Pharmacological investigations

The antifungal and antifeedant activity of bryophytes is widely known, but mainly from in vitro studies. Recent exploratory studies done in Germany, Peru and Bolivia have demonstrated that extracts derived from native bryophyte species have significant effects on human pathogenic fungi and may cure skin diseases. Several Indian bryophytes have been identified as a potential source of antimycobacterial agents. As pointed out, Anoectangium bicolor is a rare bryophyte with anti cholinesterase...

What Essential Oils Potentiate Amphetamine Locomotor Effects

The roots of the plant contain essential oil, rich in sesquiterpenes and coumarins. Jatamansone or valeranone (Fig. 5.240) is the principal sesquiterpene. Other sesquiterpenes include nardostachone (Fig. 5.241), dihydrojatamansin, jatamansinol, jatamansic acid, jatamansinone, jatamansinol, oroseolol, oroselone, seselin, valeranal, nardostachyin, nardosinone, spirojatamol, jatamol A and B, calarenol, seychellene, seychelane, coumarin jatamansin or xanthogalin. A new sesquiterpene acid, nardin...

Preface

This book has been written with the primary objective of providing scientific footage to medical herbalism. With advancement of our knowledge of the subject, a large number of texts have appeared which are useful in their own way but do not fully meet the interdisciplinary nature of herbalism. Herbalism coupled with phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology is a powerful tool for drug discovery. The present treatise has been presented in a simple and lucid style so that a student who has even a...

Salacia oblonga Wall

In Japan S. oblonga has been sold as a food supplement for several years. S. oblonga plants grow in limited regions of India and Sri Lanka, and it is not yet well known in the U.S. A study reported two biologically active principles from petroleum ether extract of the root bark of S. oblonga. Two principles demonstrated about 60 and 76 hypoglycemic potency of an equal dose of tolbutamide (250 mg kg) in albino rats. It was demonstrated that the aqueous methanolic extract of the roots of S....

Phytomedicine and cancer

Recently, numerous reviews of plant derived chemo preventive compounds have identified their role in the treatment of cancer. The chemo preventive compounds, precisely known as phytopharmaceuticals, are dietary ingredients, which being food derived, are considered pharmacologically safe. Some of the common chemo- preventive dietary compounds derived from dietary ingredients are depicted in Fig. 6.11. Fig.6.11 Common chemo- preventive dietary compounds. Source Jonathan (2005). Fig.6.11 Common...

Cardiac glycosides of Nerium odorum

Neriodin, neriodorin, neriodorein and oleandrin (Fig. 5.149). Cardiac glycosides of Thevetia nerifolia The cardioactive glycosides are triosides or monosides. Chief cardiac glycosides include thevetin A & B or cerebroside (triosides), cerebin and neriifolin (monosides), thevenerin (ruvoside) and perusitin (peruvosidic acid). Cardiac glycosides of Stropanthus kombe (Fig. 5.150) K-stropanthin, cymarin and cymarol Fig. 5.150 Structure of cardiac glycosides of Stropanthus kombe. Fig. 5.150...

Phytomedicines and Herbal Extracts

A medicinal herb is considered to be a chemical factory as it contains a multitude of chemical compounds like alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, resins, oleoresins, sesquiterpene lactones and oils (essential and fixed). Some rare compounds like furanocoumarins, hydroxycoumarins, napthoquinones, acylphloroglucinols and sterones are also distributed among the plant kingdom. The active constituents are usually secondary metabolites, derived from biosynthetic pathways present within the plant tissue....

Introduction

Complementary and Alternative Systems of Medicine (CAM) viz. Ayurveda, Siddha, and Traditional Chinese Medicine, have become more popular in recent years. Medicinal herbs and extracts prepared from them are widely used in the treatment of liver diseases like hepatitis, cirrhosis, and loss of appetite. A number of reviews have focused on the therapeutic utility and adverse effects of herbal products, particularly hepatotoxicity. Silymarin (flavanolignan mixture from Silybum marianum Linn.),...

Cardiac glycosides

Cardiac Glycocide House Plants

The group includes several medicinal herbs like Digitalis purpurea, Thevetia nerifolia and Helleborus niger. The active constituents of the plants are powerful glycosides and due to a specific action on the heart, they are known as cardiac glycosides or heart tonic. Cardiac glycosides are divided in two groups A. Bufadienolides (Fig. 5.143) They are C 24 steroids. Hellbrien is a bufadienolide cardiac glycoside. On hydrolysis, it yields aglycone, hellbrigenin, which is more active than...

