Withania somnifera L Dunal

A medium-sized shrub, grows in dry soil. Pakistan Gilgit, Swat, Khyber Agency, Peshawar, Hazara, Nowshera, Kohat, Waziristan, Tank, D. I. Khan, Attock, Jhelum, Multan, Faisalabad, Baluchistan, and Karachi. World Canary Islands, Mediterranean region, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, A suffruticose shrub. Branches ascending. Shoots are stellate-tomentose. Leaves elliptic-ovate to broadly ovate, acute, cuneate or oblique, entire to repand. Flowers sessile to subsessile, greenish-yellow, in axillary....

Woodfordiafruticosa L S Kurz

English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Distribution A spreading shrub, found on cliffs in dry clay. Pakistan Hazara, Swat, Balouchistan, Sind, Saidpur Hills, Rawalpindi, Murree, Islamabad, Poonch, Mirpur, and Salt Range. World Tropical Africa, Sri Lanka, and China. A shrub up to 3 m tall with spreading branches. Stem erect, branched, and woody, with reddish-gray bark. Leaves simple, entire and ovate, opposite, sessile, and pale green. Flowers bractet, numerous, bisexual,...

Zea mays Linn

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Maki, Makka, Makkiia Maize July-August Common cultivated plant Whole plant A cultivated annual herb, cultivated in fertile loamy soil. It is commonly cultivated throughout Pakistan and the world. A stout, annual herb. Roots adventitious and develop from lower nodes of the stem. Stem solid and provided with nodes and internodes. Leaves simple alternate, long, flat with distinct sheathing base. Ligules present at the junction...

Ficus carica Forssk

A medium-sized tree, found in cultivated places. Pakistan Gilgit, Chitral, Dir, Swat, Mardan, Hazara, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Sargodha, D. I. Khan, and Baluchistan. World India, Pakistan, Afghanistan Russia, Iran, Middle East, N. Africa, and Europe._ Diseases Cured Ethnonbotanical Uses A small deciduous tree with several spreading branches. Bark smooth, gray or dull white. Leaves glabrous to tomentose with lamina variable in shape and size, broadly ovate to nearly orbicular, undivided or...

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb

Local Name Niladhary, Akashbel, Banosha, Zarbuti Doddar Flowering Period January-March A wild twining herb, mostly found on Zizyphus species, forming a dense mass of yellowish threads. Pakistan Sind, Balouchistan, Karachi, Dir, Chitral, Hazara, Gilgit, Salt Range, Kashmir, Muree, and Islamabad. World Afghanistan, Southwest China to Southeast Asia. A twining herb. Stem weak, twiner, yellow, branched, thread-like, soft, thick, succulent with small adventitious roots. Leaves absent plant is total...

Ethnobotanical Aspects

Abstract The term ethnobotany was first coined in 1896 by the American botanist John Harshberger as the study of plants used by primitive and aboriginal people. Since then it has been defined as the traditional knowledge of indigenous communities about the surrounding plant diversity and the study of how the people of a particular culture and region make use of indigenous plants. Indigenous communities of the Lesser Himalayas are heavily dependent on plant resources as medicines, food, fuel,...

Acacia nilotica Linn

Habit Habitat A medium-sized tree, mostly found in dry and sunny places. Distribution Pakistan Hazara, Taxila, Attock, Haripur, Margalla Hills, and Salt Range. World Egypt, Mozambique, India, Burma, and Australia. Description Moderate-sized tree up to 10 m tall. Stem erect, branched, and woody, with blackish bark and reddish-brown wood. Leaves are compound, 10-20 pairs of leaflets, opposite, entire, small, rounded, white spines at the base of each leaf. Flowers are yellow. Fruit legume, dark...

Papaver somniferum L

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Parts Used Habit Habitat Khash-khash, doda, apeem Opium poppy A small herb, found in the margins of cultivated fields and gardens. Pakistan Hazara, Swat, Dir, Malakand, Peshawar, Murree, and Rawalpindi. World Europe and Asia known from cultivation or used as a recreational drug in W. Pakistan. An annual herb, apparently glabrous, glaucous, rarely branched. Leaves ovate-oblong, cordate, undulate, serrate, crenate, or dentate. Flower buds are...

Clematis grata Wall

Local Name English Name Dhand, Birli Clematis Flowering Period August-October Parts Used Leaves and young stem Habit Habitat A shrubby climber, mostly found in waste places Distribution Pakistan Hazara, Malakand, Chitral, Swat, Drosh, Lowari Top, Salt Range, Hassan Abdal, Murree, and Kashmir. World East Mediterranean through West and Southwest Asia, South Siberia, Mongolia, Tibet, and China. Description A climbing herb up to 3-5 m in length. Stem is climber, branched, herbaceous, and green....

Salvia moorcroftiana Wall ex Benth

English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat A small herb, found in waste places alongside cultivated fields in clay loam. Pakistan Quetta, Waziristan, Kurram, Hazara, Salt Range, Taxila, Dir, Chitral, Swat, Kashmir, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, and Islamabad. World India, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nepal, and Central Asia. A small herb up to 1 ft tall. Stem erect, branched, herbaceous, provided with nodes and internodes, hairy. Leaves simple, petiolate, whorled, toothed, with upper surface...

Cissampelos pariera L

Cissampelos Pariera Pics

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Ghore summi, Phuldhari False pareiar brava A small climbing herb, mostly found on cliffs and as a climber on other plants. Pakistan Hazara, east of Indus River, Rawalpindi, Kashmir, Jhelum, and Margalla Hills. World India and Sri Lanka. A climbing herb up to 1 m in length. Stem climber, weak, branched, hairy, and green. Leaves simple, alternate, petiolate, green, hairy, and rounded like horse toes (foot) with ciliated...

Torchwood

The local people have the pernicious habit of hacking out the resinous or torchwood Delhi from mature or nearly mature pine trees. During the search for proper wood, several trees are injured (Fig. 2.10) before suitable ones are found for subsequent extraction. These forest areas, which are generally in the neighborhood of inhabitants, suffer a great deal from this damage.

