Leaf folding caterpillar

This feeds on chlorophyll contents inside the folded cardamom leaf (Fig. 15.6). It's damage is very minor in nature, and was observed during July December in east and north Districts of Sikkim. The caterpillar pupates inside the folded leaf during winter. Adult is a medium sized (24 28 mm across the wing), brownish yellow moth. Cotesia euthaliae Bhatnagar (Hymenoptera Braconidae), was recorded as larval parasitoid. For control infested leaves along with caterpillars are collected and destroyed....

Chemical composition

Large cardamom seeds (dried) on analysis gave the following results moisture (8.5 per cent), protein (6 per cent), volatile oil (2.8 per cent), crude fiber (22 per cent), starch (43.2 per cent), ether extract (5.3 per cent), alcohol extract (7 per cent) and (4 per cent). They are found to contain (for 100 g seeds), calcium 666.6 mg, magnesium 412.5 mg, phosphorous 61 mg, fluoride 14.4 ppm. The seeds contain the glycosides petunidin 3,5-diglucoside, leucocyanidin 3-O- -D-glucopyranoside and...

Shoot fly

Shoot fly, Merochlorops dimorphus Cherian (Diptera Chloropidae), recorded as a major pest of L. cardamom is damaging young shoots. Low to moderate damage by shoot fly is recorded in L. cardamom plantation in Sikkim and West Bengal. In the main field, more damage is recorded at higher altitudes than in the lower. Kumar and Chatterjee (1993) have reported another species of shoot fly, Bradysia sp. (Diptera Sciaridae), damaging large cardamom. The pest is recorded throughout the year in L....

Leaf caterpillar

Leaf eating caterpillar (Artona chorista Jordon, Lepidoptera Zygaenidae), is a major pest of L. cardamom in Sikkim and West Bengal (Yadava et al., 1992 Singh and Varadarasan, 1998). Its outbreak was recorded in 1978 in Sikkim where about 2000 acres of L. cardamom plantations were severely defoliated (Subba, 1980). The leaf caterpillar is first recorded as Clelea plumbiola Hampson on large cardamom by Bhowmik (1962). A. chorista occurs sporadically in epidemic form in Sikkim and West Bengal...

Bleached cardamom

Bleached cardamom is creamy white or golden yellow in colour. Bleaching can be done either with dried cardamom capsules or freshly harvested capsules as starting material. 3.3.1 Bleaching of freshly harvested capsules Fresh capsules soaked for 1 h in 20 per cent potassium metabisulphite solution containing 1 per cent hydrogen peroxide solution degrade the chlorophyll. Drying of these capsules yield golden yellow colour. Figure 9.5 Low cost solar dryer for small scale drying (a) sun tracking rod...

Info

20 kg ha Urea (3.0 ) Single super phosphate (1.0 ) Muriate of potash (2.0 ) Instead of straight fertilizers, 2 per cent each of di-ammonium phosphate and muriate of potash can also be used. Instead of straight fertilizers, 2 per cent each of di-ammonium phosphate and muriate of potash can also be used. through farmyard manure and the balance 75 per cent through inorganic nitrogen source for sustained production of cardamom over a period of time.

Properties And Uses

Large cardamom is used as an ingredient as well as a flavouring agent with masala and curry powders in flavouring sweet dishes, cakes, and pastries as a masticatory and for medicinal purposes. The seeds are used for chewing along with betel quid (betel leaf, areanut lime, with or without tobacco). In gulf countries large cardamom is used as a cheaper substitute for spicing tea in place of cardamom. In the Indian systems of medicines - Ayurveda and Unani, it is used as preventive as well as...

Palynology and pollination biology

Pollen grains are rich in starch and 2-celled at the time of shedding. Moniliform refractive bodies are observed in some pollen grains. Exine develops warty projections that are spinescent (Panchaksharappa, 1966). Pollen fertility is maximum at full bloom stage and low at the beginning and the end of flowering periods (Venugopal and Parameswar, 1974). Size of pollen grains varies from 75 to 120 microns in different varieties of cardamom. Pollen grains loose their viability quickly, only 6.5 per...

