Papaver somniferum L

Family Name:


Local Name/English Name: Flowering Period: Status: Parts Used: Habit/Habitat:



Khash-khash, doda, apeem/Opium poppy



Latex and seeds

A small herb, found in the margins of cultivated fields and gardens.

Pakistan: Hazara, Swat, Dir, Malakand, Peshawar, Murree, and Rawalpindi. World: Europe and Asia; known from cultivation or used as a recreational drug in W. Pakistan.

An annual herb, apparently glabrous, glaucous, rarely branched. Leaves ovate-oblong, cordate, undulate, serrate, crenate, or dentate. Flower buds are ovoid-oblong. Flowers large, showy, white, pinkish or reddish, rarely pale violet, with or without a basal dark blotch. Capsule subglabrous smooth with a rounded base. Seeds small and white (Fig. 3.65).

Fig. 3.65 Papaver somniferum L

Family Name:


Medicinal Uses: Collection:


Diseases Cured: Phytochemicals:

Fresh fruit is collected by women or children 20-40 years old, in late summer (July-August), and dried under shade for 10-150 days.

10-15 g of dried fruits is boiled in tea and drunk at nighttime to cure severe cough, flu, and abdominal pain. For children, 2-3 tsp (1520 mL) of decoction (at one time) is given once daily, at night, for 2-3 days. For adults, 1 cup (250 mL) of drug (at one time) is given once daily, at night, for 5-6 days.

Cough, flu, and abdominal pain.

Sap contains oxalic acids. The plant contains more than 40 different alkaloids, of which morphine (up to 20%), codeine (about 1%), narcotine (about 5%), and papaverine (about 1%) are prominent. It also contains meconic acid, albumen, mucilage, sugars, resin, and wax [52],

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