Local Name/English Name: Flowering Period: Status: Part Used: Habit/Habitat:
Chir, Nakhtar/Chir pine February-April Common Whole plant
A wild evergreen tree, found on hills as self-growing plant in loamy soil. Pakistan: Murree, Hazara, Swat, Dir, and Kashmir.
World: Afghanistan, India, and Bhutan. Evergreen tree up to 40 m tall. Stem erect, woody, with whorled branches and reddish-gray rough bark. Leaves needle-like, green, fleshy, in bundles of three. Flowers arranged in cone-like structure. Male cones yellowish-brown, small, soft in nature, and short-lived. Male cones composed up of many spirally arranged microsporophylls. Female cones green when young but later on become brown, hard, and woody. Female cones long-lived and also composed up of many spirally arranged megasporophylls. Fruit woody cone with many grayish winged seeds (Fig. 3.5)._
Family Name: Pinaceae
Collection: 250 g of fresh leaves is collected in any season by men 20-40 years old; they are cut into small 1-2-in. pieces.
Recipes: 250 g of fresh leaves is ground daily for
10-15 min and 1 cup (250 mL) of water is mixed in. This mixture is filtered with a cloth and is given to patients suffering from measles. For children, xh cup (125 mL) of drug (at one time) is given 3-4 times per day for 2-3 days. For adults, not used. The drug's taste is sour and it is green in color.
Disease Cured: Measles.
Ethnobotanical Uses: Leaves are used as mud roof thatching, antic racking agent in mud plasters, as fodder by goats, sheep. Wood is used for making furniture, as fuel and timber wood, and for thatching. Resin is used for removing hairs from cattle. Leaves are also used for making small brooms. Dried cones used as fuel and as decorative pieces. Seed are edible; wood is also used in handicrafts.
Phytochemicals: Turpentine, pinene, limonene, calophony, and oleum rebinthinae  .
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