Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) is a naturally occurring substance that has been studied as a possible anti-aging therapy that improves cognitive function. DMAE is the precursor to choline and may increase acetylcholine levels.41 DMAE inhibits production of the age-related pigment lipofuscin, which accumulates in all aging tissues. This is significant because cells with

Table 22-1. Supplements for Cognitive Support Supplement


Acetyl-L-carnitine Phosphatidylserine Mixed vitamin E

Vitamin C with bioflavonoids Vitamin B complex Methylcobalamin Folic acidb

1 g 3 times per daya 200 mg, 2 times per day 800-1,200 IU per day, under close supervision 1,000-2,000 mg per day 100 mg 2 times per day 2,000 mg per day sublingually 800 mg per day orally aIt is advisable to limit use to patients who are under 65 years old.

bBecause folic acid can mask the symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, it should always be taken with vitamin B12.

IU international unit.

increased lipofuscin cause lysosomes to perform poorly, which leads to increased accumulation of poorly functioning mitochondria and increased ROS production.42 Evidence also suggests that DMAE decreases the extent of cross-linking of proteins possibly by acting as a free-radical scavenger.43

One potentially emerging biomarker for risk of Alzheimer's disease could be blood levels of homocysteine.

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