Introduction Lesser Himalayas Pakistan and Medicinal Plant Wealth

Abstract The Himalaya Range is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. It is the name of a massive mountain system that includes the Karakoram, the Hindu Kush, and other lesser ranges that extend out from the Pamir Knot. The Himalayan mountain system is the planet's highest mountain range and home to the world's highest peaks. The Pakistani Himalayas are located south and east of the Indus River, which originates close to the holy mountain of Kailash in western Tibet, marking the range's true western frontier. The Lesser Himalayas are a prominent range 2,000-3,000 m (6,600-9,800 ft) high formed along the Main Boundary Thrust fault zone, with a steep southern face and gentler northern slopes. These Himalayas lie north of the Sub-Himalayan Range or Siwalik Range and south of the Great Himalayas. The Lesser Himalayan range is one of the unique emporiums of medicinal plant diversity. The most commonly utilized plant species are Berbers lyceum, Bergenia ciliate, Cassia fistula, Cichorium intybus, Datura innoxia, Justicia adhatoda, Mallotusphilippensis, Melia azedarach, Mentha longifolia, Mentha royleana, Myrsine africana, Punica granatum, Solanum nigrum, Viola canescens, and Zanthoxylum armatum.

Keywords Climate • Flora and fauna • Folk recipes • Hydrology • Lesser Himalayas—Pakistan • Medicinal plant processing

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