Biosynthesis of caffeine

Medicinal Plants Chart

7-Methyl Xanthine - - - > Theobromine Fig. 6.4 Biosynthesis of caffeine (two pathways). Formulated Herbs (Prescriptions) Dietary supplement Formulated Herbs (Prescriptions) Dietary supplement quality control preclincial studies clinical trials * BDFI Bioactivity Directed Fractionation Fig. 6.5 Principal concepts of research on new medicines. 1. Herbal Medicine-Origin ID Authenticity 3. Controlled Inspections of Contaminations 8. Manufacture & Dosage From (GMP & GMC to maintain...

Traditional medicinal use

Olean Carbs

In Ayurveda, the drug is classified as an expectorant. It isan integral part of Ayurvedic laxative formulation, Triphala. T. belerica is used in the treatment of the common cold, pharyngitis and constipation. Unripe fruit is a mild laxative and ripe fruit is an astringent. T. belerica seeds are used as an aphrodisiac. Oil expressed from the seed pulp is used in leucoderma and alopecia. Modern investigations have proved the laxative activity of the oil. 20.3 Phytochemistry The fruit contains...

Current research on dietary phytochemicals

Dietary phytochemicals are also known as phytonutrients. Phytonutrients are nutrients derived from plant material that have been shown to be necessary for sustaining human life (distinction form phytochemicals). About 800 phytonutrients are known to exist in plant kingdom. The National Cancer Institute recommends eating at least 5-9 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Other reputable sources recommend at least 9 servings for men, 7 servings for women, and 5 servings for children....

Lignans

Hydroxymatairesinol Lignan

Sargentodoxaceae, lignan from Sargenodoxa cuneata has anthelmintic activity. Termilignan, thannilignan and ano lignan B isolated from Terminalia belerica demonstrated significant anti HIV, antimalarial and antifungal effects in vitro. Sesamin and sesamolin are lignan derivatives found in seasame oil. The flavonol lignans hydnocarpin, hydnowightin and neohydnocarpin isolated from the seeds of Hydnocarpus sp are lipid lowering, anti-inflammatory and antitumoral in animal experiments. Schisandra...

Phytochemistry

Barakol (Fig. 23.1), a dioaxaphenalne derivative is a biologically active constituent extracted from the leaves and flowers of C. siamea. The trunk and root bark contain alkaloids cassiamine A, B and C. Alkaloids including siaminine A (Fig. 23.2), B and C, have been isolated from the alcoholic extract of the leaves. Two alkaloids, cassiarine A and B have been isolated from the leaves of C. siamea. Three alkaloids, cassiarins C-E (Figs. 23.3 to 23.5), and a new chromone, 10,...

Phytochemicals and bacterial resistance

Recently there has been a growing interest in characterizing new antimicrobial substances from medicinal plants. The interest can be ascribed to three factors 1. In terms of plant ecology, plants produce antibacterial metabolites as part of chemical defense. 2. There are countless examples of plants, which have been used topically and systemically to treat bacterial infections. 3. Functional group chemistry, chirality and chemical diversity of phytochemicals. Hyperforin, the acylpholoroglucinol...

Further reading

Nature's medicinal bounty don't throw it away. World, Health, For. 14, 390-5. Askawa Y. 1981. Biologically active substances obtained from bryophytes. J. Hattor. Bot. Lab. 50, 123-142. Askawa Y. 1982. Chemical constituents of the Hepaticae. Prog. Chem. Org. Nat. Prod. 42, 1-285. Banejree RD. 1974. Studies on the antibiotic activities of bryophytes and pteridophytes. Thesis, Uni Kalyani, Kalyani, India. Basile A, Giordano S, Lopez-Saez JA and Cobianchi RC. 1999.Antibacterial...