Pinus wallichiana AB Jackson

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Kail, Saraf Himalayan pine February-April Common Whole tree A wild evergreen tree, found on hills as self-growing plant in loamy soil in subtropical forests. Pakistan Murree, Hazara, Swat, Gilliyat, Dir, and Kashmir. World Afghanistan, Chitral eastward to W. Nepal. Description Trees up to 30 m tall. Bark gray, scaly. Branches whorled. Leaves acicular, in clusters of 5, bluish to gray-green. Male cones in dense clusters....

Marketing of Medicinal Plants

The marketing of crude herbal drugs needs special attention due to their widespread use by traditional practitioners of the Greco-Arab system of medicine. Approximately 5,000 poor families residing in the remote hilly areas are engaged in the collection of medicinal plants during the summer months in the northern regions. Medicinal plants are transported to other markets by the seasonal traders, from where these commodities ultimately find their way to other parts of the country for consumption...

Equisetum debile Roxb

English Name Spore Period Part Used Conservation Satgandi booti Chinese herb, horsetail A wild perennial herb, mostly found in the banks of streams, nallahs, in sandy and swampy soil. Pakistan Chitral, Dras, Swat, Hazara, Murree, and Kashmir. World India, Sri Lanka, Himalaya, Nepal, Burma, Taiwan, Hainan, New Guinea, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji (Viti Levu), Philippines, Sri Lanka, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, peninsular Malaysia (Gunung Ulu Kali and near Raub, Pahan), Borneo (Mt....

Ficus virgata Wall ex Roxb

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Phagwara, Rhumbul Fig April-November Common Whole plant A deciduous tree, mostly found in waste places along with cultivated fields in clay. Pakistan Found in all four provinces. World East Africa, Arabia, Peninsula, Iran, Afghanistan, India, and Nepal. A medium-sized deciduous tree up to 10 m tall. Stem erect, smooth, branched, and woody with gray bark. Leaves simple, alternate, long, and ovate or palmately divided, three-...

Introduction Lesser Himalayas Pakistan and Medicinal Plant Wealth

Abstract The Himalaya Range is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. It is the name of a massive mountain system that includes the Karakoram, the Hindu Kush, and other lesser ranges that extend out from the Pamir Knot. The Himalayan mountain system is the planet's highest mountain range and home to the world's highest peaks. The Pakistani Himalayas are located south and east of the Indus River, which originates close to the holy mountain of...

Allium sativum Linn

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Parts Used Habit Habitat Thoom, Lahsan, Oga Garlic March-April Commonly cultivated Bulbs and leaves A perennial cultivated herb, cultivated in loamy soil along with Allium cepa. Pakistan Cultivated throughout the country. World Cosmopolitan in distribution, found on the main islands of Indonesia, in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand, and Bangladesh. A cultivated herb. Stem underground bulb, in clusters. Bulb with 8-16 bulblets, which are...

Phytochemical Investigation On Lyonia Ovalifolia And Related Medicinal Plants

The flora of the Himalayas varies with climate, rainfall, altitude, and soils and includes elements from tropical Indochina, temperate East Asia, the Palaearctic region, the Deccan Plateau and the low-lying areas along with the support of mixed evergreen forests. Although most of these semi-evergreen forests have long since been converted into human uses, vestigial patches appear mostly in small protected areas. The alluvial grasslands and savannas along the foothill valleys are among the...

Use of Plants as Food

Among the basic requirements of humans, food is the most important one. The population of any part of the world is dependent on the food production capacity of that region. Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Zea mays (corn), which are the most important crops of Pakistan, are also cultivated in the Lesser Himalayas area. The local inhabitants use the fruits of various plant species, including Berberis lycium, Carissa opaca, Debregeasia saeneb, Diospyros lotus, Ficus spp., Myrsine africana, Pistacia...

Fuelwood Species

Fijian Yasi Tree

Wood is the oldest fuel known to man. Since time immemorial it has been meeting energy needs for domestic activities such as cooking and heating. Until the middle of the nineteenth century, wood was the sole or principal source of domestic and industrial energy worldwide. However, the use of wood as fuel has been steadily replaced by cheaper, more efficient and more convenient sources of energy such as fossil fuels and electricity in developed countries. In developing countries, the process of...

Triticum aestivum Linn

A cultivated annual herb, cultivated in fertile loamy soil. It is commonly cultivated throughout Pakistan and the An annual cultivated herb. Leaf blades long and flat. Inflorescence is a spike. Spikelets solitary at the nodes of the tough rhachis, laterally compressed, flowered. The upper one or two florets are sterile glumes sub- equal, asymmetrical keeled, one- or two-toothed lemmas keeled toward the tip, scabrid palea membra- Dry seeds are collected by men, women, and children 12-50 years...

Tylophora hirsuta Linn

Climbing herb, grows in hard, dry, sunny sites. Pakistan Haripur, Abbottabad, Murree, Hazara, Chitral, Swat, and Kashmir. World Found in India and Congo. A climbing herb up to 2 m in length. Stem climber, branched, herbaceous above, woody below, green, and hairy. Leaves simple, opposite, petiolate, entire, hairy, dark green above and light green under surface. Flowers yellow. Fruit an etaerio of two, with many brown seeds crowned with long hairs, which help in 20-25 g of fresh roots is...

Debregeasia saeneb Forssk Heper and Wood

Debregeasia Saeneb Plant Pictures

An evergreen shrub, mostly found in waste places of lower Pakistan Hazara, Swat, Dir, Hassan Abdal, Salt Range, Murree Hills, Margalla Hills, and Kashmir. World Abyssinia, Iran, Afghanistan, India, and Nepal. Fig. 3.45 Debregeasia saeneb (Forssk) Heper and Wood Fig. 3.45 Debregeasia saeneb (Forssk) Heper and Wood Description An evergreen shrub up to 3 m tall. Stem erect, branched, and woody with dark brown bark. Leaves simple, oblanceolate or lanceolate, serrate, alternate, petiolate, with...

Trichodesma indicum L R Br

Fungus Growing Shrub Trichodesma

Handusi booti, Nila karaji Indian borage An annual prostrate herb, grows in waste places in grassy Pakistan Sind, Karachi, Balouchistan, Chitral, Hazara, Swat, Jhelum, and Kashmir. World Afghanistan, India, A small annual, hairy, and prostrate herb up to 1 ft tall. Stem erect, branched, herbaceous, hairy, light green. Leaves simple, alternate, hairy, lannceolate to oblanceo- late, entire, and pedicellate. Flowers are pinkish-blue, many, solitary, or in terminal short racemes. Anthers hairy....

