Prevention And Treatment Of Diabetic Retinopathy

Preliminary evidence points to the influence of free-radical formation and the development and progression of many forms of retinopathy.56 Antioxidant formulas have long been the frontline defense in preventing and managing retinopathy. With properties that include free-radical scavenging, preventing protein glycosylation, and decreasing capillary permeability and fragility, it is no wonder that vitamin C is chief among these therapies.57-60 Vitamin E, also a potent intracellular antioxidant,...

Omega3 Fatty Acids

The end-product metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA), a component of cellular membranes, produces pro-inflammatory 2-series prostaglandins and 4-series leukotrienes, which are highly active mediators of inflammation. AA is derived from the phospholipids layer of immune-cell membranes via phospholipase A-2 in response to immunologic stimuli. The cysteinyl leukotrienes C4, D4, and E4 are important mediators in asthma and are modulators of cytokine function, and they have been implicated in the...

Info

Literature suggesting that antibacterial and antiviral properties maybe present in coffee. Namba and Matsuse reported that coffee can lessen the physiologic damage that may arise during viral infections.14 Antibacterial properties have been reported to arise from caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and protocatechnic acid, all of which are present in coffee.15 Antiadhesive properties have been attributed to roasting-induced molecular changes (e.g., that roasting helps prevent the attachment of...

Phytochemical and Nutritional Prevention and Treatment

According to the American Heart Association 2004 data, it is estimated that 79,400,000 American adults, approximately 1 in 3, had some form of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These CVDs include hypertension, stroke, and coronary heart disease, including angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Individually, 72,000,000 people had hypertension 7,900,000 suffered from acute myocardial infarction 8,900,000 people experienced angina pectoris 5,200,000 had heart failure, and 5,600,000 had strokes.1...

Aromatase Inhibitors

The previously mentioned enzyme, aromatase, is partially responsible for lowered levels of testosterone in men it achieves this by converting the testosterone molecule into the closely related but vastly different estradiol molecule. Aromatase is a cytochrome P-450 enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in estrogen synthesis, from the conversion of androgens (an-drostenedione and testosterone) to estrogens. (Aromatase is also known as estrogen synthetase.) By inhibiting this enzyme, the...

Phase 1 Detoxification

In general, phase 1 detoxification arises from the function of a group of some 50-100 enzymes referred to as cytochrome P450. The healthy functioning of this pathway depends upon an individual's nutritional status, genetics, and level of exposure to chemical toxins. Thus, an individual's risks of developing disease states arising from insufficient detoxification varies greatly. Indeed, this can explain the great variability in patients' susceptibility to, and manifestation of, disease processes...

Iodine Deficiency

An enlarged thyroid, or goiter, is the most overt sign of iodine deficiency. Hypothyroidism from iodine deficiency presents with a decrease in T3 and T4 and an increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin, and reverse T3, an inactive form of thyroid hormone generated by the removal of an iodine group from thyroxine. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, dry skin, hair loss, weight gain, cognitive impairment, and depression. Several factors can cause iodine deficiency. As...

References

''Knochenhauer ES, Key TJ, Kahsar-Miller M, et al. Prevalence of the polycystic ovary syndrome in unselected black and white women of the southeastern United States A prospective study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 83 3078-3082. 2Tsilchorozidou T, Overton C, Conway GS. The Pathophysiology of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Online document at www.medscape.com viewarticle 466573_1. Accessed April 27, 2006. 3Kahsar-Miller MD, Nixon C, Boots LR, et al. Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in...

Growth Hormone

Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic hormone made in the pituitary gland. Secretion of GH is stimulated by exercise, trauma, sleep, acute illness, hypoglycemia, and other hormonal interactions.51 GH facilitates carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, as well as increasing IGF-1, bone thickness, linear growth, and soft-tissue growth. Studies have shown that GH Figure 26-2. Chrysin is a flavonoid found in many plants, such as passionflower (Passiflora incarnata) and geranium (Pelargonium...

Natural Approaches For Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease And Related Disorders

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic recurrent condition affecting millions of Americans. A recent study investigating the economic and social burden of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in the United States indicated that GERD was the most common GI-related diagnosis given at office visits in 2006. This study also showed that sales of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) exceeded 10 billion per year, and the number of prescriptions for PPIs per year has doubled since 1999.1 Numerous...