Bitter glycosides

These have been discussed under bitters. Table 5.8 Glycosides studied from medicinal plants. Table 5.8 Glycosides studied from medicinal plants. Acrocomia mexicana, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Anthocleista voglii, Cen-taurium eryhreae, Frasera carolinensis, Gentiana waltonii, Hintonia latifolia, Morinda lucida, Salvia lavandulifolia, Zygophyllum gaetulum 136 Herbalism, Phytochemistry and Ethnopharmacology Table 5.8 contd Anthocleista djalonensis Gentiana lutea, Scabiosa columbiana

References and further reading

Babu BH, Shylesh BS, and Padikkala J. 2001. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Acanthus ilicifolius. Fitoterapia. 72, 272-277. Babu BH, Shylesh BS, and Padikkala J. 2002. Tumour reducing and anticarcinogenic activity of Acanthus ilicifolius in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 79, 27-33. Chakraborty TD, Bhuniya M, Chatterjee M, Rahaman and Singha D. 2007 Acanthus ilicifolius plant extract prevents DNA alterations in a transplantable Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing murine model. World....

Ipomoea muricata L Jacq Convolvulaceae

The seeds of Ipomoea muricata are largely imported into Bombay, from Iran, under the name of tukm-i-nil. Distribution Native to eastern India and Bangladesh. Botany Perennial vining climber to 30 feet. It is a rare climber, sporting unusual aerial rootless and white, funnel-shaped blossoms in the second year. Phytochemistry Work done in the Philippines has demonstrated the presence of indolizidine alkaloids in the seeds. Two resin glycosides and muricatins VII and...

Doses of Salacia based preparations

Although no authentic information is available regarding the dosage, a typical dose of Salacia based preparations is 2.5 to 5.0 grams daily of the whole herb, or a comparable amount as extract. All the three species of Salacia have demonstrated alpha-glucosidase inhibiting activity like acarbose, with salacinol and kotalanol, as possible active principles. These studies have provided insights into potential protective and anti-obesity roles of Salacia species also. Some animal studies have...

Role for Physicians in Ethnopharmacology and Drug Discovery

Ethnopharmacology investigations classically involved traditional healers, botanists, anthropologists, chemists and pharmacologists. The role of some groups of researchers but not of physicians has been highlighted and well defined in ethno pharmacological investigations. Historical data has shown that the discovery of several important modern drugs of herbal origin owe to the medical knowledge and clinical expertise of physicians. Current trends indicate a negligible role of physicians in...

Reverse pharmacology and Ayurveda

Pharmacology Related Fig

Reverse pharmacology correlates with Ayurvedic drug action. The approach has attracted considerable attention, nationally and internationally. Central Scientific Instrumental Research (CSIR) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) have done clinical trials with natural products. Moreover, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS) has recently adopted the golden triangle approach for some new indications of old drugs, as well as for Ayurveda (Fig. 2.5). The golden...

Herbalphytochemicaldrug interactions

Health Benefits Henbane

Due to the revised interest in herbal medicine, people are favoring nutraceuticals and botanical supplements. As the same time several companies have introduced designed or pharma foods in the market. These are a rich source of phytochemicals having antioxidant, anti-aging and chemo protective effects. Recent studies have reported that phytomedicines have a modulatory effect on drug-metabolizing enzymes, (particularly cytochrome 450) leading to potential drug interactions. Phytochemicals have...

Markets and Marketing Issues

Medicinial Plant Export

Herbal medicine and natural pharmaceuticals are moving from the fringe to mainstream, with a larger number of people seeking remedies and health approaches free of the side-effects caused by synthesized chemicals (Fig. 1.2). This was considered one of the most vital and high growth industries of the 90s and is set to expand even further into the next century. The increasing acceptance of herbal medicines in Australia is well supported by trends around the world. In Germany and France which...

Scope of medicinal phytochemistry

Medicinal phytochemistry seems to be an interdisciplinary subject. For a well-trained medicinal phytochemist, knowledge of subjects like medicinal or pharmaceutical botany, anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacognosy, ethnopharmacology, chemical ecology, conventional phytochemistry, toxicology, traditional systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Siddha, Homeopathy, Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Unani), clinical research and biostatistics are prerequisites. While several complementary and...

Cyanogenic Glycoside From Taraxacum Officinale

Akashi T, Furuno T, Takahashi T, and Ayabe S-I. 1994. Biosynthesis of triterpenoids in cultured cells, and regenerated and wild plant organs of Taraxacum officinale. Phytochemistry. 36, 303-308. Akhtar MS, Khan QM, and Khaliq T. 1985. Effects of Portulaca oleracae (Kulfa) and Taraxacum officinale (Dhudhal) in normoglycaemic and alloxan-treated hyperglycaemic rabbits. J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 35, 207-210. Anonyms ESCOP Monographs. 2003. The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products. 2nd Ed....

