Fabaceae

L In India the plant is regarded as an antipyretic and anticatarrhal (Dalziel ,1937). The leaves are used in Liberia to bathe a child having convulsions (Harley, 1941). C Twelve alkaloids consisting of carboxylated and decarboxylated tryptamines, 3-car-bolines and 3-phenylethylamines have been isolated from different parts of D. gangeticum at different stages of its development (Ghosal and Bhattacharya, 1972). The aerial portion of the plant contained 2-indole-3-alkylamines,...

Info

Bark tonic juice sprains, bruises gonorrhoea Cholagogue Remittant fever Emmenagogue Burns, snake bites Bitter'tonic' Hypotensive Bark tonic juice sprains, bruises gonorrhoea Cholagogue Remittant fever Emmenagogue Bitter 'tonic', inhibits Leishmania tropica in concentrations of 1 80000 Burns, snake bites Bitter'tonic' Hypotensive As can be seen from this table, the Menispermaceae produce not only curarizing bisbenzyl isoquinoline alkaloids (Guha et al., 1979) (mostly asymmetric), which act on...

Foreword

In 1975 I began to be interested in the study of the active principles of African medicinal plants and searched for relevant literature. At the time I was particularly interested in receiving more information on West African plants as we were developing experimental work in collaboration with the Chemistry Department of the Nigerian University of Nsukka and I became aware of the great difficulty in finding fairly reliable documentation even on some of the best-known traditional herbal remedies....

Rutaceae

L In Lagos an agbo infusion is made of the fruit and leaves and sometimes the bark of A. paniculata, to be taken both internally and as a wash in rheumatic conditions (Dalziel, 1937). Sometimes Clausena anisata is added to the infusion (Irvine, 1961). C The coumarins scoparone, imperatorin and xanthoxyletin have been isolated from the stembark (Adesina and Ette, 1982). The fruit contains imperatorin, - -sitosterol and another coumarin, xanthotoxin (Quartey, 1963). In addition, free aliphatic...

Fabaceae Plants For Medicine

West African wild indigo, Indigo vine L The leaves are applied as a poultice to ulcers of the foot, etc. or as a dressing for skin diseases. The bark and root are a remedy for jaundice and are used as a general tonic (Dalziel, 1937). A decoction of the bark with native natron is, in certain districts, a treatment for abdominal troubles, with flatulence in horses. The leaf decoction is also used for the treatment of venereal disease and semen insufficiency (Ainslie, 1937). C The fresh leaves of...

Phytolaccaceae

This plant has anti-inflammatory as well as molluscicidal properties (I). C The constituents have been examined in detail and it was found that up to ten saponins (phytolaccosides) were distributed in all tissues of Phytolacca spp. (P. americana and P. esculenta). Polyphenols have been isolated from the seeds (Woo and Kang, 1978). The saponins contained glucose as a sugar component except for phytolaccoside A, which contained D-xylose. The genins were found to be phytolaccagenic acid,...

Early traditional medicine

Treatment has been provided in West Africa by the native 'doctors' (ifas, juju men and herbalists). The juju man is believed to be able to get the support of the gods (through magic and tribal rituals) for the numerous problems affecting his applicants. He not only treats diseases, which the people consider to be an adversity imposed upon them by outside forces they do not comprehend, but is also required to be a rainmaker or to perform rites to ensure good crops, prosperity, etc., or to help...

Liliaceae

L In Nigeria the juice of the leaves of A. schweinfurthi Bak. is used in the treatment of guinea worm infestation and in Ghana it is used for the treatment of vitiligo (Dalziel, 1937, p. 476). In India extracts of A. barbadensis are considered a tonic in small doses and a purgative, emmenagogue and anthelmintic in larger doses. The dried juice is cathartic and is used to relieve constipation. The pulp is used to reduce or prevent menstruation (Chopra etal., 1956, p. 13). C The juice of the...

Analgesic Property Of Tiliacora Dinklagei

Roots (Glossopkolis dinklagei (Engl.) Stapf) Tiliacora funifera (Miers) Oliv. Roots Epinetrum cordifolium Mangenot & Root Miege (in Ghana and Ivory Coast) Cocculuspendulus(J. & G. Forst.) Leaves Diels syn. (C. leaeba (Del.) DC., Sterns Epibaterium pendulum (J. & G. Forst.)) Roots Funiferine Nortiliacorine A Tiliafuniniine Isotetrandrine Thalrugosine Nortiliacorine A Isochondrodendrine Cycleanine Dimethyl-o, o-isochondro- dendrine Norcycleanine...