Aloe vera Linn

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Kunvargandel, Ghee kuvar, Elwa Pakistani aloe A wild as well as cultivated perennial herb, mostly found on rocky places in clay along with different grasses. It is cultivated by planting suckers, which are separated from mature plants. Pakistan Sind, Punjab, Hazara, Haripur, Rawalpindi, and Islamabad. World Cultivated in different tropical regions of the world. A small prostrate perennial herb. Roots adventitious, arise...

Cuscuta Reflexa Medicinal Uses

Ikram M, Hussain SF (1978) Compendium of medicinal plants. P.C.S.I.R Laboratories, Peshawar, pp 23-147 2. Mangrio SM, Dahot MU, Leghari SM (1995) Chemical constituents of Equisetum debile Roxb. Pakistan J. Plants Sci 1(1) 41-48 3. Cooper MR, Johnson AW (1988) Poisonous plants and fungus. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, p 41 4. John JW, Coppen M, Robinson J, Kaushal AN (1988) Composition of xylem resin from Pinus wallichiana and P roxburghii. Phytochemistry 27(9) 2873-2875 5. Haq I,...

Cyperus rotundus Linn

Cyperus Dactylon

Ghawa kochin, Kai, Motha Cyperus roots Fig. 3.13 Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers Fig. 3.13 Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers A small grass-like herb, mostly found in shady and moist places in loamy soil. Pakistan Mach, Loralai, Peshawar, Tank, D. I. Khan, Hazara, Swat, Chitral, Gilgit, Lahore, Sialkot, Attock, and Kashmir. World All warm regions of the world, including India, China, Malaysia, and Africa. Small herb. Stem underground rhizome, bears adventitious roots. Roots have tuberous underground...

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb

A tall tree, mostly found as self-growing and cultivated Pakistan Found as common self-growing and wild plant throughout all four provinces. World Central A tall tree up to 25 m in height. Stem erect, branched, woody, and hard with yellowish-gray bark. Leaves compound, 3-5 leaflets, pale green, entire, petiolate, heart-shaped terminal one is large and the other is smaller. Flowers pale yellow. Fruit legume, pod yellowish-green with 3-4 seeds (Fig. 3.43). 250 g of fresh bark and 100 g of fresh...

Vitis vinifera Linn

A climbing shrub, propagated through branches in home Pakistan Cultivated in Balouchistan, Swat, Chitral, Biltistan, Astor, and Kashmir. World Cultivated in tropical and temperate regions of the world. A climbing shrub up to 25 m in length. Stem climber, weak, branched, woody with dark brown bark. Leaves simple, alternate, petiolate, palmate, upper surface green under surface grayish-green and toothed. Flowers are yellowish-green, small, numerous, and in clusters. Fruit globose, yellow with two...

Plantago major Linn

Plantago Major Linn Images

Small herb, found on moist soil along nallahs and stream sides. Pakistan Swat, Hazara, Murree, Kaghan, Balouchistan, and Kashmir. World Found throughout Europe, northern and A small herb. Stem is underground rhizome. Leaves simple, long, green, entire, petiolate, and oval-shaped in basel rosette. Flowers yellow, tube-shaped. Fruit capsule, opening at top with 7-8 black seeds (Fig. 3.71). 250 g of ripe seeds is collected by men and women 20-40 years old, in late summer (September-November). They...

Datura innoxia Miller

English Name Flowering Period Status Parts Used Habit Habitat An annual herb, found in waste places and along roadsides in clay loam. Pakistan Balouchistan, Jhelum, Rawalpindi district, Islamabad, Murree Hills, and Kashmir. World Native to tropical America naturalized elsewhere. A small annual herb up to 1 m tall. Stem erect, branched, herbaceous, and green. Leaves simple, alternate, entire, wavy, petiolate, and green. Flowers in axillary solitary, white, and funnel-shaped. Fruit capsule,...

Solanum nigrum L

Kateli Solanum Nigrum

A small herb, grows in waste places near houses and alongside cultivated fields and roadsides in loamy soil. Pakistan Found everywhere in waste places. World Description A small herb up to 2 ft tall. Stem erect, branched, herba ceous above, woody below, and green. Leaves simple, opposite, petiolate oval-shaped, hairy, green, and developed on main stem and branches. Flowers white. Fruit rounded berry, orange-red to black with many white seeds (Fig. 3.85). Collection 125 g of fresh leaves is...

Argyrolobium roseum Camb Jaub Spach

English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Distribution Herb, mostly grows in waste places in dry sandy clay. Pakistan Kashmir, Peshawar, Balakot, Abbottabad, Haripur, Punjab, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Murree, and Balouchistan. World Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, India, and Nepal. Argyrolobium roseum is a small prostrate herb. Stem is prostrate, branched, herbaceous and green. Leaves compound with leaflets, trifoliate, obovate, rounded at the apex and tapering at the base,...

Portulaca oleracea L

A small herb, grows wild in maize fields. Pakistan Dir, Chitral, Hazara, Kashmir, Sialkot, Lahore, Makran, Karachi, Dadu, Tharparkar, and Quetta. World Europe, India, Ascension Island, America. Annual or perennial herb, prostrate or erect. Stem succu- lent, glabrous, green or purplish-green. Leaves alternate or subopposite, closely crowded below the flowers. Inflorescence usually in the forks of branches, cymose, with clusters of three to six flowers. Flowers sessile, 250 g of fresh plant...

Section C 2 Angiosperms Dicots 341 Acacia catechu LF Wild

Medicinal Uses Acacia

Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat A deciduous medium-sized tree, found on waste places in dry soil. Pakistan Western Himalayas, Hazara, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Margalla Hills, Swat, and Attock. World Tropical and foothill Himalayas, India, Nepal, Sikkim, Burma, and Assam. A medium-sized tree up to 10 m tall. Stem erect, branched, woody, brown rough bark, and hook-shaped pointed spines. Leaves compound, leaflet 30-50 pairs, green. Flowers pale yellow in axillary spikes. Fruit...