Synergy in relation to the pharmacological action of phytomedicines

Some of the most popular and widely used phytomedicines are those consisting of St. John's wort, Echinacea, ginkgo, garlic, kava, and valerian, which have considerable pharmacological and clinical evidence to support their use, and synergy is generally assumed to play a part in their medicinal effects (Table 5.5). Attempts are rarely made to isolate a single constituent from these extracts. In Traditional Indian Medicine (Ayurveda), Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Western Medical Herbalism,...

Phenolics

Knema Furfuracea

In the phenols group, cresols and the parent compound itself are the most important compounds as well as thymol. Natural compounds such as pyrocatechol, guaiacol and their derivatives are not toxic. A well-known pyrocatechol derivative is adrenaline. Monohydric phenols provide numerous natural scents (e.g. vanillin, thymol, carvacrol, zingiverone (in ginger), and salicylaldehyde). Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in plant flora. They constitute an important part of glycosides (phenolic...

Ferns in traditional medicine

About 300 B.C., Theophrastus recommended oil extracted from ferns to expel internal parasites. Rhizomes of various shield fern species (Polystichum and Dryopteris) have been used since the 18th century as a cure for intestinal worms. Cyathea manniana Hook. (Cyatheaceae) from East Africa has been used by the Chagga and by German troops in the First World War as an anthelmintic. Pteridophytes find use in Homoeopathic, Ayurvedic, Tribal and Unani prescriptions for worm infestation. Aromatic...

Azadirachta indica for Malaria

Malaria Species Chart

There are a number of references in classical Ayurvedic texts for neem as an antimalarial agent. Classical formulations for Vishamajwara include Nimbadi Kwath, Amruta Nimba Kwath, Panchatiktaka Ghrita, and Jwarhara Kwath. Neem is still widely used in India. In vitro studies with limonoids isolated from neem extract have shown efficacy against Plasmodium species (Table 2.1). Nimbolide (Fig. 1.2) was identified as an antiplasmodial compound (IC50 0.95 ng ml-1, P. falciparum K1). The derivatives...

Classification of phytochemistry

In our view, phytochemistry can be divided into two classes 1. Conventional or traditional phytochemistry. 2. Medicinal or applied phytochemistry. Conventional phytochemistry, adopts procedures for isolation and purification of active constituents of medicinal plants. The study of this discipline is of more relevance to the pharmaceutical industry. A detailed discussion of conventional phytochemical techniques is beyond the scope of this book. Medicinal phytochemistry is emerging as a new...

Lakshmana in ancient Ayurvedic texts

Actions Pungent, laxative, appetizer, light and hot in potency. Therapeutics Cough, asthma, fever, chronic rhinitis, myalgia, worm infestation and heart ailments. It pacifies vata and kapha. Actions Pungent, laxative, appetizer, light and hot in potency. It pacifies vata and kapha. Therapeutics Loss of appetite and eye-ailments. Dhanwantri Nighantu The author has described laksmana as a variety of brahati. Actions and therapeutics Bitter, pacifies Vata and Kapha and cures

Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations

Significant phytochemicals reported from algae Plastocyanin and ferredoxin have been reported from Ceratophyllum demersum. A diterpenoid (dictyotetraene) has been isolated from Dictyota sp. from North Brittany Sea. Four diterpenoids (dischototetroal, dichotopentanol, dichotone and dichotodione) have been reported from Dictyota dichotoma (Hudson) Lamouroux (Dictyotaceae) growing in Pakistan. Several sterols, terpenes, polyols and certain metabolites have been isolated from these seaweeds. Some...

Oleocanthal

Is present in extra-virgin olive oil. It is a natural anti-inflammatory compound that has a potency and profile similar to that of ibuprofen. In addition it has an antioxidant activity (Fig. 6.17). It is regarded as gold standard in the treatment of liver diseases. Further research Anti-psoriatic activity Slymarin has been reported to be efficacious in psoriasis. The ability of slymarin to inhibit leukotriene synthesis and hepatoprotective action is believed to contribute to anti-psoriatic...

Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk Boraginaceae

Mishra in his work on rare Ayurvedic drugs has indicated C. lanceolatum as a possible candidate for lakshmana. Distribution Common throughout parts of Africa and Asia. It is also distributed in Madagascar. Botany Annual or biennial herb, the taproot 1-8 mm in diam. stems erect, to c. 1 m tall, with sparse to moderate, appressed to spreading pubescence. Basal leaves in an evident rosette or smaller plants apparently immediately erect and lacking a basal rosette. Inflorescences terminal, once to...