Meliaceae

L Mainly a timber tree, according to Sebire, the bark is used locally in Senegal for epilepsy (Dalziel, 1937). C From the roots a bitter principle related to calicedrin has been extracted by Paris and Moyse-Mignon (1939). This has been identified by Bevan et al. (1965) as a mixture of two meliacins, which were named ekebergalactones B and C. P Paris and Moyse-Mignon (1939) noticed that the water extract of the leaves stupefied goldfish and concentrations of 3 g 1 killed them. Gaudin and...

Annonaceae

Guinea of Ethiopian pepper, spice tree L In Nigeria the fruits are used as a cough cure, a carminative and a stimulating additive to other remedies. A fluid extraction or a decoction of the fruit or bark is recommended in the treatment of bronchitis, dysentery and biliousness. An extract of the seeds is also used to eliminate roundworm. The fruit is used as a condiment (Dalziel, 1937). C From the fruit of the Nigerian species xylopic acid, a new diterpenic acid (15 3-acetoxy( )kaur-16ene-19-oic...

Gentianaceae

L In India the fresh juice of the plant is prescribed for insanity, epilepsy and nervous debility (Chopra et al., 1956). C Triterpenes, alkaloids, mangiferin (flavonic heteroside) and a number of xanthones have been isolated from the roots (Chaudhury and Ghosal, 1971 Ghosal et al., 1971). P The alcoholic extract of the plant has been found to have CNS depressant action in mice, producing a fall in blood pressure, and to stimulate the isolated smooth muscles of the rabbit intestine and of the...

Sex hormones and thyroid hormones

Oestrogens are the hormones concerned with the maturation of the female genital tract, the development of the secondary sexual characteristics and bone formation. The main oestrogens, oestradiol and oestrone, are secreted by the theca interna and appear in the fluid of the Graafian Follicles. Oestrogens are also secreted by the placenta and to a much lesser degree by the adrenal cortex. They are rapidly metabolized in the liver. Progesterone is the hormone concerned with the maintenance of...

Subfamily Cerberoideae

Ouabain Plant

Roots, bark Thevetins (T. peruviana) c. Leaves, seeds References are indicated only when they are not mentioned in the text. 'A number of Conopharyngia and Tabernaemontana species also contain voacangine and vobtusine. However, the principal use of those species is based on their content of alkaloids of the ibogaine group, which act on the nervous system, and the plants will therefore be described with those acting on the nervous system. Likewise Allamanda...

Reference Of Githens 1949 Tannin

Medicinal Plants For Diabetes

Brassica oleraceae L. var. capitata L. (Cabbage) Cruciferae Hypoglycaemic fraction, called vegulin, loses activity in 1 month. Thioglycosides (methyl and ethyl propyldi-sulphides and goitrogenic indole-myrosin glycoside (neo-gluco-brassicin) Hypoglycaemic principle tied to a hyper-glycaemic fraction from which it can be separated MacDonald and Wislicki, (1938) Lewis (1950) Johnson etal. (1971) Yohoraetal. (1973) Garlic (Allium sativum) (Brahmachari and Augusti, 1962b), Brassica oleraceae and...

Uses If Barteria Nigritiana

II Plants with insecticidal or molluscicidal activity In tropical climates especially, a number of infective diseases are conveyed by insects or molluscs, and the need for prophylactic action has already been mentioned in the discussion on protozoal and viral diseases. Some nematode infections are also transmitted by animal vectors thus river blindness (onchocerciasis) is transmitted by the buffalo gnat, Simulium damnosum, and in iilariasis caused by Manzonella ozzardi transmission is done by...

Mechanism of action of hypoglycaemic plants

The plant constituents which have a hypoglycaemic action act in various ways. We have seen that plants rich in organic sulphides seem to remove insulin-inactivating compounds through their SH groups by competing with insulin, which is a disulphide protein, for the SH groups in these inactivating compounds. Similarly, nicotinic acid is known to be an insulinase inhibitor (Ben David et al., 1963). We have also seen that anthocyanosides appear to act by improving the vascularization of the...