Justicia adhatoda Linn Nees

Bhekkar, Arusha, Bhekkar Malabar nut A perennial branched shrub, mostly grows in shady and Pakistan Hazara, Chitral, Swat, N. Waziristan, Kurram, Kohat, Khyber, Karachi, Sind, and Lower Balouchistan. World West Nepal, India, and Indochina. An evergreen gregarious shrub, up to 3-6 m tall. Stem erect, gregarious, branched, woody, and gray. Leaves simple, elliptic-lanceolate, apposite, petiolate, entire, yellow-green. Flowers small, white, nectarous in terminal or axillary spikes. Bracts are...

Polygonatum verticillatum

Indian All Medicinal Plants With Name

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat A small perennial herb found in temperate areas. Distribution Pakistan Swat, Kurram Agency, Chitral, Dir, Kashmir, Gilgit, and Baltistan. World Southeast Tibet, W. Asia, Europe, Russia, and Afghanistan. Rhizomes tuber-like. Stem erect, angled, glabrous. Leaves in whorls of 3-6-8, occasionally alternate near base of stem, sometimes opposite near apex, subsessile, linear. Inflorescence flowered, perianth pale yellow. Fruit...

List of Figures

Fig. 1.1 A panoramic view of Pakistan Fig. 1.2 Amazing Saiful Malook Fig. 1.3 Hydrology and Pinus Fig. 1.4 Floral Fig. 1.5 Fauna and Fig. 1.6 Collection of medicinal Fig. 2.1 A delicious wild Fig. 2.2 Wild Pyrus Fig. 2.3 Fuel Fig. 2.4 Fodder for live Fig. 2.5 Wood for construction Fig. Fig. 2.7 A local herbal Fig. 2.8 Himalayan Fig. 2.9 Grazing Fig. 2.10 Torch wood Fig. 3.1 Adiantum capillus-veneris Fig. 3.2 Equisetum debile Fig. 3.3 Pteridium equilinium Fig. 3.4 Abies pindrow Fig. 3.5 Pinus...

Sageretia brandrethiana Aitch JLS

Patharchatta Plant For Kidney Stone

A spreading shrub, mostly found in waste places on lower Distribution Pakistan Ziarat, Hazara, Peshawar, Kurram, Dir, Swat, Chitral, Bundi, Berikot, Muzfarabad, Salt Range, Jhelum, Rawalpindi district, and Margalla Hills. World India, Sri Lanka and Tropical and sub tropical North Africa eastward to south Iran, Greece and Afghanistan Description A small shrub up to 2 m tall. Stem erect, branched, and woody, with grayish bark. Leaves simple, small, ovate, entire, rounded at the apex, tapering...

Fumaria indica Hausskan Pugsley

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat An annual herb, found as weed in wheat fields and in waste places in clay loam. Pakistan Sind, Balouchistan, Hazara, Kurram Agency, Swat, and Kashmir. World West Asia and also introduced everywhere. A small annual, diffuse, and much branched herb up to 1 ft in height. Stem erect, branched, herbaceous, soft and green, with watery juice. Leaves simple, green, narrow, flat, much divided, segmented, and grayish-green. Flowers...

Prunus persica Linn Batsch

Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat A small tree, found as cultivated plant near houses and in waste lands. Pakistan It is widely cultivated in both hilly and plain areas throughout the country. World Cultivated in northwest Himalaya, India, Tibet, and temperate and tropical regions of the world. A medium-sized tree up to 8 m tall. Stem erect, branched, and woody, with gray to red bark. Leaves simple, alternate, petiolate, toothed, and green, usually provided with a pair of...

Bombax ceiba Linn

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Parts Used Habit Habitat Dug sumbal, Sembul, Semul Silk cotton tree A large tree, found as a rare plant in dry clay also planted in the plains as a roadside and garden tree. Pakistan Sub-Himalayan tract from Hazara eastward. World India, Bhutan, and South China. A large tree up to 20 m tall. Stem erect, branched, woody, gray bark armed with prickles. Leaves compound, 5-7 leaflets, green, entire, elliptic to lanceolate with long stalks. Flowers are...

Citrus limon Linn Burm

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat A small tree, found as cultivated plant in home gardens. Pakistan Distributed in all four provinces as a cultivated plant. World Cultivated in tropical areas of the world. A small tree up to 2 m tall. Stem erect, branched, woody, and spiny with greenish bark. Leaves compound, alternate, and leaflets, petiolate, entire, green. Flowers white. Fruit oval, yellow with white seeds, pale, and acidic pulp (Fig. 3.39). 2 or 3 fresh...

Grewia tenax Drum ex Burret

Medicincal Plants District Jhelum

Dhaman, Pastaoni, Phalsa White Cross berry Fig. 3.51 Grewia tenex Drum. ex Burret Fig. 3.51 Grewia tenex Drum. ex Burret A medium-sized tree, grows in waste places in hard soil. Pakistan Balouchistan, Hazara, Cherat, Salt Range, Skaser, Nurpur, Rawalpindi district, Murree, Jhelum Valley, and Kashmir. World Found in tropical Africa, India, and Nepal. A medium-sized tree up to 8 m tall. Stem erect, branched, hairy, and woody with yellowish-gray bark. Leaves simple, alternate, ovate or broadly so,...

Acorus calamus L

Pakistan Chitral, Peshawar, Kashmir, Dir, Hazara, and Swat. World North and Central America, Europe, and Asia. Perennial herb up to 80 cm tall. Rootstock stout, creeping with long fibrous roots from the lower surface. Stem erect, glabrous, grooved at one side, and ribbed at the opposite. Leaves linear, Spathe leaf-like, Spadix long, cylindrical, obtuse. Tepals long, oblong-obovate, slightly curved, margin membranous, surface with embedded raphides (Fig. 3.9)....

Medicinal Plants

The Himalayan region is the largest mountain system in the world, with uncounted and unique world resources. The interaction between the mountain people and the natural system throughout history has helped in maintaining the richness of species, communities, and genetic materials in both the productive systems and wild lands of the mountain environment. However, the rich biodiversity of this region is being disastrously depleted due to human action in the last few decades. Understanding the...