Structure Of Villalstonine

Alstonia is a widespread genus of evergreen trees and shrubs from Apocynaceae (dogbane family). Alstonia (devil tree) consisting of about 40-60 species, native to tropical and subtropical Africa, Central America, Southeast Asia and Australia (Sidiyasa, 1998). About 200 alkaloids have been reported from the genus, many of which are pharmacologically active. Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex A. DC. is native of Malaysia and frequently planted as an ornamental. The decoctions of A. macrophylla leaves...

Flavonoids phytoestrogens of Epimedium brevicornum Max hoary goat weed

A 24-mon randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and Shanghai University of Chinese Medicine reported the beneficial effect of hoary goat weed in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Eighty five participants were assigned a daily dose of hoary goat weed or placebo. All the women received 300 mg of calcium daily. According to researchers, flavonoids (phytoestrogens) of hoary goat weed may be responsible for increase in bone mineral density at the...

Historical aspects

The term orchid was coined by Theophrastus as the anatomy of the plants resembled testicles. The Greek word 'orchid' literally means testicles. This may account for the use of orchids as aphrodisiacs in ancient civilizations. Among the history of ancient alternative systems of medicine Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) are on the forefront. Asthavarga is an important ingredient of various classical Ayurvedic formulations like Chavyanprasa. Out of eight constituents of Ashtavarga,...

Spirulina Aphanizomenon and Chlorella sp

Spirulina platensis Linn., Spirulina fusiformis Voronichin (Oscillatoriaceae) These algal genera deserve special mention as regards to medicine . Animal research has reported antiviral, antioxidant, neuroprotective, and cardio protective activities of S. platensis. Spirulina fusiformis Arch. has been reported to be nephroprotective in animal studies. C-phycocyanin from S. platensis has hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. C-phycocyanin has been reported to affect the...

Sesquiterpene C15

Vasodilator Medicinal Plants

Like monoterpenes, these are major components of many essential oils. The sesquiterpene acts as irritants when applied externally and when consumed internally their action resembles that of gastrointestinal tract irritant. A number of sesquiterpene lactones have been isolated and broadly they have antimicrobial (particularly antiprotozoal) and neutotoxic action. Fig. 5.236 Structure of common sesquiterpenes. Fig. 5.236 Structure of common sesquiterpenes. Sesquiterpene lactone, palasonin,...

Tannins

These are widely distributed in plant flora. They are phenolic compounds of high molecular weight. Tannins are soluble in water and alcohol and are found in the root, bark, stem and outer layers of plant tissue. Tannins have a characteristic feature to tan, i.e. to convert things into leather. The tannins are acidic in reaction and is attributed to the presence of phenolic or carboxylic group. Tannins form complex with proteins, carbohydrates, gelatin and alkaloids. Tannins are classified in...

Phytochemicals of Cinnamomum zeylanicum L cinnamon

Recent studies have found that cinnamon may have a beneficial effect on blood sugar. Sixty people with type 2 diabetes took 1, 3, or 6 grams of cinnamon in pill form daily, an amount roughly equivalent to one quarter of a teaspoon to 1 teaspoon of cinnamon. After 40 d, all 3 amounts of cinnamon reduced fasting blood glucose by 18 to 29 , triglycerides by 23 to 30 , LDL cholesterol by 7 to 27 , and total cholesterol by 12 to 26 . Another study looked at the effect of cinnamon on 79 people with...

Bitters including quassonoids and limonoids

Bitter principles are basically glycosides and are found commonly in plants of Genitiaceae. They are chemically unrelated but possess the common property of an intensely bitter taste. Although this group of drugs is not used today, but in earlier days were given to promote appetite and aid digestion. The bitters act on gustatory nerves, which results in increased flow of saliva and gastric juices (Fig. 5.97). From the point of view of chemistry, the bitter principles contain lactone group. They...

Traditional medicinal uses

Wedelolactone Structure

India According to Ayurvedic philosophy E.alba is bitter alterative and anthelmintic. It is useful in inflammations, hernia, eye diseases, bronchitis, asthma, leucoderma, anemia, heart and skin diseases, night blindness, syphilis etc. It is reported to be beneficial for the complexion, hair, eyes, and teeth. Expressed juice of E. alba mixed with goat's milk is used in frontal sinusitis and nasal cattarh in children. Bhringraj taila and Bhringrajadi churana are official preparations. In the...

