Ambika Mango Hybrid In India

Intervarietal hybridization in India has resulted in the release of many culti-vars. The work at Sabour initially yielded two promising hybrids: 'Mahmood Bahar' and 'Probashanker', both combinations of 'Bombay' and 'Kalapady' (Roy et al., 1956). Subsequently, four more hybrids have been developed. These are: 'Sundar Langra' ('Sardar Pasand' x 'Langra') having 'Langra' quality and regular bearing habit; 'Alfazli' ('Alphonso' x 'Fazli') with 'Fazli' quality and early ripening; 'Sabri' ('Gulabkhas' x 'Bombai') having 'Bombai' fruit shape and colour of 'Gulabkhas' with regular bearing habit; and 'Jawa-har' ('Gulabkhas' x 'Mahmood Bahar') having high pulp and early bearing habit (Hoda and Ramkumar, 1993). Developed in Kodur, the hybrid 'Swarna-jehangir', combining the high quality of 'Jehangir' and the attractive colour of 'Chinnaswarnarekha', is a prolific bearer and is the best of all hybrids developed at this centre. The other hybrids released from Kodur are 'Neeludin' ('Neelum' x 'Himayuddin'), 'Neelgoa' ('Neelum' x 'Yerra Mulgoa') and 'Neeleshan' ('Neelum' x 'Baneshan').

Two excellent, regular-bearing hybrids, 'Mallika' and 'Amrapali', were developed and released by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi (Singh et al., 1972). 'Mallika' is a hybrid between 'Neelum' and 'Dashehari' with a high total soluble solids (TSS) content, a higher percentage of pulp, fibreless flesh and a fruit size of about300 g. 'Amrapali' ('Dashehari' x 'Nee-lum') is precocious, distinctly dwarf and hence amenable to high-density planting, a regular bearer with excellent quality and is also very rich in vitamin A. Recently, two more cultivars, 'Arunima' ('Amrapali' x 'Sensation') and 'Pusa Surya' (a selection from 'Eldon') have been released from the IARI. A promising mango hybrid 'Ambika', a cross between 'Amrapali' and 'Janardhan Pasand', having a yellow colour with red blush, firm flesh and scanty fibre was released from the Central Institute of Sub-Tropical Horticulture, Lucknow.

Four hybrid cultivars were released from the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research in Bangalore: 'Arka Aruna' ('Banganapalli' x 'Alphonso'), 'Arka Puneet' ('Alphonso' x 'Banganapalli'), 'Arka Anmol' ('Alphonso' x 'Janardhan Pasand') and 'Arka Neelkiran' ('Alphonso' x 'Neelum'). 'Arka Aruna' is dwarf, and large fruited with a high percentage of pulp and high TSS content. It is ideal for homesteads. 'Arka Puneet' is very similar to

'Alphonso' but free of 'spongy tissue', has a good shelf life and is not susceptible to fruit fly attack. 'Arka Anmol' is a heavy bearer with good keeping quality (Iyer and Subramanyam, 1993). 'Arka Neelkiran' is free of spongy tissue and has excellent skin colour.

'Ratna' is a cross between 'Alphonso' and 'Neelum' that was carried out at the Fruit Research Station, Vengurla, Maharashtra; it has a larger fruit size, fruit quality similar to 'Alphonso' and is free of 'spongy tissue' (Salvi and Gunjate, 1988). A parthenocarpic mango cultivar, 'Sindhu', has been developed at this station as a result of back-crossing 'Ratna' with 'Alphonso' (Gunjate and Burondkar, 1993).

Two hybrid cultivars were released from the Fruit Research Station in Sangareddy, Andhra Pradesh. 'Au-Rumani' ('Rumani' x 'Mulgoa') is a regular and prolific bearer with fibreless flesh. 'Manjira' ('Rumani' x 'Neelum') is a dwarf, regular and prolific bearer with good quality fruits.

The Paria Research Station in Gujarat developed three mango hybrids, 'Neelphonso' ('Neelum' x 'Alphonso'), 'Neeleshan Gujarat' ('Neelum' x 'Bane-shan') and 'Neeleshwar' ('Neelum' x 'Dashehari'). These hybrids are superior in TSS, total sugars and vitamin C, in addition to their dwarfing habit, with respect to their parents (Sachan et al., 1988).

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