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Codex, 1908)

"The subfamily Secamonoideae has been divided into four tribes: the Secamoeae, the Asclepiadeae and Marsdenieae (represented here) and the Ceropegieae.

bA number of Asclepiadaceae contain condurangin and vincetoxin glycosides (Asclepias curassavica, Sarcostemma viminale, Gymnema sylvestre, Marsdenia conduranga, Cynanchum vincetoxicum (Vincetoxicum officinale) etc.). In A. curassavica both cardenolides and the above-mentioned glycoside esters are present: this is probably also the case in Sarcostemma australe R.Br.

"The subfamily Secamonoideae has been divided into four tribes: the Secamoeae, the Asclepiadeae and Marsdenieae (represented here) and the Ceropegieae.

bA number of Asclepiadaceae contain condurangin and vincetoxin glycosides (Asclepias curassavica, Sarcostemma viminale, Gymnema sylvestre, Marsdenia conduranga, Cynanchum vincetoxicum (Vincetoxicum officinale) etc.). In A. curassavica both cardenolides and the above-mentioned glycoside esters are present: this is probably also the case in Sarcostemma australe R.Br.

cytostatic effect of the leafy stems on adenocarcinoma 755 has been reported (Fauconnet and Pouly, 1962; Dykman et aL, 1966; Paris and Moyse, 1971, pp. 54 and 55).

Adenium obesum (Forsk.) Roem. & Schult. syn. (A. honghel DC., Nerium obesum Forsk.) (Fig. 2.2) APOCYNACEAE

L The leaves and stem exude a latex which is used in Adamawa in northern Nigeria as a fish poison and which was formerly used to poison arrows. In local medicine the latex is applied to chronic wounds and ulcers or to carious teeth. C Seven heterosides, honghelosides A-G, were isolated from the stems and roots by Hunger and Reichstein (1950) and by Hess and Hunger (1953). Hongheloside B is identical with digitalinum verum from Digitalis purpurea. Hydrolysis of hongheloside A yields cymarose and oleandrogenin. Hongheloside G is identical with somalin (found in A. somalense in East Africa) (Hess and Hunger, 1953). P The plant acts as a cardiac poison in the same way as digitalin, but it also has an effect on the central nervous system (CNS), on the nerve mechanism of the heart and even

Fig. 2.2. Adenium obesum (Forsk.) Roem. & Schult.

Fig. 2.2. Adenium obesum (Forsk.) Roem. & Schult.

on the heart muscle (Perrot and Leprince, 1909). It does not appear to have been used pharmaceutically.

Asclepiadaceae and Periplocaceae. Cardenolides and allocardenolides (in the latter the A-B ring fusion is trans instead of cis, which considerably decreases the cardiotonic efficacy) are also found in a number of Asclepiadaceae and Periplocaceae (Table 2.2). They were formerly used as arrow poisons (Oliver-Bever, 1968).

Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel.) Bullock syn. (Periploca nigrescens Afzel., P. calophylla (Baill.) Roberty, Omphalogonus nigritanus N.E.Br.)

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