Glycosides

Alkaloids Classification

These are water-soluble constituents, found in the cell sap. They are colorless, crystalline substances containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (Fig. 5.140). Some glycosides are peculiar in having nitrogen and sulfur. Glycosides are neutral in reaction. Chemically, glycosides contain a carbohydrate (glucose) and a non-carbohydrate part (aglycone or genin). Alcohol, glycerol or phenol represents aglycones. A glycoside can be readily hydrolyzed into its components with ferments or mineral acids....

Medicinal Application Of Silymarin

It is indeed an honour to be invited to write the Foreword for book titled 'Herbalism, Phytochemistry and Ethnopharmacology' with its twin lofty motto both to educate and to provide much needed scientific validation to herbal medicine. The author has achieved in this book the multi-faceted objectives of emerging herbal science which is a blend of ancient knowledge coupled with scientific proofs. When I received an invitation from the author to write the Foreword to the book I was somewhat...

Hypericin and hyperforin

Hyperforin Perforatum

As an herbal remedy, Hypericum perforatum has not been subjected to the rigorous clinical testing of modern drug candidates. Several recent reports provide evidence that St. John's wort promotes the metabolism of coadministered drugs, including the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir, the immunosuppressant cyclosporin, and oral contraceptives. Because each of these drugs is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3 A4, a monooxygenase involved in the metabolism of many xenobiotics, these findings...

Definition of phytochemical

A phytochemical is a natural bioactive compound found in plant foods that works with nutrients and dietary fiber to protect against diseases. Phytochemicals are chemicals produced by plants. They may affect health, but are not-essential nutrients as our diet does not require them to sustain life in the same way as vitamins and minerals. Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals that contain protective, disease-preventing compounds. Or Phytochemicals are defined as non-nutritive...

Salacia reticulata Wight

S. reticulata is a climbing perennial woody plant growing wild in South India and in North Sri Lanka. Its roots and stems are been used in Ayurveda to relieve dry mouth. Mangiferin has been isolated from the root bark of S. reticulata. A novel nortriterpenoid aldehyde called salacenonal (Fig. 14.7) has been reported from S. reticulate. Kotalanol having potential natural alpha-glucosidase inhibiting activity was isolated from the roots and stems of S. reticulata through bioassay-guided...

Clinical trials

A small clinical trial was carried out with 10 patients, who were given 200 ml of water, which was stored in a glass overnight, twice a day for one month, taken after lunch, whereas water stored for the whole day was drunk after dinner. There was an encouraging reduction of blood sugar from the second week of treatment and this hypo-glycemic activity continued as long as heartwood was given. 2. In clinical trials with human subjects, P. marsupium has shown remarkable anti-diabetic action. In...

Evolution process of phytochemicals

Gottlieb 1993 proposed the redox theory for evolution of phytochemicals. According to this theory, when the evolution of plants took place, a negligible amount of oxygen was present in the atmosphere. With an increase in atmospheric oxygen, the environment was polluted as a direct result of plant metabolism. With the passage of time, plants kept on acquiring antioxidants, which neutralized the ill-effects of free-radicals. Small plants like algae, fungi, liverworts and mosses survived the...

X

Flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba Fig. 5.136 G. biloba contains flavonoids bilobalide and ginkgolide A, B, and C . Ginkgo has shown to increase production of adenosine triphosphate, resulting in increased cerebral glucose metabolism. Ginkgolide has been cited for its treatment of severe sepsis and for its effect of PAF receptor binding. Ginkgo inhibits platelet activating factor PAF , thereby preventing PAF-induced clot formation and promoting clot breakdowns. Similarly, ginkgo inhibits PAF-induced...

Bioflavonoids

A flavonoid is identical to a bioflavonoid furthermore, a flavonoid by definition is a polyphenol, since it contains more than one benzene ring in its structure. However, many regard polyphenols to be tannins. As seen above, green tea has an abundance of flavonoids and flavonals as well as tannin. These compounds have been well characterized in the herb and numerous papers support their use as antioxidants or free radical scavengers. Flavonoids are an important group of polyphenols, widely...

