Stenospermocarpy

Abscission of non-fertilized and fertilized flowers is normal. Fruitlet abscission from pea size on is often associated with embryo abortion (Chandler, 1958; U.R. Singh, 1961; Singh, 1964; Lakshminarayana and Aguilar, 1975; Ram et al., 1976) and is referred to as stenospermocarpy (Soule, 1985). Steno-spermocarpy in mango is unusual (Chacko and Singh, 1969a) but occurs regularly in some cultivars (Nunez-Elisea and Davenport, 1983; Whiley et al., 1988). Stenospermocarpic fruitlets have slower growth rates than seeded fruit, generally become misshapen and fail to reach full size.

Stenospermocarpy in some cultivars has been correlated with low temperatures during flowering and early fruit set in the subtropics (Lakshmina-rayana and Aguilar, 1975; Young and Sauls, 1979; Whiley et al., 1988; Schaffer et al., 1994). Nunez-Elisea and Davenport (1983) reported that stenospermo-carpic fruit often occur distal to seeded fruitlets within panicles and suggested that embryo abortion is associated with high temperatures when these latter fruit set. Secondary spring flowering of some monoembryonic culti-vars under high temperatures has resulted in high proportions of steno-spermocarpic fruit (E.K. Chacko, personal communication, Australia, 1995). Application of auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins produce seedless fruit in some cultivars, suggesting that the abscission zone is protected by these hormones despite the loss of the endogenous supply from the aborted seed (Ven-kataratnam, 1949; Chacko and Singh, 1969a, b; Kulkarni and Rameshwar, 1978).

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