Irwin Florida USA

The tree is small to medium, moderately vigorous, with open canopy. The fruit (Plate 16) is bright yellow with a crimson or bright red blush, numerous large white dots, ovate with rounded base, 11.5-13 cm long by 8-9 cm broad by 6.57.5 cm thick, weighing 340-450 g the skin is medium-thick, tender and adherent the flesh is soft, tender, melting and juicy without fibre, lemon yellow, sweet and mild with a pleasant aroma, of good quality the seed is monoembryonic in a thin, papery stone. The stone...

Rosa Brazil

The tree is medium sized, of slow growth with a rounded canopy the fruit (Plate 32) is yellow to rose-red on the side exposed to sun, oblong-cordiform and medium sized the skin is thick and smooth the flesh is firm and moderately juicy, fibrous, golden yellow, moderately sweet with a turpentine aroma, of ordinary quality, susceptible to anthracnose disease the seed is polyembryonic in a small, oblong stone. This cultivar ripens midseason to late. It is one of the most important commercial...

Specific objectives

In addition to improving general characters such as yield and quality, breeding has also been undertaken for certain specific purposes. Because of the obvious benefits of comparatively dwarf trees for orchard management and fruit quality, attempts have been focused on obtaining hybrids with a dwarf tree framework. Breeding for dwarfness is important in mango, since a consistent dwarfing effect of any rootstock has not been established to date. The Indian cultivars that could be useful as a...

Origin of Mangifera indica

The largest number of Mangifera species occurs in the Malay Peninsula, the Indonesian archipelago, Thailand, Indochina and the Philippines (Mukher-jee, 1985 Bompard, 1989 see Bompard, Chapter 2, this volume). The most recent classification of Mangifera species was based upon floral morphology (Kostermans and Bompard, 1993) and included 69 species, most of which are included in two subgenera Mangifera and Limus with another 11 species occupying an uncertain position (Table 1.1). Eiadthong et al....

Suvarnarekha India

Also called 'Swarnarekha' and 'Sundri'. The tree is moderately vigorous and tall, with a rounded, dense, spreading canopy the fruit is light cadmium yellow with a blush of jasper red and abundant small, light-coloured dots, ovate oblong with a base slightly flattened, of medium size, 11 cm long by 8.2 cm broad, weighing 400 g the skin is medium thick, easily separated, flesh soft, fibreless, primrose yellow with a pleasant aroma, sweet taste and abundant juice, of medium to good quality seed is...

The common mango in Southeast Asia

The Linnean binomial (Mangifera indica) indicates in this instance the place where the common mango was selected and improved, and not necessarily its place of its origin. It has been traditionally accepted that mango was domesticated several millennia ago in India (see Mukherjee and Litz, Chapter 1, this volume) however, it cannot be excluded that domestication occurred independently in several areas, possibly in the south-western and south-eastern regions of its centre of origin, or later...

Ecology and habitat

The majority of Mangifera species occur as a rule as scattered individuals in tropical lowland rainforests on well-drained soils. The species are distributed mostly below 300 m, but can occur up to c. 1000 m above sea level, on well-drained soils (44 species), in periodically inundated areas (ten species) and in certain types of swamp forest (i.e. M. gedebe, M. griffithii and M. parvi-folia). Three species are mainly found in sub-montane forests above 1000 m and occasionally up to 1700 m above...

Raferences Of Mangoes

Akamine, E.K. and Goo, T. (1973) Respiration and ethylene production during ontogeny of fruit. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 98, 381-383. Angeles, D.E. (1992) Mangifera altissima Blanco. In Verheij, E.W.M. and Coronel, R.E. (eds) Plant Resources of South-east Asia No.2 Edible Fruits and Nuts. Pudoc-DLO, Wageningen, the Netherlands, pp. 206-207. Anonymous (1992) Annual Report. Central Institute of Horticulture for Northern Plains, Lucknow, India. Aron, Y., Czosnek,...