Phenylpropenes

Medicinal Plants Present India

Eugenol is common example Fig. 5.266 . It is used as a dental analgesic. Napthodianthrones are derivatives of anthracene. Anthracenes have been discussed under glycosides. The main reason for discussing napthodianthrones separately is that they have gained importance because of the pharmacological significance of hypericin present in Hypericum perforatum. Napthodianthrones are known to cause photosensitivity. Napthodianthrone, fagopyrin is present in Fagopyrum esculentum Fig. 5.267 ....

Bryophytes in traditional systems of medicine

There is no historical record, explaining the use of liverworts and mosses in Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine. One research claims that mosses from the species of Barbula, Fissidenc, Minium, Thuidium and species of liverworts like Asterella, Dumortiera, Marchantia, Pellia, Plagiochasma and Stephenrencella-Anthoceros were present in the vicinity of Shilajit Asphaltum punjabianum exuding rocks and these bryophytes are responsible for the formation of Shilajit. Bryophytes reveal the...

Lichens in folk and traditional medicine

'Doctrine of Signatures' written in the 15th century stated Aplant could treat a disease it most looked like. This formed the basis of phytotherapeutics in traditional systems of medicines like Traditional Indian Medicine TIM or Ayurveda, Traditional Chinese Medicine TCM , and Western Medical Herbalism. Interestingly , the word lichen is derived from the Greek word 'Leprous' and refers to use of lichens in treating skin diseases due to their peeling-skin appearance. Lichen like Lobaria...

More about glycosides

Sarsasaponin

Spinonin a novel glycoside has been isolated from Ononis spinosa subsp, leiosperma. Jambulin is glucoside of Syzygium cumini. Rhus cotinus contains fustin, which on hydrolysis yields fisetin Fig. 5.164 , a flavanol closely related to morin Fig. 5.165 , coloring matter found in Chlorophora tinctoria. Phaselous lunatus Java bean contains phaseolunatin Fig. 5.166 . Bitter iridoid glycoside, angustorine is present in Galipea officinalis. Iridoid glycosides including lamalbide, caryoptoside,...

Kantkri Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad et Wendl

English name Yellow-berried-night shade. It is distributed in India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. It is prickly, a much-branched herb, usually spreading or diffused young branches are densely covered with minute star-shaped hair, prickles are yellow, shining about 1.5 cm long. Leaves are upto 10 cm long, their midribs and other leaves with sharp, yellow prickles. Flowers are purple, about 2 cm long, a few together in small branches, opposite to leaves. Fruit are 1.5-2.0 cm, round yellow or pale with...

CII3CI Icilj

The major alkaloid about 90 is the volatile liquid coniine, with smaller amounts of structurally related piperidine alkaloids, including N-methylconiine and y-coniceine. Coniine contributes to the foul smell of hemlock. It is a neurotoxin, causes respiratory paralysis and is toxic to all classes of livestock and humans. In 399 BC, Socrates was put to death by this poison Fig. 5.65 . Fig. 5.65 Structure of Conium alkaloids. These are obtained from Chondrodendron tomentosum. tubocurarine Fig. 2.6...

Recent phytochemical investigations on lichens

Salacia Oblonga

Two tridepsides 2,4-Di-O-methylgyrophoric acid and 2,4,5-tri-O-methylhiascic acid have been isolated from Parmelia damaziana Zahlbr. Lasallic acid, a tridepside has been reported from Lasallia asiae-orientalis Whittaker amp Margulis Umbilicariaceae . y-butyrolactone acid, - -isomuronic acid and gyrophoric acid have been isolated from Punctelia microsticta Mull. Arg. Krog Parmeliaceae . Dasypogalactone, a lactone has been reported from Usnea dasygopa Rohl growing in Indonesia. A new red...

Resins oleoresins and gumresins

Resins are obtained by oxidization of volatile oils. Resins are brittle, nonvolatile, solid substances. Sometimes resins are among the products of oxidization of terpenes. The chemical composition of resins is very complex and contains various compounds including acids. Resins are soluble in alkalies, alcohol and insoluble in water. They are obtained from plant exudates and are produced in special ducts. Resin is obtained from Ferula asfoetida Figs. 5.197, 5.199 . Sometimes resins are produced...