Oral hypoglycaemic action

Insulin, a hormone secreted by the 3-cells of the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, is of utmost importance for the correct metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. It induces the oxidative breakdown of glucose, has a stimulating effect on the synthesis of liver glycogen from glucose and inhibits the formation of liver glycogen from protein and fat. Diabetes, a condition characterized by hyperglycaemia, is caused by insufficient secretion of insulin or to insufficiency of its peripheral...

Euphorbiaceae

L An extract of the bark of this small tree is used as a purgative and antipyretic and topically in ophthalmias Oliver, 1960 . C From the rootbark the alkaloids phyllalbine, securinine, phyllochrysine allo-securinine , phyllanthine methoxysecurinine and phyllanthidine have been isolated Janot et al., 1958 Parello et al., 1963 Parello, 1966 Foussard Blanpin et al., 1967 . Earlier, securinine had been found in Securinega suffruticosa by Muraveva and Bankovski 1956 . Bevan etal. 1964 have reported...

Menispermaceae

Troupin includes T. wamecki Engl, ex Diels. and T. johannis Exell. in this species . L Both plants have been used in local medicine in Ghana in the treatment of gastric fevers and menstrual irregularities Tackie and Thomas, 1968 . C The major alkaloid obtained from the roots of T. funifera is the bis-benzyl-isoquinoline biphenyl base, funiferine. Isotetrandrine, thalrugosine nortiliacorine A and a new imino-bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, tiliafunimine, have been...

Ill Plants containing hypoglycaemic organic sulphur compounds

Already in 1923 Collip noticed that a totally depancreatized dog could be kept alive for 66 days on three injections of crude onion extract. Later, a number of research workers confirmed that the onion and its extracts have a distinct, slowly developing hypoglycaemic action and that the effect is also obtained when the extract is given by mouth Hermann, 1956, 1958 Jain and Vyas, 1974 . The action of a petroleum ether extract of sliced dried onion was equivalent to...

Passifloraceae

L Used in southern Nigeria and Ghana as a fish poison and as a remedy for lumbago. The Mano of Liberia use the plant to produce amnesia Dalziel, 1937 Harley, 1941 Watt, 1967 . C In the related South African A. digitata Engl, a toxalbumin and a cyanogenetic glycoside were reported by Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk 1962 . P Pharmacological investigations showed that aqueous extracts of the Nigerian climber had a graded depressor effect on the blood pressure of the anaesthetized cat. The effect was...

N

Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk 1962 Garg and Prasar 1965 Menssen and Stapel 1973 Abraham et al. 1975 Setty ra . 1976 Baer and Haensel 1982 Famsworth and Waller 1982 Where a plant has been discussed in another chapter, reference is made to that chapter. Thus CV refers to Chapter 2 Cardiovascular plants , N refers to Chapter 3 The nervous system and I refers to Chapter 4 Anti-infection therapy . ''No revival of sperm motility by buffered glucose solution. 1 International Planned Parenthood Federation....

Loganiaceae

C Oxindole and bis-indole alkaloids have been reported in S. usambarensis. Alkaloids of this type were formerly known in certain species of Rubiaceae and Apocynaceae but their presence has now been detected in Loganiaceae. The alkaloids found in the bark and leaves of 5. usambarensis in the Congo have been identified as harmine, strychnofoline, 2-isostrychnofoline, strychnophylline and isostrychnophylline. In addition, the presence of 18,19-dihydro-usambarine, usambaridine and their...

The cardiovascular system

I Plants in tropical West Africa with an action on the cardiovascular system In the particular field of cardiovascular drugs, plants still provide the basis of treatment, even in orthodox pharmacy. However, some of the plants accepted by most Pharmacopoeias, such as Digitalis, Convallaria, Adonis, Helleborus and Crataegus, which act mainly on the heart, and Hydrastis, Veratrum, Amni visnagi, Viscutn album and Aesculus hippocastanum, which act more specifically on the blood vessels, do not grow...

