Zanthoxylum armatum DC Prodr

Family Name:


Local Name/

English Name: Flowering Period: Status: Part Used: Habit/Habitat: Distribution:


Timar, Kababa, Dambara/Prickly ash



Whole plant

A medium-sized shrub, found in waste places in loamy clay.

Pakistan: Hazara, Dir, Swat, Murree Hills, Margalla Hills, and Jhelum Valley. World: India, Southwest China, Taiwan, and Philippines.

A medium-sized prickly shrub up to 5 m tall. Stem erect, branched, woody and thorny with dark green dotted bark. Leaves compound, imperipinnate, 3-4 leaflets, opposite, petiolate, aromatic, lanceolate, entire, dotted with winged ptiole and midrib. Flowers yellow, numerous, in clusters, aromatic. Stamens 6-8 and ovary is three-lobed. Fruit capsule, rounded, reddish-green, splitting into two when ripe, with single black seed (Fig. 3.98).

Family Name: Rutaceaea

Medicinal Uses:

Collection: 1 kg of fresh fruit is collected by men and women 20-40

years old, in summer (June-August), then dried in sunlight for 4-5 days, and stored in cotton sacks or a plastic bottle for further use.

Recipes: 50 g of dried fruit of Zanthoxylum armatum, 50 g of dried leaves of Mentha longifolia, 30 g of dried Trachyspermum ammi, 2 tsp (10-15 g) of black salts are ground together for 10-15 min. This powder is stored in a glass or plastic bottle and given to patients suffering from cholera, stomach disorders, gas trouble, and indigestion. For children, 1 tsp (6-8 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water 2-3 times per day for 3-4 days. For adults, 2 tsp (12-15 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water 2-3 times per day for 4-5 days. For piles, 4-5 ft of young stem is cut with a stone (not with an iron) and used as a stick to heal piles. For mouth sores and toothache, 6-8 in. young twigs are cut with a knife daily and used as a toothbrush (miswak) for mouth sores and toothache.

Diseases Cured: Gas trouble, cholera, stomach disorders, piles, mouth gum, toothache, and indigestion.

Ethnobotanical Leaves are used as fodder for goats and sheep. Fruit and Uses: flowers are used in chutneys, curries, as an aromatic and a flavoring agent to improve taste. The plant is used for hedges and fencing and as firewood when dry.

Phytochmeicals: Essential oil, bitter crystalline principle, alkaloids, lignans flavonoids, aminoacids, monoterpene, organic acid, and volatile oil [30, 77].

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.

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