English Name: Flowering Period: Status: Part Used: Habit/Habitat:
A large shrub to medium-sized tree, found mostly in waste places in dry clay.
Pakistan: Hazara, Dir, Swat, Murree Hills, Margalla Hills, Rawalpindi, and Jhelum Valley. World: India, Southwest China, Taiwan, and Philippines.
A large shrub or branched tree, and woody, with reddish-brown bark and spines. Leaves simple, alternate, entire, lanceolate, and green. Flowers yellowish. Fruit bright red, oval-shaped, drupe, single-seeded (Fig. 3.100).
Family Name: Rhamnaceae
Collection: 3-4 kg of fresh roots, 25 g of fresh bark, and 30 g of fresh leaves are collected by men and women 20-40 years old. Roots and bark are collected in winter (November-February), whereas leaves are collected mostly in summer (April-November).
Recipes: (a) 3 kg of fresh roots is first cleaned, washed in water
2-3 times, and cut into small 2-3-in. pieces. They are boiled in 5-6 L of water for 1-2 h. When 1 liter of water is left, it is filtered with a cloth, stored in a glass bottle, and given to patients suffering from mouth sores, skin diseases, pimples, skin lesions, earache, eye diseases, and high blood pressure. For children,
1-2 tsp (10-12 mL) of decoction (at one time) is mixed in 1 cup (250 mL) of water and given 2-3 times per day for 4-5 days. For adults, 3-4 tsp (30-40 mL) of decoction (at one time) is mixed in 1 cup (250 mL) of water and given 2-3 times per day for 8-10 days.
(b) 25 g of fresh bark and 30 g of fresh leaves are ground together for 5-6 min. This paste (malum) is applied externally on pimples, skin lesions, and tumors; 3-4 g of paste (at one time) is applied 2-3 times per day for
Family Name: Rhamnaceae
(c) 250 g of fresh roots of Zizyphus oxyphylla and 250 g of fresh roots of Punica granatum are boiled in 1 L of water for 40-50 min. When 3 cups (750 mL) of water remains, it is filtered with a piece of cloth and stored in a glass bottle. It is given to patients suffering from intestinal worms. For children, 1-2 tsp (12-25 mL) of decoction (at one time) is given 2-3 times per day for 2-3 days. For adults, 3-4 tsp (12-25 mL) of decoction (at one time) is given 2-3 times per day for 4-5 days.
Diseases Cured: Intestinal worms, skin diseases, pimples, mouth sores, earache, eye diseases, and high blood pressure.
Ethnobotanical Leaves are used as fodder for goats, sheep, and camels.
Uses: The plant is used as firewood and for hedges and fencing.
Phytochemicals: 14-membered frangulanine-type cyclopeptide alkaloid
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