Sorghum halepense L Pers

Baru, Lamjak Khuskus grass, Johnson grass A perennial wild herb, found in clay of open and waste Pakistan Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Gilgit, Hazara, Sargodha, Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Mianwali, Sahiwal, Lahore, Multan, Hyderabad, Tharparkar, Baltistan, and Kashmir. World Mediterranean region eastward to Kashmir and southward to Madras. It is widely grown in the temperate regions, especially in North America. Description Rhizomatous herb culms simple or branched up 3 m. Leaf blades long and wide. Panicle...

Rumex hastatus D

Rumex Hastatus

A bushy perennial small shrub, mostly grows in waste lands Pakistan Hazara, Tirah, Malakand, Peshawar, Chitral, Drosh, Swat, Gilgit, Murree, and Kashmir. World Afghanistan, India, Bhutan, and West China. A bushy small shrub up to 2 ft tall. Stem erect, branched, herbaceous above and woody below, pale green to light brown. Leaves simple, pale green, hastate lobes are directed outward. Flowers small, numerous, pinkish in terminal paniculate clusters. Fruit pinkish and one- Collection xh kg of...

Mallotus philippensis Lam Muell

Indian Kamila Mallotus Philippensis

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Kamila, Kamala, Kumile Indian kamala A small tree, found mostly in forest areas in waste places in dry hard soil. Pakistan Sind, Sawat, Kashmir, and Lower Hazara. World India, Sri Lanka, Indochina, Malaysia, Australia, and Polynesia. A small tree up to 5 m tall. Stem erect, branched, and woody, with gray or pale brown rough bark. Leaves simple, alternate, petiolate, entire, and longer than broad, lanceolate, with upper...

Rhus chinensi L

A dioecious tree, grows in waste, shady, and cold places Pakistan Swat, Hazara, Murree Hills, Margallah Hills, and Kashmir. World Afghanistan, India, and western A small dioecious tree up to 4 m tall. Stem erect, branched, and woody, with grayish bark. Leaves compound, 10-12 leaflets, petiolate, opposite, lanceo- late, toothed, upper surface dark green, under surface gray to whitish. Flowers unisexual, numerous, small, white to creamy, in clusters. Fruit drupe, small, rounded globose, in...

Calotropis procera Wild R Br

Auk, Spulmei, Madar Swallow-wart mudar Wild shrub, grows in dry sunny places in stony, hard clay. Pakistan Sind, Lower Balouchistan, Kurram, Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Hazara, Salt Range, and Rawalpindi district. World Afghanistan and India. A small, erect shrub up to 2 m tall. Stem erect with branches ascending at the base, herbaceous above, woody below, whitish green bark. Plant parts are with milky juice. Leaves simple, entire, and sessile, cottony or waxy bloom, opposite, thick,...

Bergenia ciliata Haw Sternb

English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Batpia, Zakham-e-Hayat Stone breaker A perennial rhizomatous herb, found on rocky slope crevices in black loamy soil. Pakistan Hazara, Murree Hills, and Kaghan areas. World Afghanistan, India, Bhutan, southernTibet, and Assam. A small perennial rhizomatous herb with thick rootstock. Stem short, thick, fleshy, covered with persistent leaf bases, underground and dark brown. Leaves are simple, large, basal, rounded, leathery, petiolate,...

Carissa opaca Stapfex Haines

Carissa Opaca

Granda, Karaunda, Gorna Bengal current Fig. 3.33 Carrisa opaca Stapf. ex Haines Fig. 3.33 Carrisa opaca Stapf. ex Haines Wild spiny shrub, mostly grows in dry clay alongside Dodonia, Olea, and Punica species. Pakistan Hazara, Rawalpindi district, Margalla Hills, and Swat. World India, Burma, and Sri Lanka. A spiny shrub up to 2-3 m tall. Stem erect, branched, woody, young shoot with milky juice and straight hard spines. Spines are 20-30 cm long and bark is grayish. Leaves simple, opposite,...

Arisaema utile Hookfex Schott

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Parts Used Habit Habitat Adbes, Wagmiwa, Sanpdibooti Snake lily A wild herb, mostly found at shady and cold places in loamy soil. Pakistan Kashmir, Hazara, Changla Gali, Kaghan, Nathia Gali, Shogran, Dana, Sharan, and Thandiani. World Bhutan, Afghanistan, Tibet, China, and Assam and Sikkim in India. Wild herb, 16-33 cm tall. Bulbs subglobose, depressed with fibrous roots. Leaves solitary with three leaflets, subsessile, wavy margin. Middle one is...

Mentha royleana Linn

Mentha Linn

A perennial herb, grows along water courses in wet places and also cultivated near houses in pots or in Pakistan Hazara, Kashmir, Poonch, Swat, Chitral, Kurram, and Baltistan. World Northwest Asia, Europe, India, Nepal, and South Africa. Description A small, erect, rhizomatous, and aromatic herb up to 1 ft in height. Stem erect, branched, 4-angled, herbaceous, hairy, green or purple. Leaves simple, elliptic-oblong to oblanceolate, opposite, petiolate, and toothed, hairy, dark green, and...

Indigofera gerardiana Wall

English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Distribution A small shrub growing in humus soil. Pakistan Hazara, Swat, Murree, Kashmir, Dir, Chitral, and Gilliyat. World India, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Afghanistan. A small deciduous shrub with whitish branches. Leaves imparipinnately compound, leaflets long, elliptic, obovate or oblanceolate, obtuse, mucronate, pubescent on both sides. Inflorescence a raceme, nearly sessile, pale red. Fruit long, straight, cylindric glabrous,...

Mentha longifolia Linn Huds

Family Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Chitta podna, Enalay, Baburi Horse mint A perennial herb, grows along water courses on wet places and also cultivated near houses in pots or in small land patches. Pakistan Hazara, Kashmir, Poonch, Swat, Chitral, Kurram, and Baltistan. World Northwest Asia, Europe, India, Nepal, and South Africa. A small, erect, rhizomatous and aromatic herb up to 1 ft in height. Stem is erect, branched, 4-angled, herbaceous, hairy, green or purple....

