Contents

1 Introduction: Lesser Himalayas—Pakistan and Medicinal Plant Wealth 1

1.1 Pakistan 1

1.1.1 Physical Regions 2

1.1.2 Biodiversity 2

1.1.3 Ecological Zones 2

1.1.4 Critical Ecosystems 3

1.2 Himalayan Range 3

1.2.1 Topography 5

1.2.2 Glaciers and Rivers 5

1.2.3 Climate 5

1.2.6 Livestock 9

1.2.7 Culture 9

1.2.8 Occupations 9

1.3 Medicinal Plants 10

1.4 Folk Recipes 12

1.5 Diagnosis and Prescription 13

1.6 Processing of Medicinal Plants 13

1.6.1 Collection and Identification 13

1.6.2 Preservation 14

1.6.3 Storage 14

1.6.4 Marketing 14

References 14

2 Ethnobotanical Aspects 17

2.1 Ethnobotany 17

2.2 Medicinal Uses 20

2.3 Use of Plants as Food 21

2.4 Fuelwood Species 22

2.5 Fodder Species 24

2.6 Agricultural Implements 27

2.7 Fencing and Hedges 28

2.8 Construction Material 28

2.9 Miscellaneous Uses 28

2.10 Grafting 29

2.11 Beekeeping 29

2.12 Marketing of Medicinal Plants 30

2.13 Anthropogenic Pressure 32

2.13.2 Browsing 33

2.13.3 Grazing 33

2.13.4 Grass Cutting 34

2.13.5 Lopping 34

2.13.6 Torchwood 34

2.13.7 Climatic Factors 35

2.13.8 Wild Animals and Insects 35

2.13.9 Agriculture 35

2.14 Recommendations 36

References 37

3 Medicinal Plants Inventory 39

3.1 Section A Pteridophytes 39

3.1.1 Adiantumcapillus-veneris Linn 39

3.1.2 Equisetumdebile Roxb 41

3.1.3 Pteridiumaquilinum (L.)Kuhn 43

3.2 Section B Gymnosperms 45

3.2.1 Abies pindrow Royle 45

3.2.2 Pinus roxburghii Sargent 47

3.2.3 Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jackson 48

3.3 Section C (1) Angiosperms (Monocots) 50

3.3.1 Alliumcepa Linn 50

3.3.2 Alliumsativum Linn 52

3.3.3 Acorus calamus L 53

3.3.4 Arisaemautile Hookf.exSchott 55

3.3.5 Colchicum luteum Baker 57

3.3.6 AloeveraLinn 59

3.3.7 Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers 60

3.3.8 Cyperus rotundus Linn 61

3.3.9 Polygonatum verticillatum All 64

3.3.10 Sorghumhalepense (L.)Pers 65

3.3.11 Triticumaestivum Linn 67

3.3.12 ZeamaysLinn 69

3.4 Section C (2) Angiosperms (Dicots) 71

3.4.2 Acacia modesta Wall 72

3.4.3 Acacianilotica Linn 74

3.4.4 Achyranthesaspera Linn 77

3.4.5 Ajugabracteosa Wall.,ex Benth 79

3.4.6 Amaranthusviridis Linn 80

3.4.7 Argyrolobiumroseum (Camb.)Jaub.&Spach 82

3.4.8 Berberislycium Royle 83

3.4.9 Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb 86

3.4.10 Boerhaaviaprocumbens Banksex Roxb 87

3.4.11 Bombax ceiba Linn 89

3.4.12 Brassica campestris Linn 91

3.4.13 Calotropisprocera (Wild) R.Br 92

3.4.14 Cannabis sativa Linn 94

3.4.15 Carissa opaca Stapf-ex Haines 96

3.4.16 Cassiafistula Linn 99

3.4.17 Cedrelatoona Roxb.ex Wild 100

3.4.18 Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn 102

3.4.19 Cichorium intybus Linn 104

3.4.20 Cissampelospariera L 106

3.4.21 Citrus limon (Linn.)Burm 108

3.4.22 Clematisgrata Wall 109

3.4.23 Convolvulus arvensis Linn 111

3.4.24 Cuscutareflexa Roxb 112

3.4.25 Dalbergia sissoo Roxb 114

3.4.26 Datura innoxia Miller 116

3.4.27 Debregeasiasaeneb (Forssk.)HeperandWood 117

3.4.28 Dodonaea viscosa Linn 119

3.4.29 Euphorbia prostrata Ait 121

3.4.30 Ficus carica Forssk 122

3.4.31 Ficusvirgata Wall.ex Roxb 124

3.4.32 Fumaria indica (Hausskan) Pugsley 126

3.4.33 Grewiatenax Drum.ex Burret 127

3.4.34 Hedera helix Alin Auct 129

3.4.35 Indigofera garadiana Wall 131

3.4.36 Ipomoea nil (Linn.) Roth 132

3.4.37 Justicia adhatoda (Linn.) Nees 134

3.4.38 Mallotusphilippensis (Lam.)Muell.Arg 137

3.4.39 Meliaazedarach Linn 139

3.4.40 Mentha longifolia (Linn.) Huds 141

3.4.41 Mentha royleana Linn 143

3.4.42 Myrsine africana Linn 145

3.4.43 Olea ferruginea Royle 147

3.4.44 Otostegia limbata (Benth.) Boiss 148

3.4.45 Oxalis corniculata Linn 150

3.4.46 Paeonia emodi Wall. ex Royle 152

3.4.47 Papaver somniferum L 153

3.4.48 Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene 155

3.4.49 Phyllanthus emblica Linn 156

3.4.50 Pimpinella diversifolia (Wall.) D.C 158

3.4.51 Pistacia chinensis Bge 160

3.4.52 Plantago lanceolata L 162

3.4.53 Plantago major Linn 163

3.4.54 Portulaca oleracea L 165

3.4.55 Prunuspersica (Linn.) Batsch 166

3.4.56 Punica granatum Linn 168

3.4.57 Quercus incana Roxb 171

3.4.58 Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus 172

3.4.59 Ranunculus laetus Wall. ex Hook. F. & Thoms 174

3.4.60 Rhus chinensi L 175

3.4.61 Rosa brunonii Lindley 178

3.4.62 Rosa indica Linn 179

3.4.63 Rumex dentatus Linn 180

3.4.64 Rumex hastatus D. Don 182

3.4.65 Salvia moorcroftiana Wall. ex Benth 184

3.4.66 Sageretia brandrethiana Atich., J.L.S 185

3.4.67 Solanum nigrum L 187

3.4.68 Solanum surratense Burm. f 189

3.4.69 Tagetes minuta Linn 190

3.4.70 Taraxacum officinale Weber 192

3.4.71 Tribulus terrestris L 193

3.4.72 Trichodesma indicum (L.) R. Br 195

3.4.73 Tylophora hirsuta Linn 197

3.4.74 Verbascum thapsus Linn 198

3.4.75 Viola canescens Wall.ex Roxb 199

3.4.76 Vitexnegundo Linn 201

3.4.77 Vitis vinifera Linn 203

3.4.78 Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal 204

3.4.79 Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) S. kurz 206

3.4.80 Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Prodr 208

3.4.81 Zizyphus numalaria Linn 209

3.4.82 Zizyphusoxyphylla Edgew 211

References 213

Index

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