IC3 is transformed in the stomach into various indole compounds, including indole (3i3i-di-indolymethane; DIM). Research has shown, however, that I3C can act as a cancer promoter when given after exposure to carcinogens. In addition, I3C activates the CYP1B1 enzyme to convert estradiol and estrone into 4-hydroxy derivatives, which are then converted into the genotoxic quinines and semiquinones. For this reason, supplementation with DIM is recommended because it has not shown this procarcinogenic effect. Typical supplemental dosing of DIM is in the range of 100-300 mg per day. (See Table 16-1 above.) Sulforaphane, a non-indole isothiocyanate from brassica vegetables, has also been shown to increase detoxification of both endogenous estrogens and xenoestrogens by up-regulating phase 2 enzymes, including glucuronsyltransferases, glutathione-transferases, and quinine reductases.
Isoflavones, such as genistein and daidzein, are abundant in soy and numerous other botanicals including red clover (Trifolium pratense). There are numerous isoflavones in soybeans and soy products, such as tofu and tempeh, including genistein and daidzein. Genistin, glycitin, gly-citein, and daidzin are the glycoside forms of genistein, glycitein, and diadzein, which are the predominant forms found in the plant. These flavones are potent antioxidants that help to support immune function and help to protect DNA integrity from exogenous and endogenous stressors. The phytoestrogen properties of isoflavones produce weaker estrogenic activity than human estrogens. The isoflavones compete with the human estrogens for the same cell receptor sites, thus decreasing the total estrogenic effect on the body. These phytoestrogens have been shown to increase growth hormone while decreasing LH and cholesterol.40 Additionally, the phytoestrogens found in red clover, biochanin A, and formononetin may provide benefit as they are metabolized to the isoflavones genistein and daidzein and may act as selective estrogen-receptor modulators.
Examining a patient's full hormonal picture provides the basic foundation needed to achieve rapid, clear, and specific diagnosis and treatment for patients with hormonal imbalances.
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