Pistacia chinensis

Coping With Asthma

English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Dioecious tree, mostly found in open waste places and alongside cultivated fields in clay. Pakistan Kurram Valley, Peshawar, Salt Range, Murree, Rawalpindi, Chitral, Swat, Gilgit, and Hazara. World Afghanistan, India, and western Nepal. A medium-sized dioecious tree up to 20 m tall. Stem is erect, branched, woody, and hard, with rough dark gray bark. Leaves compound, leaflets 7-9, lanceolate serrate, petiolate, green with prominent...

Acacia modesta Wall

Acacia Modesta

Local Name English Name Phulahi, Palausa, Phulau Amritsar gum Habit Habitat A medium-sized deciduous tree, it is found in Distribution Pakistan Western Himalayas, Hazara, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Margalla Hills, Swat, Dir, Salt Range, Kashmir, and Attock. World Tropical and foothill Himalayas, India, Nepal, Afghanistan and Burma. Description A medium-sized tree up to 10 m tall. Stem erect, branched, woody with brownish-green bark. Leaves compound, leaflet 3-5 pairs, petiolate, entire, small,...

Hedera helix Alin Auct

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Harbumbal, Parvata, Banda Bind wood, ivy Wild shrub, mostly found as climbing shrub on trees such as Pyrus and Punica species and on moist, cold, and shady cliffs. Pakistan Swat, Hazara, Margalla Hills, Murree Hills, and Kashmir. World Afghanistan, India, Bhutan, Southwest China, and Burma. A climbing shrub, extensive climber on trees. Stem woody, branched climber bears adventitious roots that arise from stem. Leaves are...

Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Kauri booti, Tarumbra Agriculture weed March-S eptember Common Whole plant A perennial pubescent herb, grows in sandy and clay soil in waste places. Pakistan Hazara, Waziristan, Balouchistan, Dir, Kurram, Swat, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Khudhab, and Kashmir. World Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, Himalayas to Bhutan, Burma, China, and Malaysia. A small prostrate, pubescent herb up to 3-4 in. tall. Stem short, reduced...

Quercus leucotrichophora A Camus

Shah Baloot Leaf Pic

English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat A tall tree, mostly grows on shady slopes of hilly areas in loamy soil. Pakistan Hazara, Murree, Dir, Swat, Poonch, Sakeser, and Salt Range. World India, Nepal, and Burma. An evergreen tree up to 20 m tall. Stem erect, branched, woody, and hard with dark gray bark. Leaves simple, elliptic-lanceolate, alternate, petiolate, and spiny-toothed with upper surface dark green and under surface white tomentose. Inflorescence catkin, long,...

Zizyphus oxyphylla Edgew

English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat A large shrub to medium-sized tree, found mostly in waste places in dry clay. Pakistan Hazara, Dir, Swat, Murree Hills, Margalla Hills, Rawalpindi, and Jhelum Valley. World India, Southwest China, Taiwan, and Philippines. A large shrub or branched tree, and woody, with reddish-brown bark and spines. Leaves simple, alternate, entire, lanceolate, and green. Flowers yellowish. Fruit bright red, oval-shaped, drupe, single-seeded (Fig....

Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn

Kashni Weed

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Waljuin, Chandan bathwa, Bathu Skunkweed Annual herb, mostly grows near houses in waste places as weed in clay loam. Pakistan Balouchistan, Peshawar, Dir, Chitral, Swat, Hazara, and Kashmir. World Widely distributed in the world, introduced into America from elsewhere and naturalized in the wild. An erect herb up to 1 m tall. Stem erect, branched, herbaceous, and green. Leaves simple, alternate, petiolate, toothed, and...

Amaranthus viridis Linn

Amaranthus Viridis Weed Plant

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Parts Used Habit Habitat Ghinar, Chalwesy, Chanlai Green amaranth Common annual herb, mostly grows as weed in maize fields in clay loam. Pakistan Sind, Balouchistan, NWFP, Punjab, and Hazara. World Tropical and subtropical regions, including tropical Africa, China, India, Japan, Indonesia, New Guinea, and West Indies. Description An annual herb up to 1 m tall. Stem erect, branched, herbaceous, and green. Leaves simple, alternate, petiolate,...

Oxalis corniculata Linn

English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Jundora, Khati booti, Threwaky Indian sorrel Herb, mostly grows in shady waste places and in cultivated lands in loamy soil. Pakistan Found throughout all four provinces. World Cosmopolitan. A prostrate herb up to 6 in. in height. Stem creeping, herbaceous, branched, and green. Leaves compound, 3-5 leaflets, petiolate, obcordate, entire, pale green. Flowers yellow, pedicellate in umbels. Fruit capsule, pubescent with brown seeds (Fig....

Section C 1 Angiosperms Monocots 331 Allium cepa Linn

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Parts Used Habit Habitat Piaz Onion March-April Commonly cultivated Bulb and leaves A perennial cultivated herb, cultivated in loamy soil along with Allium sativum. Pakistan Cultivated throughout the country. World Cosmopolitan in distribution, found on the main islands of Indonesia, in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand, and Bangladesh. A perennial cultivated herb. Stem underground bulb, with inner fleshy and outer dry scales, white to...

Zizyphus numalaria Linn

Medicinal Plants Kashmir

Local Name Ber, Bera Jujube berries A thorny shrub, found mostly in waste places along cultivated fields in dry soil. Pakistan Balouchistan, Kurram, Kohat, Hazara, Dir, Chitral, Swat, Kashmir, Rawalpindi district, and Margalla Hills. World India, Nepal, and sub-Himalayan tracts. A shrub up to 4 m tall. Stem erect, branched, and woody, with spines and dark gray bark. Leaves simple, petiolate, entire, oval-shaped, green shiny above and yellowish under surface. Flowers small, yellowish, numerous....

Achyranthes aspera Linn

Ajuga Bracteosa

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Parts Used Habit Habitat Puth kanda, Kutri Prickly chaff flowers Wild annual herb, mostly grows in clay in waste places, along roads in association with different grasses. Pakistan Sind, Balouchistan, Waziristan, Peshawar, Swat, Hazara, Multan, Rawalpindi, Jhelum, and Kashmir. World Tropical regions of the world, including India, China, Japan, Indonesia, New Guinea, tropical Africa, and West Indies. A small herb up to 50 cm tall. Stem erect,...