Periplocaceae

Calotropis Sketch

L The whole plant is used to stupefy fish, and the leaves and latex are used in Ghana and Liberia for the treatment of rickets, diarrhoea and skin lesions Githens, 1949 Oliver, 1960 . C Reichstein and co-workers isolated in 1954 a series of digitalis heterosides from the fresh wood of this species and identified several aglycones including strophanthidin, strophanthidol and nigrescigenin. Later they also isolated, inter alia, 6-dehydroxy-strophanthidin, strophanthigenin and convallotoxin Mauli...

Apocynaceae

L Locally the latex is used as a rubber adulterant and is applied to carious teeth Oliver, 1960 . C Since 1955 this plant has aroused considerable interest and has been the subject of numerous publications. From the bark of the stem and the root many alkaloids have been isolated 4-5 total alkaloids from the stembark and 5-10 from the rootbark . These include voacamine the main alkaloid , voacangine, voacristine voacangarine , voacorine, vobasine, voacamidine an isomer of voacamine and many...

Active Chemicals Of Chasmanthera Dependens

General tests for antiprotozoals were formerly carried out on paramecia, which are non-pathogenic to man, but these proved to be of no value. The malaria parasites, of which the most malignant is Plasmodium falciparum, have two main phases intracorporal, in Man, and extracorporal or exogenous in the mosquito Anopheles . The intracorporal phase has three distinct cycles asexual schizogony , sexual sporogony and an extra-erythrocytic cycle in the liver. Thus Man is an intermediary the mosquito is...

The nervous system

In this chapter are described plants having a direct action on the central nervous system CNS and those plants that are used in the treatment of mental and nervous diseases, including those acting via the cholinergic and adrenergic systems. The CNS, which is best considered as a whole, controls all sensory and integrated motor activity. Plants which interefere with its function may be classified as follows I CNS stimulants Analeptics, stimulants Antidepressants, hallucinogens II CNS depressants...

Rubiaceae

L The bark of these spp. is chewed as a remedy for coughs Lane Pool, in Dalziel, 1937 and has been used for the treatment of stomach pains and syphilis Staner and Boutique, 1937 . C Some forty alkaloids have been identified in Uncaria spp. They are mainly of the hetero-yohimbine and corresponding oxindole types although pyridino-indoloquinolizidines e.g. angustine and harmane are also present. Rhynchophyl-line, rotundifoline and isorhynchophylline, etc. have been reported as well as gambirine...

Cns

Many curare alkaloids have to be injected as they are not absorbed from the intestine and the injection produces a short-lasting reversible effect as the concentration of the alkaloids in the plasma is reduced by half every 13 min. A secondary effect of the curare alkaloids is the lowering of the arterial blood pressure, caused in some cases through the liberation of histamine and in others by ganglionic blockade. In small doses the curare alkaloids provide the muscular...

Antiinfective activity of higher plants

Ideally, the plants used for anti-infective therapy should be toxic to infectious organisms and devoid of toxicity for human beings. The aim is to obtain the highest possible favourable ratio between the dose toxic to man and that active against the agent of infection. Biochemical differences between the infective agent and the host should allow the finding of plant constituents that are selectively toxic to the infecting organism. The plants used for anti-infective therapy can be divided into...

Spigelia As Anthelmintics In Rabbits

Kerharo el a . 1960,1962 Delaveaueta . 1979 N Poussetera . 1974 Lev que a . 1975 Ross et al. 1980 Dhar etal. 1968 Nara etal. 1977 N N Ogunlana and Ramstad 1975 Del veauefa , 1979 CV Dhar etal. 1968 Sato and Muro 1974 e Antimetazoal plants anthelmintics Some anthelmintics act by paralysing worms such as tapeworm , which then may have to be expelled by a purge. However, some drugs are also purgative themselves. Other anthelmintics can destroy the parasite through lysis, for example those...

Piperaceae

West African black pepper or Ashanti pepper L The black berries are a much-used spice. The pepper is used externally as a counter-irritant or in a stimulating ointment, and internally as a stomachic and carminative. The pulverized grains are useful as an insecticide. C Chromatographic analysis of the fruits has revealed the amides piperine, sylvatine, Aa, 3-dihydro-piperine, tricho-stachine and a new naturally occurring amide, Aa , 3-dihydro-piperlonguminine Addae-Mensah et al., 1977a, b . In...