English Name: Flowering Period: Status: Part Used: Habit/Habitat: Distribution:
Thawi, Gul dahwa/Fire flame bush
A spreading shrub, found on cliffs in dry clay.
Pakistan: Hazara, Swat, Balouchistan, Sind, Saidpur Hills, Rawalpindi, Murree, Islamabad, Poonch, Mirpur, and Salt Range. World: Tropical Africa, Sri Lanka, and China.
A shrub up to 3 m tall with spreading branches. Stem erect, branched, and woody, with reddish-gray bark. Leaves simple, entire and ovate, opposite, sessile, and pale green. Flowers bractet, numerous, bisexual, orange red to bright red, in clusters of 3-7 on branches, funnel-shaped, pedicellate. Fruit capsule, more or less elliptic, with many seeds (Fig. 3.97).
Family Name: Lythraceae
Collection: 1 kg of fresh flowers is collected by men, women, and children 12-40 years old, in summer (April-May). They are dried in shade for 1-2 days and then stored in a glass or plastic bottle for further use.
Recipes: xh kg of dried flowers and 1 cup (250 g) sugar are ground together for 10-15 min. This powder is stored in a glass bottle and given to patients suffering from piles, diarrhea, and dysentery, and to heal wounds. For children, 1 tsp (5-6 g) of drug is given (at one time) with 1 cup (250 mL) of milk or water 2-3 times per day for 2-3 days. For adults, 2-3 tsp (12-15 g) of drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of milk or water 2-3 times per day for 10-15 days. A teaspoonful (4-5 g) of powdered flowers (at one time) is sprinkled on wounds
2-3 times per day for 4-5 days.
Diseases Cured: Piles, diarrhea, and dysentery; wound healing.
Ethnobotanical Fresh flowers are edible and sweet in taste. Leaves and twigs
Uses: yield a dye used in painting. Leaves are used as fodder by goats and sheep. Wood is used as firewood when dry.
Phytochemicals: Phenolics, particularly hydrolysable tannins, flavonoids, octacosanol and b-sitosterol, steroid sapogenin heco-genin, meso-inositol, triterpenoids lupeol, betulin, betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, bergenin, norbergenin, chrysophanol-8-O-b-d-glucopyranoside, naphthaquinone pigment lawsone, glycosides 3-rhamnoside, 3-b-l-arabinoside, 3-O-a-l-arabinopyranoside, 3-O-b-d-xylopyranoside, 3-O-(6"-galloyl)-b-d-glucopyranoside, and
3-O-(6"-galloyl)-b-d-galactopyranoside, 3-O-b-d-galactoside 3-O-(6"-galloyl)-b-d-galactopyranoside, naringenin 7-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside, anthocyanidin pigment, cyanidin, 3,5-diglucoside; tannins like 2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-b-d-glucose, 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-b-d-glucose, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-b-d-glucose, tellimagrandin, gemin D, heterophylliin A and oenothein B, oenothein A, isoschimawalin A, new hydrolysable tannins, isoschi-mawalin A, woodfordins A -I, and oenothein A  .
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