Cannabis sativa Linn

Local Name English Name Bhang True hemp Flowering Period July-September A common wild herb, mostly grows in moist and waste places near houses and alongside roads. Pakistan Common weed throughout the country. World India, Central Asia, and tropical Africa. It is also cultivated elsewhere. An annual herb up to 1 m tall. Stem erect, branched, herbaceous 4-8 ft, and angular. Leaves simple, alternate, petiolate, and palmate leaf lobes are sessile, narrow at the base, and upper surface is hairy...

Rosa indica Linn

Rosa Indica Plant

A prickly or spiny shrub, found as a cultivated plant in home gardens. It is propagated by its vegetative part Pakistan Found throughout country as common home garden and park cultivated plant. World Distributed A small prickly or spiny shrub up to 1 m tall. Stem erect, branched, woody, and prickly. Leaves compound with 3-5 leaflets, toothed, opposite, petiolate, and green. Flowers solitary, pinkish, red, and white. Fruit subglo- bose, fleshy, and bright red (Fig. 3.80). 2 kg of fresh flowers...

Melia azedarach Linn

Palladia Campestris Medicinal Benefits

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Drek, Bakayan, Dhek Common bead tree A common tree, found as cultivated as well as wild plant in moist ravines in waste places and near houses. Pakistan Found as a favorite garden and roadside tree in all four provinces. World Found as a wild plant in Himalaya, as a cultivated plant in Iran, India, China, Burma, and Turkey. A medium-sized tree up to 10 m tall. Stem erect, branched, and woody, with dark gray bark. Leaves...

Zanthoxylum armatum DC Prodr

English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Distribution A medium-sized shrub, found in waste places in loamy clay. Pakistan Hazara, Dir, Swat, Murree Hills, Margalla Hills, and Jhelum Valley. World India, Southwest China, Taiwan, and Philippines. A medium-sized prickly shrub up to 5 m tall. Stem erect, branched, woody and thorny with dark green dotted bark. Leaves compound, imperipinnate, 3-4 leaflets, opposite, petiolate, aromatic, lanceolate, entire, dotted with winged...

Punica granatum Linn

Quercus Incana Drug

English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Drunni, Desi anar, Anangorai Pomegranate A small tree, mostly found in waste places along slopes of lower hills in fertile loamy soil. Pakistan Hazara, Salt Range, Balouchistan, Waziristan, Kurram, Dir, Chitral, and Kashmir. World South Europe, Central and West Asia. A small tree or shrub up to 6 m tall. Stem is erect, branched, and woody with dark gray bark. Leaves are simple, opposite, entire, oblanceolate, shining above, bright...

Viola canescens Wall ex Roxb

Violacanescens

Phul-naqsha, Banafsha, Bamasha Sweet violet A small herb, grows in waste, cold, shady places in fertile Fig. 3.93 Viola canescens Wall. ex Roxb Fig. 3.93 Viola canescens Wall. ex Roxb Distribution Pakistan Hazara, Kurram, Dir, Chitral, Swat, Murree Hills, Galis, Kohat, Salt Range, Jhelum Valley, and Kashmir. World Iran, Afghanistan, India, and Bhutan. Description A small stoloniferous herb up to 10 cm tall. Stem under ground and dark brown. Leaves pubescent, simple, petiolate, toothed,...

Cassia fistula Linn

Cedrela Toona

Whole plant pods and seed A medium-sized tree grown on dry and sunny land. Pakistan Hazara, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Margalla Hills, and Haripur. World Throughout the greater part of India, Burma, and Ceylon. A medium-sized evergreen tree up to 15 m tall. Stem erect, branched woody, with dark gray bark. Leaves compound, alternate. Flowers numerous, bright yellow in clusters. Fruit legume, cylindrical pod with 10-15 flat dark brown seeds Fig. 3.34 ._ 5 kg of dried pods are collected by men and...

Brassica campestris Linn

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Sarsoon, Wirai, Sarion Mustard November-April Common cultivated plant Whole plant A cultivated plant, mostly cultivated in or alongside wheat fields. Pakistan Cultivated in all four provinces. World Widely cultivated throughout the world, including Europe, Central Asia, and the Mediterranean region. A small herb up to 1 m tall. Roots cylindrical. Stem reduced at first but later becomes erect, herbaceous, branched hairy,...

Euphorbia prostrata

A prostrate herb, grows sandy waste places. Pakistan Karachi, Las Bela, Mach, Hazara, Islamabad, Pabbi, Pasrur, and Sakeser. World India and Java. Native to tropical and subtropical America. A small prostrate herb. Stem prostrate, weak, branched. Leaves simple, opposite, sessile, entire, oval-shaped. Branches small, soft, pinkish or red with milky latex. Flowers small and reddish in color Fig. 3.47 . 125 g of fresh leaves is collected by men and women 20-40 years old, in summer AprilSeptember ,...

Boerhaavia procumbens Banks ex Roxb

Transverse Secton Bergenia Ciliata

A small herb, found in waste places in clay loamy soil. Pakistan Hazara, Swat, Malakan, Murree Hills, Margalla Hills, Attock, Rawalpindi, and Kaghan areas. World tropical Africa, tropical and subtropical Asia and America. A tall prostrate, diffuse herb up to 1 m in length. Root large, fusiform stems usually several, prostrate or ascending, branched, slender, cylindric, thickened at the nodes, minutely pubescent or nearly glabrous. Leaves long, broadly ovate or suborbicular, rounded at the apex,...

Cynodon dactylon L Pers

Local Name English Name Khabbal, Dubkhabbal, Talla Bermuda grass Flowering Period June-October Diseases Cured Ethnobotanical Uses A wild perennial herb, commonly found in open, waste places in planes as well as hilly areas in clay. Pakistan Peshawar, Baltistan, Chitral, Kurram, Hazara, Kaghan, Mansehra, Rawalpindi, Murree Hills, Karachi, Tharparkar, and Baluchistan. World Found worldwide in tropical and warm temperate regions. Prostrate perennial herb with a slender underground rhizome. Culms...

Phyllanthus emblica Linn

Local Name English Amla Indian gooseberry Name Habit Habitat A medium-sized tree, grows in hard, stony and rough Distribution Pakistan Hazara, Margalla Hills, and Haripur. World India, Sri Lanka, and east to S. China and western Malaysia. Description A medium-sized tree up 8 m tall. Stem erect, branched, and woody with light gray bark. Leaves simple but appear compound, numerous, light green. Flowers greenish-yellow. Fruit globose fleshy, pale yellow, with brownish-yellow seeds Fig. 3.67 ....

