Carissa opaca Stapfex Haines

Family Name:

Apocynaceae

Local Name/English Name:

Granda, Karaunda, Gorna/Bengal current

Flowering Period:

April-June

Status:

Common

Carissa Opaca
Fig. 3.33 Carrisa opaca Stapf. ex Haines

Family Name:

Apocynaceae

Part Used: Habit/Habitat:

Distribution:

Description:

Medicinal Uses: Collection:

Whole plant

Wild spiny shrub, mostly grows in dry clay alongside Dodonia, Olea, and Punica species.

Pakistan: Hazara, Rawalpindi district, Margalla Hills, and Swat. World: India, Burma, and Sri Lanka.

A spiny shrub up to 2-3 m tall. Stem erect, branched, woody, young shoot with milky juice and straight hard spines. Spines are 20-30 cm long and bark is grayish. Leaves simple, opposite, upper surface shiny, dark green, lower surface hairy and light green, oval-shaped. Flowers sweet-scented in terminal cymes, small, white. Fruit black, purple, oblong berry with milky latex (Fig. 3.33).

1 kg of fresh leaves, 1 kg of fresh fruit, and 60-70 g of fresh roots are collected by men, women, and children 12-40 years old. Fruit and roots are collected in winter (October-February), whereas leaves may be collected in any season when required. Leaves and fruit are used in fresh condition, while roots are dried in sunlight for 3-4 days and then used.

Family Name: Apocynaceae

Recipes: (a) 1 kg of fresh leaves of Carissa opaca and

1 kg of fresh roots of Segeratia brandrethina are boiled in 3-4 jugs (4 L) of water for 1/ h. When 1-2 jugs (1 L) of water is left, then it is filtered with a cloth or filtration pot. This decoction is stored in a glass bottle and given to patients suffering from asthma, jaundice, and kidney pain. For children, / cup (125 mL) of decoction (at one time) is mixed with 2 cups (500 mL) of water and 10-15 g of sugar; then it is shaken well and given to the patient 2-3 times per day for 6-7 days. For adults, 1 cup (250 mL) of decoction (at one time) is mixed with 2 cups (500 mL) of water and 10-15 g of sugar; then it is shaken well and given twice daily (morning-evening) for 5-6 days.

(b) 30 g of dried roots is ground daily for 4-5 min. This powder is then sprinkled on animals' wounds and infected sores 2-3 times per day for 3-4 days.

(c) 1 kg of freshly collected ripe fruit is crushed by hands and milk juice is extracted. Next, 80 g of iron filings are mixed into it. This mixture is then put in a glass bottle for 20-25 days, then ground for 15-20 min, and small tablets (3-4 g each) are made. These tablets are then given to patients suffering from liver disorders and blood deficiencies. For children, not used. For adults, one tablet (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water or milk twice daily (morning-evening) for 8-10 days.

Diseases Cured: Asthma, jaundice, kidney stones, liver disorders, and blood deficiencies and used for wound healing in animals.

Ethnobotanical Uses: Leaves are used as fodder for goats and sheep.

Fruit is edible. Also used as firewood and as hedges and fencing.

Phytochemicals: Phenols and flavonoids, palmitic acid, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, and (E, E)-a-farnesene [34, 35].

Carissa Opaca
Fig. 3.34 Cassiafistula Linn
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