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Table 6.1. Plants with antifertility action in females

Plant Family

Pan used

Active constituent(s)

Observed activity

References

Abrusprecatoriush. Fabaceae

Achyranthes aspera L. Amaran thaceae

syn. (A. sativa Schult.) Bromeliaceae

Carica papaya L. Caricaceae

Curcuma domestica Valeton syn. (C. longa L.)c. Zingiberaceae

11 iscte rosa-sinensis Malvaceae

Hypns suavolens (L.)Poit. Labiatae

Oldenlandia affinis (Roem.& Schult.) DC. syn. (O. decumbens ) (Höchst. ) Hiern. Hedyotis affinis(Roem. & Schult.) Rubiaceae

Plumbago zeylamca L. Plumbaginaceae

Rhoe spathaceae (Sw.)

Steam syn. (R. discolor) Hance

Commelinaceae

Sapindustrifoliatus(L.)

Sapindaceae

Seeds, roots

Bark

Leaves

Fruit, (unripe) latex

Rhizome

Flower

Leaves

Whole plant, aerial parts

Whole plant, roots

Plant

Seed, fruit-pulp

Aqueous extract of seeds (proteins), steroidal oil, ethanol extract of root

Oleanic acid saponin

Stigma-5ene-3/37a-diol, stigma-5ene-3/37/3-diol, ^sitosterol

Papain?

Essential oil, curcumin

Ethanol extract, hibiscetin??

Essential oil?

Polypeptide (molecular weight 4000), serotonin

Plumbagin (2-methyl-4-hydroxy-1 -4-naphtho-quinone)

Saponin

See text. 150 mg of steroidal oil produces 80% sterility in rats. Oral doses of 300 mg of root extract per kg body weight 100% interception. LD50 in mice is 2 mg/kg. Oxytocic

Abortive and anti-implantation activity in mice using 50 mg benzene extract per kg body weight on Days 1-5 post coitum

Anti-fertility activity in mice, abortive 50 ml unripe fruit-juice on Day 1-7 post coitum causes 60% interception

Ethanol extract at doses of 100 mg/kg exerted 60% anti-implantation activity, higher doses hardly any. Early abortifacient effect. Oxytocic antiovulatory

100-200 mg petroleum ether extract per kg body weight on Days 1-7 post coitum produces 80-100% anti-implantation. May act on adrenal-hypophysial axis. Essential oil inhibits hyalorunidase On tenth day of pregnancy rats having received benzene extract showed 80% reduction in implantation. No early abortifacient effect was noted. Ethanol extract is said to alter sex ratio of the pups

Alcohol extract of leaves shows anti-implantation activity. Further investigation advised Polypeptide isolated from aqueous decoctions of aerial parts of the plant produced, in vitro, contractions of pregnant uterus. Action absent or doubtful in situ

Abortive in vitro, no abortion in pregnant rabbits or guinea pigs. In rats 75-100% mortality after 3-4 doses. Oxytocic in vitro

Antifertility and anti-nidatory. Stimulative action on mouse uterus

An ethanol extract administered 1-7 days post coitum in rats produced 80% interception in 100 mg/kg doses and 100% interception with 500 mg/kg doses. A methanol fraction of the ethanol extract acted orally in doses of 25 mg/kg when given on Days 4 and 5 of pregnancy

Desai and Rupawala (1966) Desai and Sirsi (1966) Dijkman etal. (1966) Desai and Rupawala (1967) Gupta etal. (1968) Agrawalcla/. (1969,1970) CV

Gopolachari and Dhar (1958) Hariharan and Ran jaswani (1970) Kambo j and Dhawan (1982) I

Shukla and Krishnamurti (1961) Sakkawalaefa/. (1962) Bhaduriefa/. (1968a) Pakrashi et al. (1975a, b) CV I

Chandrasekar et al. (1961) Garg and Garg(1974) Kapoorera/. (1974) I

Aroraetal. (1971)

Chandra and Gupta (1972)

Garg (1974)

Gargetal. (1978)

Batta and Santhakumari (1970)

Garg etal. (1978) Bingel and Farnsworth (1980) Gran (1973a, b,c,d,e) Bingel and Farnsworth (1980)

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