Otostegia limbata Benth Boiss

Otostegia Limbata Benth

Koi booi, Spina ghazai, Chotta kanda Otostegia A spiny shrub, mostly found in waste and dry Pakistan Hazara, Swat, Chitral, Kurram, Peshwar, Rawalpindi, Salt Range, Kashmir, Jhelum and Islamabad. World endemic to Kashmir India A small, bushy, branched, slender, and spiny shrub up to 2 ft tall. Stem erect, branched, woody, spiny, whitish or gray bark. Leaves small, oblanceolate with spiny bracts and short petiole. Flowers in axillary clusters, long, pale yellow Collection 50-60 g of fresh leaves...

Olea ferruginea Royle

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat A common evergreen tree, found as self-growing plant in waste places in dry clay loam of lower elevations. Pakistan Hazara, Dir, Chitral, Swat, Murree, Salt Range, and Kashmir. World Found in Afghanistan, Nepal, and India. A medium-sized tree up to 15 m. Stem erect, branched, woody and hard, with dark gray bark. Leaves simple, opposite, entire, petiolate, lanceolate, upper fleshy dark green and lower yellowish-green...

Taraxacum officinale Weber

Hand, Kanphool, Zear gulay, Dudal Dandelian A common perennial herb, mostly grows in open waste places alongside cultivated fields in clay loam. Pakistan Found in all four provinces. World A small, glabrous, perennial herb with rosette of basal leaves. Stem underground, long, simple or branched rhizome. Plant parts exude a milky juice. Leaves arise in rosette from rhizome, bright green, pinnately lobed, and runcinate-lyrate. Flowers yellow, all ligulate, born on scapigerous heads. Fruit achene,...

Section B Gymnosperms 321 Abies pindrow Royle

Abies Pindrow

Name Flowering Period Status Parts Used Habit Habitat Distribution A characteristic tree, grows in subtropical pine forests. Pakistan Swat, Hazara, Dir, and Galiyat. World Afghanistan, Himalayas eastward to W. Nepal. Tree up to 30 m tall or more, with a narrow pyramidal shape. Bark light gray to brown. Leaves spiral, dark green, shiny. Male cones 1-2 cm long, axillary, reddish-green. Female cones solitary or in pairs, violet-purple. Seeds wing twice as long as the seed 200 g of fresh leaves is...

Quercus incana Roxb

English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Rain, Serai, Shah baloot Bluejack oak A slowgrowing tree found mostly in colder shady and humus places. Pakistan Swat, Hazara, Dir, Kashmir, Rawalpindi, Murree, and Gilliyat. World Found in outer and temperate Northwest Himalaya to Nepal, Burma, Afghanistan, and Himalaya from Swat and Kashmir to Bhutan and China. A tree up to 6-18 m tall. Shoots puberulous to tomentose. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, serrate but not...

Fodder Species

Forest grazing, a conventional resource, follows a centuries-old use of the forestland in Pakistan. Almost all types and legal categories of forests are burdened with unspecified grazing rights and privileges. The grazing pressure has been increasing with the increase in human and livestock populations. Consequently, uncontrolled heavy grazing is causing great damage to soil and vegetation due to compaction and trampling. This creates gaps in the forests and retrogression in certain localities....

Phyla nodiflora L Greene

Phyla Nodiflora

Local Name English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat A prostrate perennial herb, found in sandy soil along water courses. Pakistan Sind, Karachi, Waziristan, Kurram, Balouchistan, Parachinar, Landi Kotal, Khyber, Kohat, Lowrer Hazara, Punjab Plain, and Kashmir. World Tropic and subtropic areas. A small prostrate perennial herb up to 2 ft in tall. Stem prostrate, branched, green, bears adventitious roots on nodes. Leaves simple, opposite, green, fleshy, toothed on upper half...

Rosa brunonii Lindley

Tarni, Jangli gulab, Gulab gul Wild rose Pakistan Balouchistan, Kurram, Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Gilgit, Murree, Poonch and Kashmir. World Burma, A climbing shrub up to 6 m tall. Stem climber, branched, woody, and prickly. Leaves compound, alternate, 5-9 leaflets, elliptic-lanceolate to elliptic-oblong, opposite, petiolate, toothed and green with imparipinnate stipules. Flowers white, in panicles, padiceliate. Fruit oval- shaped, subglobose, brown Fig. 3.79 . 50-70 g of fresh flowers is collected...

Convolvulus arvensis Linn

Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat Liali, Khurry, Erlai Small bind weed A climbing, twining herb, found as weed in wheat fields and wet places in clay loam. Pakistan Common and widespread as a weed from Sindh to Baltistan. World Tropical and temperate regions. A small prostate or climbing herb. Stem weak, herbaceous, green, twining, and cylindrical. Leaves simple, alternate, petilate, entire, lanceolate, arrowhead-shaped with two lobes directed downward, sagittate to hastate....

Ranunculus laetus Wall ex Hook F Thoms

English Name Flowering Period Status Part Used Habit Habitat A perennial herb, commonly found in moist places along waterways. Pakistan Hazara, Waziristan, Khurrm, Chitral, Swat, Gilgit, Baltistan, Murree, and Kashmir. World Afghanistan, east to Tibet, India, and Southwest China. A small perennial herb up to 1 ft tall. Roots branched, herbaceous, and adventitious. Stem branched, rhizome, dark brown. Leaves are simple, alternate, petiolated, green, developed on main stem. Basal leaves hairy,...

Pimpinella diversifolia Wall DC

Pimpinella Diversifolia

A small herb, mostly grows in waste places within grass in Pakistan Swat, Kurram, Hazara, Chitral, Gilgit, Murree Hills, and Kashmir. World Found throughout Himalayas, A small herb up to 1 m tall. Stem erect, branched, herba- ceous, and green. Leaves young undivided, simple, with serrate margin older are more finally cut and pinnate. Flowers yellowish-white, small, numerous in umbal. Fruit small and oval-shaped Fig. 3.68 . 1 kg of fresh plant material is collected in late summer August-October...