Conclusion

The mango fruit's nutritional value, aesthetic and gustatory appeal have assured its growing importance in non-traditional markets since the late 1950s, as it has been introduced to consumers previously unacquainted with it. Furthermore, the migration of large populations from South-east Asia and other regions where this fruit is a traditional crop to metropolitan centres where it has not been well known has created a permanent demand for it in these new markets. An additional factor permitting...

Domestication of mango

It is probable that mango cultivation originated in India, where De Candolle 1884 estimated that mango cultivation appeared to have begun at least 4000 years ago. In the early period of domestication, mango trees probably yielded small fruit with thin flesh. Such fruit can be found today in north-eastern India and in the Andaman Islands Anonymous, 1992 . Folk selections of superior seedlings over many hundreds of years would have resulted in larger fruit with thicker flesh. Mukherjee 1950a, b...

Hormoneregulated flowering models

Extensive work on movement of the putative floral stimulus across grafts from donor to receptor stems Kulkarni, 1986, 1988b and the inhibitory influence of fruit on subsequent flowering Kulkarni and Rameshwar, 1989 form the basis of a flowering model proposed by Kulkarni 1991 the Tri-factor Hypothesis of Flowering in mango Kulkarni, 2004 . This theory Fig. 5.7 proposes an interactive role for a putative, cyclically produced floral stimulus in leaves, a floral inhibitor in leaves and fruits, and...

Madame Francis Haiti

The tree is moderately vigorous, medium sized, forming an open canopy the fruit Plate 22 is greenish to bright yellow, with no blush and a few large russet dots, oblong, sigmoid with rounded base, 15-17 cm long by 8.5-11 cm broad by 5.5-7.5 cm thick, weighing 370-520 g the skin is thin, tender and adherent the flesh is soft and juicy with medium fibre, orange, rich spicy and sweet with a pleasant aroma, of fair to good quality seed is polyembryonic in a thin, papery stone. This cultivar ripens...

Mesk Egypt

The tree is vigorous, the fruit small to medium sized 312.5 g , yellow with a red blush, with small, corky yellow dots ovate-oblong 11.3 cm long by 7.4 cm wide by 6.5 cm thick with adherent skin intermediate in thickness and fairly free of surface disease the flesh is orange, frequently jelly-seeded, with no objectionable fibres and a sweet, agreeable taste of very good quality. The polyembryonic seed is in a moderately large 52.5 g stone. Fruit ripens late in the...

Floral biology and pollination

The mango inflorescence is primarily terminal, although axillary and multiple panicles may also arise from axillary buds. Both perfect hermaphrodite and staminate male flowers occur in the same inflorescence. The total number of flowers in a panicle may vary from 1000 to 6000, depending on the cultivar Mukherjee, 1953 . Initial fruit set in mango is directly related to the proportion of perfect flowers, although the final fruit set does not necessarily depend on this ratio Iyer et al., 1989 ....

Mutations Somatic mutations

Asexual propagation enables the preservation of accumulated mutations macro and micro , which would normally be eliminated during sexual propogation. In many fruit crops, bud mutations and chimeras occur rather frequently and can provide an additional source of variability for selection. However, such reported instances are relatively few in mango. Roy and Visweswariya 1951 observed mutants of 'Puthi' in which the number of palisade cell layers differed from the original cultivar. Naik 1948...

Anthesis and dehiscence

Floral anthesis generally occurs at night in polyembryonic cultivars Wagle, 1929 Torres, 1931 Galang and Lazo, 1937 Pimentel et al, 1984 and at night or early morning in monoembryonic types Popenoe, 1917 Musahib-ud-din and Dinsa, 1946 Singh, 1954a Randhawa and Damodaran, 1961a, b . Subsequent dehiscence of the four-lobed anthers occurs during the daylight morning hours revealing pale blue pollen grains Torres, 1931 Galang and Lazo, 1937 Mallik, 1957 L.B. Singh, 1960 . Anthesis and anther...