Saponins

Panaxadiol Structure

Saponins are glycosides found in a number of plants. Saponins are regarded as high molecular weight compounds in which, a sugar molecule is combined with triterpene or steroid aglycone. The saponins are classified in two groups A. Steroid saponins Fig. 5.206 . B. Triterpene saponins Fig. 5.207 . Fig. 5.206 Structure of significant steroid saponins. Panaxatriol Ginseng saponin Fig. 5.207 Structure of significant triterpene saponins. Panaxatriol Ginseng saponin Fig. 5.207 Structure of significant...

Preclinical research on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda

In Ayurvedic Materia Medica approximately 800 medicinal plants are actively used in creating formulations. Some of the plants are used as single entity in the form of powder, tablet or extract. There is a clear cut description that certain plants should not be subjected to decoction or infusion as it essentially kills the active principle or constituent. Modern studies have proved that if alkaloid containing drugs are subjected to heat at 60oC, they undergo hydrolysis and get converted into...

Materia Medica and phytochemistry of anthelmintic ferns

Medicinal Plants Swaziland

Adiantaceae It is commonly found in India and possesses anthelmintic activity. Powdered rhizome is used as an anthelmintic in homeopathic medicine. It contains rutin and sterols. Athyrium filix-femina L. Roth. ex Mert. Dryopteridaceae It is native to Britain and popularly known as lady fern. A liquid extract of the root is an effective anthelmintic, though it is less powerful than the male fern, D. filix-mas. This fern is found in Swaziland. Powdered rhizome is used as...

More about alkaloids

Structure Rhynchophylline Hirsutine

Cystisus scoaprius is known to contain a volatile alkaloid, sparteine and a non-volatile alkaloid, sarothamnine. Abies webbiana contains a crystalline alkaloid, taxine Fig. 5.7 . Asimina triloba contains benzyl isoquinoline alkaloid anolobine. Galipea officinalis is reported to contain quinoline alkaloids including cusparine, galipine, galipoline, quinaldine, cuspareine, galipoidine, and l-methyl-2-quinolone . Vaccinium myrtillus contains quinolizidine alkaloids myrtine and epimyrtine....

Furanocoumarins

Furanocoumarins

These are photosensitizing agents used in the treatment of pigment disorders. Ayurveda, the ancient science of India, has described the use of Psoralia corylifolia for the treatment of leucoderma. Psoralens isolated from the medicinal herb, are reputed drugs in the field of dermatology. Furanocoumarins are present in Ficus carica, Apium graveolens, Ruta graveolens and Angelica gluca. Marmelosin present in Aegle marmelos is the precursor compound for psoralen biosynthesis. Xanthotaxol from...

Pharmacology

The methanolic fraction of A. ilicifolius leaf extract produced significant inhibition of rat paw oedema, when administered both prior to and after carrageenan administration, in a manner similar to BW755C a synthetic cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitor. The extract decreased protein exudation and leukocyte migration in the peritoneal fluid, thereby indicating its effectiveness towards inhibiting peritoneal inflammation. It also produced significant inhibition of cyclooxygenase 1 and 2...

Controversial Medicinal Plant Identification in Ayurevda

Proper identification of medicinal plants has a significant impact on the finished product and therapeutics. In Ayurveda identification of medicinal plants is a major hurdle in laying pharmacopeial standards for formulations. Astavarga a group of eight medicinal plants see Table 5.24 is vital part of Ayurvedic formulations like Chyvanprasha and four plants viz, Riddhi, Vriddhi, Jivaka and Rishbhaka have been discussed as possible members of the family Orchidaceae. Although work has been done on...

Role of phytochemicals in healthcare system

Medicinal plants are a significant source of synthetic and herbal drugs in India and China and have been on the forefront when one refers to phyto drugs. The traditional systems of medicines Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Western Herbal Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Homeopathy have roots in medicinal herbs. A number of distinguished researchers have dealt with herbal medicine and due to its accessibility to traditions it is still practiced even by lay practitioners. Sterneur isolated...

Materia Medica of medicinally important orchids

Phytochemistry Phenanthropyran aeridin. Part used Tubers Distribution The Himalayas Garhwal to Sikkim , Assam, India and Myanmar. Pre-clinical studies Antibacterial. Distribution E. Himalayas to Indo-China. Phytochemistry Triterpenoids agrostophyllinol and agrostophyllinone. 9 . Distribution The Himalayas Nepal to Bhutan , Assam, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia. 10 Botany Agrostophyllum callosum is 30-60 or higher plant. Stalks are creeping rhizomes. Rhizome 3-4 mm and stem erect. Leaves 8-13 cm...