Carissa opaca Stapfex Haines

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Family Name:


Local Name/English Name:

Granda, Karaunda, Gorna/Bengal current

Flowering Period:




Carissa Opaca
Fig. 3.33 Carrisa opaca Stapf. ex Haines

Family Name:


Part Used: Habit/Habitat:



Medicinal Uses: Collection:

Whole plant

Wild spiny shrub, mostly grows in dry clay alongside Dodonia, Olea, and Punica species.

Pakistan: Hazara, Rawalpindi district, Margalla Hills, and Swat. World: India, Burma, and Sri Lanka.

A spiny shrub up to 2-3 m tall. Stem erect, branched, woody, young shoot with milky juice and straight hard spines. Spines are 20-30 cm long and bark is grayish. Leaves simple, opposite, upper surface shiny, dark green, lower surface hairy and light green, oval-shaped. Flowers sweet-scented in terminal cymes, small, white. Fruit black, purple, oblong berry with milky latex (Fig. 3.33).

1 kg of fresh leaves, 1 kg of fresh fruit, and 60-70 g of fresh roots are collected by men, women, and children 12-40 years old. Fruit and roots are collected in winter (October-February), whereas leaves may be collected in any season when required. Leaves and fruit are used in fresh condition, while roots are dried in sunlight for 3-4 days and then used.

Family Name: Apocynaceae

Recipes: (a) 1 kg of fresh leaves of Carissa opaca and

1 kg of fresh roots of Segeratia brandrethina are boiled in 3-4 jugs (4 L) of water for 1/ h. When 1-2 jugs (1 L) of water is left, then it is filtered with a cloth or filtration pot. This decoction is stored in a glass bottle and given to patients suffering from asthma, jaundice, and kidney pain. For children, / cup (125 mL) of decoction (at one time) is mixed with 2 cups (500 mL) of water and 10-15 g of sugar; then it is shaken well and given to the patient 2-3 times per day for 6-7 days. For adults, 1 cup (250 mL) of decoction (at one time) is mixed with 2 cups (500 mL) of water and 10-15 g of sugar; then it is shaken well and given twice daily (morning-evening) for 5-6 days.

(b) 30 g of dried roots is ground daily for 4-5 min. This powder is then sprinkled on animals' wounds and infected sores 2-3 times per day for 3-4 days.

(c) 1 kg of freshly collected ripe fruit is crushed by hands and milk juice is extracted. Next, 80 g of iron filings are mixed into it. This mixture is then put in a glass bottle for 20-25 days, then ground for 15-20 min, and small tablets (3-4 g each) are made. These tablets are then given to patients suffering from liver disorders and blood deficiencies. For children, not used. For adults, one tablet (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water or milk twice daily (morning-evening) for 8-10 days.

Diseases Cured: Asthma, jaundice, kidney stones, liver disorders, and blood deficiencies and used for wound healing in animals.

Ethnobotanical Uses: Leaves are used as fodder for goats and sheep.

Fruit is edible. Also used as firewood and as hedges and fencing.

Phytochemicals: Phenols and flavonoids, palmitic acid, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, and (E, E)-a-farnesene [34, 35].

Carissa Opaca
Fig. 3.34 Cassiafistula Linn

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Coping with Asthma

Coping with Asthma

If you suffer with asthma, you will no doubt be familiar with the uncomfortable sensations as your bronchial tubes begin to narrow and your muscles around them start to tighten. A sticky mucus known as phlegm begins to produce and increase within your bronchial tubes and you begin to wheeze, cough and struggle to breathe.

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