Diagnosing Adrenal Dysfunction

The fine homeostatic balance between health and disease can be disturbed if the clinical cause of a patient's original imbalance is not fully explored and treated. Indeed, replacement or augmentation of hormones from exogenous sources, all too often, merely suppresses symptoms while leaving the underlying disease process to advance without the diagnostically helpful symptoms. When addressing adrenal imbalance, it is essential to look beyond laboratory tests and symptoms alone and to integrate...

Iodine Deficiency And Cognitive And Neurologic Disorders

T3 and T4 are particularly important for myelination of the developing brain. Hypothyroidism during pregnancy and lactation causes numerous neurologic and cognitive deficits. A study of schoolchildren with mild iodine deficiency found that urine iodine levels above 100 mg L were associated with significantly higher IQ scores, while levels below 100 mg L increased the risk of an IQ below 70.32 The same study also found that consuming noniodized salt and drinking milk less than once daily...

Nutraceuticallaboratory Test Interactions

At this point in time, fewer than 1 of 10 nutraceuticals appear to have interactions with laboratory tests. This is probably largely because these supplements are generally safe but also because there is no required screening process for all nutraceuticals prior to making them available to consumers. Yet, when an interaction does arise, the result can take the form of an actual alteration of laboratory values resulting from changes in biochemical metabolism in vivo or false laboratory values...

Adaptogenic Botanicals

The term adaptogen is used to characterize the medicinal plants that can improve the nonspecific response to stress and promote recovery from stress. Because the body interprets exercise as an essentially stressful event, responding, for example, with increased pulse, respiration, and blood pressure, athletes can benefit from incorporating adaptogenic herbs into supplement regimens. (See Table 28-3 on page 323.) Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) retains modest glucocorticoid activity via its...

Esophagitis

Esophagitis is common with GERD and may be classified as erosive or nonerosive with the severity based on the number and location of mucosal breaks. Other types of esophagitis, such as eosinophilic esophagitis, present with similar symptoms as GERD and are commonly misdiagnosed. The common presentation of eosinophilic esophagitis is dysphagia and food impaction. Additional symptoms may include epigastric pain, emesis, weight loss, and failure to thrive.21 The diagnosis is based on a histologic...

The Hygiene Hypothesis

Recent analyses of risk-factor patterns for allergic disease in Europe has led to a causal theory for the increasing asthma epidemic this theory is known as the hygiene hypothesis. It stipulates that advances in hygiene have removed a protective influence against atopy and asthma that was once provided by infectious exposures in early childhood. This hypothesis has been questioned in the United States, where the largest sector of increasing asthma incidence since the 1970s occurs in the inner...

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling neurological condition. It is characterized by symptoms such as hearing internal voices, and believing that other people may be reading one's mind, controlling one's thoughts, or plotting against one. This can be a terrifying condition to the person experiencing the symptoms. Individuals with schizophrenia are often fearful and withdrawn, with speech and behavior that appears to be disorganized. The first signs of schizophrenia often present as...

Botanical Agents For Treating Glaucoma

Several botanical agents have been shown to be helpful for managing glaucoma. These include Vaccinium myrtillus (limited research) 47 Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn berries), especially with concurrent hypertension and Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo),48,49 especially for compromised circulation (mixed review data). Combine equal parts of ginkgo, hawthorn, bilberry, and elderberry (Sambucus nigra) in a tincture to strengthen vascular tissues and improve circulation. Additional interest has been directed...

Iodine Deficiency And Breast Disease

Besides being important in thyroid function, iodine is required for the normal growth and development of breast tissue. The high level of iodine intake by Japanese women, noted earlier, has been associated with a low incidence of both benign and cancerous breast disease in this population. Evidence links iodine deficiency with an elevated risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer.25 Antiproliferative iodolactones in the thyroid may be responsible for this effect.26 Although autoimmune...

Natural Treatments For Metabolic Syndrome

Using Nutraceuticals to Thwart a Deadly Trend Metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X or cardiovascular metabolic syndrome, is comprised of hyperlipidemia (elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol), central (abdominal) obesity, hypertension, and concomitant insulin re-sistance glucose intolerance. Although no specific cause-and-effect relationship has been established, the outcomes of these associative factors are significantly increased risks for...

