Indigofera gerardiana Wall

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Family Name:


Local Name/

English Name: Flowering Period: Status: Part Used: Habit/Habitat: Distribution:


Medicinal Uses: Collection:


Kainthi, Ghwareja/Cool indigo



Whole plant

A small shrub growing in humus soil.

Pakistan: Hazara, Swat, Murree, Kashmir, Dir, Chitral, and Gilliyat. World: India, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Afghanistan.

A small deciduous shrub with whitish branches. Leaves imparipinnately compound, leaflets long, elliptic, obovate or oblanceolate, obtuse, mucronate, pubescent on both sides. Inflorescence a raceme, nearly sessile, pale red. Fruit long, straight, cylindric glabrous, 10-12-seeded (Fig. 3.53) (Indigeofera).

200 g of roots and bark is collected by men 25-40 years old, in winter (October-December), and cleaned with water.

(a) The roots are cleaned, dried, and boiled in water for 40-50 min, then cooled down and filtered. This filtrate is used against abdominal pain. For children, / cup (125 mL) of decoctio (at one time) is given once or twice daily for 4-5 days. For adults, 1-2 cups (250-500 mL) of decoction (at one time) is given twice daily (morning-evening) for 4-5 days.

(b) Patients chew the bark of the roots to relieve abdominal pain.

(c) The bark is boiled in milk and a bandage is formed. This bandage is used externally to treat cracked and broken bones.

Fig. 3.53 Indigofera garadiana Wall

Family Name:


Diseases Cured:

Abdominal pain, cracked and broken parts of body.


Used in making roofs of huts and houses, and as fodder and


fuel. Branches are used for sweeping, packing, and

basket making.


Lactone, linifolin, and a wax [52].

3.4.36 Ipomoea nil (Linn.) Roth

Family Name:


Local Name/English

Airla, Airl, Shine gulay/Morning glory


Flowering Period:




Part Used:

Whole plant


A climbing, twining herb, found as weed in maize fields

and in wet places in clay loam.

Family Name: Convolvulaceae

Distribution: Pakistan: Hazara, Swat, Murree, Salt Range, Kashmir,

Mirpur, and Jhelum. World: India, Africa, and Malaysia to North Australia.

Description: A twining herb up to 3 m in height. Stem twining, hairy, branched, herbaceous, yellowish-green. Leaves simple, alternate, hairy, and three-lobed. Flowers large, funnel-shaped, blue and tinged smooth, sub-globose, with 3-5 black seeds (Fig. 3.54).

Medicinal Uses:

Collection: 250 g of dried seeds is collected by men 25-40 years old, in winter (October-December), then dried in sunlight for 1-2 days, and stored in cloth or a glass or plastic bottle for further sue.

Family Name: Convolvulaceae

Recipes: 250 g of dried seeds is ground for 8-10 min. This powder is then stored in a glass or plastic bottle and given to patients suffering from constipation, stomach disorders, and intestinal worms. For children, 1 tsp (5-6 g) of powder drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water once or twice daily for 4-5 days. For adults, 1-2 tsp (10-12 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water twice daily (morning-evening) for 10-15 days.

Diseases Cured: Stomach disorder, constipation, and intestinal worms.

Ethnobotanical Uses: The fresh plant is used as fodder for domestic animals.

Phytochemistry: Protein, calcium, phosphorus, and resin [6].

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Constipation Prescription

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