Zanthoxylum armatum DC Prodr

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Family Name:


Local Name/

English Name: Flowering Period: Status: Part Used: Habit/Habitat: Distribution:


Timar, Kababa, Dambara/Prickly ash



Whole plant

A medium-sized shrub, found in waste places in loamy clay.

Pakistan: Hazara, Dir, Swat, Murree Hills, Margalla Hills, and Jhelum Valley. World: India, Southwest China, Taiwan, and Philippines.

A medium-sized prickly shrub up to 5 m tall. Stem erect, branched, woody and thorny with dark green dotted bark. Leaves compound, imperipinnate, 3-4 leaflets, opposite, petiolate, aromatic, lanceolate, entire, dotted with winged ptiole and midrib. Flowers yellow, numerous, in clusters, aromatic. Stamens 6-8 and ovary is three-lobed. Fruit capsule, rounded, reddish-green, splitting into two when ripe, with single black seed (Fig. 3.98).

Family Name: Rutaceaea

Medicinal Uses:

Collection: 1 kg of fresh fruit is collected by men and women 20-40

years old, in summer (June-August), then dried in sunlight for 4-5 days, and stored in cotton sacks or a plastic bottle for further use.

Recipes: 50 g of dried fruit of Zanthoxylum armatum, 50 g of dried leaves of Mentha longifolia, 30 g of dried Trachyspermum ammi, 2 tsp (10-15 g) of black salts are ground together for 10-15 min. This powder is stored in a glass or plastic bottle and given to patients suffering from cholera, stomach disorders, gas trouble, and indigestion. For children, 1 tsp (6-8 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water 2-3 times per day for 3-4 days. For adults, 2 tsp (12-15 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water 2-3 times per day for 4-5 days. For piles, 4-5 ft of young stem is cut with a stone (not with an iron) and used as a stick to heal piles. For mouth sores and toothache, 6-8 in. young twigs are cut with a knife daily and used as a toothbrush (miswak) for mouth sores and toothache.

Diseases Cured: Gas trouble, cholera, stomach disorders, piles, mouth gum, toothache, and indigestion.

Ethnobotanical Leaves are used as fodder for goats and sheep. Fruit and Uses: flowers are used in chutneys, curries, as an aromatic and a flavoring agent to improve taste. The plant is used for hedges and fencing and as firewood when dry.

Phytochmeicals: Essential oil, bitter crystalline principle, alkaloids, lignans flavonoids, aminoacids, monoterpene, organic acid, and volatile oil [30, 77].

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