References For Mango Embryo Culture

Adato, A., Sharon, D. and Lavi, U. 1995 Application of DNA fingerprints for identification and genetic analyses of mango Mangifera indica genotypes. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 120, 259-264. Angeles, D.E. 1991 Mangifera altissima. In Verheij, E.W.M. and Coronel, R.E. eds Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.2 Edible Fruits and Nuts. Pudoc-DLO, Wageningen, the Netherlands, pp. 206-207. Anonymous 1984 Paclobutrazol, Plant Growth Regulators for Fruits. ICI,...

India

Intervarietal hybridization in India has resulted in the release of many culti-vars. The work at Sabour initially yielded two promising hybrids 'Mahmood Bahar' and 'Probashanker', both combinations of 'Bombay' and 'Kalapady' Roy et al., 1956 . Subsequently, four more hybrids have been developed. These are 'Sundar Langra' 'Sardar Pasand' x 'Langra' having 'Langra' quality and regular bearing habit 'Alfazli' 'Alphonso' x 'Fazli' with 'Fazli' quality and early ripening 'Sabri' 'Gulabkhas' x...

Taxonomic history

An historical review of the subdivisions of the genus Mangifera shows that two major groups have been rather consistently recognized in taxonomic treatments. Hooker 1862 was the first to recognize two sections based on the characters of the flower disc section I with a disc broader than the ovary, and section II with a disc stalk-like or wanting. These sections were later named by Marchand 1869 Amba, an Indian name for the common mango, and Limus, a Sundanese name for M. foetida in West Java,...

Shoot Development

Flushes of vegetative extension growth of mango stems terminate with formation of determinate panicles. Several weeks to a few months after separation of the last flower or fruit from these panicles are required for the central axis of the panicle or rachis to dry and mechanically separate from the supporting stem, depending on the longevity of attached fruit. Five to ten lateral vegetative shoots typically develop from axillary buds located at the terminal intercalation positioned in a compact...

Plant growth retardants

Plant growth retardants have been evaluated to stimulate early or more intense flowering, especially in the 'off' year of alternate-bearing cultivars Davenport and Nunez-Elisea, 1997 . They are in three main classes i the gibberellin transport inhibitor, daminozide N-dimethylamino-succinamic acid , known as alar or B-Nine ii the onium type, chloremquat chloride 2-chloroethyl trimethylammonium chloride , known as cycocel and CCC and iii the steroid-synthesis-inhibiting triazoles, for example PBZ...

Fruit Set and Retention

Fruit set and retention of mango was recently reviewed by Singh et al. 2005 . Abscission of flowers and fruitlets is accomplished by rapid formation of a separation layer in the abscission zone in the pedicel-peduncle junction Bar-nell, 1939 . U.R. Singh 1961 described formation of the abscission zone during floral ontogeny and of the separation layer during abscission of flowers and fruitlets. The majority of panicles lose all fruitlets Nunez-Elisea and Davenport, 1983 . The pattern of...

Pollination

Pollination is a major yield-limiting constraint, due to the large number of flowers on trees and low fruit set. Unlike polyembryonic cultivars, which produce nucellar embryos, pollination is necessary for fruit set with mo-noembryonic cultivars Popenoe, 1917 Young, 1942 Spencer and Kennard, 1955 Gunjate et al., 1983 Pimentel et al., 1984 Robbertse et al., 1994 . Pollen compatibility within and between cultivars has been widely investigated. Complete or partial self-incompatibility has been...

Hormonal control

Research demonstrating improved fruit set and retention following application of several auxin analogues to pre-anthesis panicles or to panicles bearing fruitlets of various sizes has been reviewed Davenport and Nunez-Elisea, 1997 Singh et al., 2005 . NAA is the most effective auxin analogue for improving fruit retention Prakash and Ram, 1986 Khan et al., 1993 . Initial fruit set was substantially increased when sprays of 200 mg l indole acetic acid IAA were applied to developing panicles Singh...