Knowledge of the fauna of the eastern Himalayas region is poor. Most of the information available is on the larger vertebrates that are easily observed and inventoried. Overall, more than 175 species of mammals and in excess of 500 species of birds are known from the region. The mammalian fauna in the lowlands is typically Indo-Malayan, consisting of langurs (Semenopithicus spp.), golden langur (Trachypithecus geei), pygmy hog (Sus salvinus), hispid hare (Caprolagus hispidus), flying squirrel (Biswamoyopterus biswasi), wild dogs (Cuon alpinus), sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), gaur, and several species of deer such as muntjacs (Muntiacus muntjak) and sambar (Cervus unicolor), snow leopards, Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetinus), blue sheep (Pseudois nayur), takin (Budorcas taxicolor), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), and red panda (Ailurus fulgens). Some species of birds restricted to the region include the Manipur bush quail (Perdicula manipurensis), chestnut-breasted partridge (Arborophila mandelli), Blyth's tragopan (Tragopan blythii), Temminck's tragopan (Tragopan temminckii), Sclater's monal (Lophophorus sclateri), Tibetan eared pheasant (Crossoptilon harmani), rusty-bellied shortwing (Brachypteryx hyperythra), white-winged duck (Cairina scutulata), white-bellied heron (Ardea insignis), black-necked stork (Grus nigricollis), and Bengal florican (Houbaropsis bengalensis) (Fig. 1.5).

1.2 Himalayan Range Fig. 1.5 Fauna and flora

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