Glycine And Dimethylglycine

Glycine is a nonessential amino acid and is derived (in the body) from serine. Typically, a person may consume roughly 2 g of glycine as part of a standard diet (rich in meat, fish, Table 32-1. Dosing Review for Select Amino Acids Gastrointestinal-related conditions Typical doses are 4 g, swished and swallowed (can be taken several times per day) Immune function Most studies have shown benefit using doses from 3 to 6 g per day Typical doses start at 4 g per day and are increased by 4 g per day...

Antihypertensives

Common antihypertensive medications include beta-adrenergic blockers, calcium-channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, diuretics, and vasodilators. According to the American Heart Association, an estimated 65 million Americans, almost one in three adults, has high blood pressure.45 Vasodilators such as hydralazine deplete vitamin B6.46 Captopril, an ACE inhibitor, has been shown to cause hyponatremia by increasing sodium excretion and may cause hyperkalemia.47,48 In...

Sexhormone Binding Globulin

Levels of sex-hormone binding globulin, as previously mentioned, play a role in numerous conditions. Low levels are associated with hormone-related conditions such as breast cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome, and insulin resistance. Furthermore, decreased levels of this protein are associated with cardiovascular risk factors as well. A recent study showed that low SHBG is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, increased triglycerides, and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in...

Natural Approaches To The Prevention And Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

According to facts and figures provided by the American Diabetes Association, there are an estimated 20.8 million people in the United States, approximately 7 of the population, with diabetes. Approximately 6.2 million of these people have not yet been diagnosed. Additionally, there are 54 million Americans that are pre-diabetic with higher than normal blood glucose levels yet not elevated enough for the diabetes diagnosis.1 The hyperglycemia resulting from types I and II diabetes mellitus can...

General Requirements For Promoting Healthy Skin

Lifestyle factors are critical for maintaining healthy skin. Smoking can cause dryness and premature aging of the skin. Sun exposure is associated with an increased risk of skin cancer, premature aging, and hyperpigmentation of the skin, requiring a limit to sun exposure and the use of sunscreen during prolonged exposure. Clinically, exercise has been shown to help promote a radiant, glowing complexion. Optimal intake and assimilation of nutrients is also essential for promoting healthy skin. A...

Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a common skin disorder that affects between 2 -4 of the U.S. population. Psoriasis is a hyperproliferative skin disorder characterized by sharply bordered reddened rashes and silvery, scaly plaques on the skin. Eruptions often involve the scalp, the extensor surfaces of the extremities, the back, and the buttocks. Removal of the superficial scales typically causes pinpoint bleeding, or the Auspitzsign. The rate of cellular division in psoriatic lesions is very high, at...

Garlic

Garlic (Allium sativum) and its derivatives are popularly known as effective preventives and treatment options for atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases, with numerous clinical trials demonstrating its efficacy for treating these conditions.14 The pharmacologic effects of garlic are attributed to allicin, ajoene, and other organosulfur constituents in the herb.15 Efficacy of garlic compounds is determined by the ability of the product...

Serrapeptase For Inflammation

Also known as serratiopeptidase, serrapeptase is used in Japanese medicine. Serrapeptase is isolated from the microorganism Serratia E15, which dwells in the intestine of the silkworm. The true purpose of this organism is to help silkworms dissolve their own cocoons. Serrapeptase is adept at dissolving necrotic tissue, blood clots, arterial plaques, and inflammatory factors. Used clinically in Europe and Asia for nearly a quarter century, serrapeptase is utilized for its anti-inflammatory...

Strategies for Preventing Metabolic Syndrome

Increased fiber intake is associated with decreased insulin resistance. Reduce saturated fat intake to reduce insulin resistance. Increased consumption of vegetables with carotenoids is associated with decreased fasting insulin. Exercise prevents and reverses insulin resistance. Stress reduction reduces insulin resistance. Magnesium produces favorable changes in insulin sensitivity. Chromium produces favorable changes in insulin sensitivity. a-lipoic acid exerts antioxidative effects and...

Herbal Treatments For Adrenocortical Dysfunction

To compensate for increased stressors, many individuals have turned to ergogenic or energy enhancement substances. These herbal and nutritional supplements are thought to have some type of ergogenic activity and are among the best-selling natural products in nutrition stores, with a financial impact in the 2- 3 billion per year range. Although there is a body of scientific literature on a variety of natural ergogenic substances such as pyruvate, creatine, ephedra ma huang Ephedra sinica ,...