Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is commonly found in beef and dairy products. Many studies have indicated that CLA improves body composition. CLA has been shown to decrease the size and possibly the number of adipocytes.34,35 Animal studies indicate that CLA consumption causes increased apoptosis in adipose tissue.36,37 CLA supplementation has been shown to decrease body fat mass, decrease hunger, and increase a feeling of fullness.38,39 CLA exists in multiple isomers. Animal and human studies on the trans-10, cis-12 isomer indicate that it can increase insulin resistance and glycemia, and may decrease high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. However, most CLA supplements are combinations of the two isomers, and studies on combination isomer products have not demonstrated increased insulin resistance.40 Animal studies have indicated that CLA combination isomer products actually improve insulin sensitivity.41 Side effects of CLA may include GI upsets, diarrhea, loose stools, and nausea.
Figure 26-1. Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) may stimulate protein building as well as stimulating the pituitary-adrenocortical axis.
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