Cultivars

All the cultivars of L. cardamom cultivated commercially belong to the species, Amomum subulatum Roxburgh. Out of the total 150 species of Amomum occurring in the tropics of old world, only about eight species are considered to be native of eastern Sub-Himalayan region viz., A. subulatum Roxb., A. costatum Benth., A. linguiformae Benth., A. pauciflorum Baker, A. corynostachyum Baker, A. dealbatum Roxb. (A. sericeum Roxb.), A. kingii Roxb. and A. aromaticum Roxb (Hooker, 1886). Later 18 species...

Seedling rot or clump rot

This disease is similar to the rhizome rot disease of plantations. Usually, the disease is observed in nurseries where the seedlings attain an age of 6-12 months and is often seen during rainy season in overcrowded nurseries. The disease symptoms are characterized by wilting and drooping of leaves. Leaves turn pale yellow, followed by rotting of the collar portion of seedlings. As infection advances the young tillers fall off and the entire seedling collapses. The causal organisms reported are...

Minor pests

These occur on underground rhizome of the L.cardamom plants. They feed on the roots and rhizome part of the plant and cause yellowing during summer months. The pest is recorded at Neem (East Sikkim), Tarku (South Sikkim), Chawang (North Sikkim) and Singling (West Sikkim) in March-October. Heliothrips haemorrhaidalis Bouche (Thysanoptera Thripidae), is a minor pest on leaves, infests the undersurface of leaves and suck the sap. The damage is more on seedlings and are recorded throughout the...

Nutmegclovecardamom mixed cropping system

Nutmeg, clove and cardamom tap solar radiation at different heights and so also mine soil moisture and nutrients at different vertical and horizontal spaces. Instead of planting other forest tree species, clove and nutmegs planted in vacant, open areas can provide sufficient shade to cardamom. This crop combination is ecologically feasible and economically sustainable. An example of such a cropping system is available at Burliar at an elevation of 3500 feet above MSL in Tamil Nadu state. This...

Biotechnology 61 Micropropagation

Micropropagation offers tremendous scope for rapid vegetative propagation of elite clones or varieties, eliminating systemic pathogens such as viruses. Replanting of senile, seedling-raised plantations with selected high yielding clones multiplied through micropropagation can give 5-6-fold increase in the current average productivity of cardamom (Anonymous, 1996). Micropropagation technique can be used for the following applications in cardamom (Bajaj et al., 1988). (i) increase in the...

Cardamom As A Spice 41 Cardamom for culinary use

The major use of cardamom on a worldwide basis is for domestic culinary purposes in whole or ground form. In Asia, cardamom plays an important role in a variety of spiced rice, vegetable and meat dishes. Cardamom can add a lingering sparkle to many dishes, both traditional and modern. International trade in cardamom is dependent, however, on the demand created by specialized applications that have evolved in two distinct markets, namely the Arab countries of the Middle East and in Scandinavia....

Propagation through seeds

In order to get quality seedlings, cardamom nursery has to be managed carefully and scientifically. This involves sowing seeds on raised beds, transplanting into primary and then to secondary nursery beds and finally into the field (Cherian, 1979 Kasi and Iyengar, 1961). Seeds should be collected from high yielding vigorous plants, with well-formed compact panicles and well-ripened capsules free from infestation of pest and diseases. Number of flowering branches formed on the panicles,...

Antiinflammatory activity

Yamada et al. (1992) reported that cardamom showed potent complement system activating property. Complements represent the humoral arm of natural immunological host-defense mechanism and are essential for survival. Once activated this kills certain bacteria, protozoa, fungi and virus as well as cells of higher organism. Thus complement activation forms a major part of natural defense affording a range of mediators possessing immuno-inflamatory potency. Jain et al. (1994) have shown that the...

Secondary nursery

In Kerala and Tamil Nadu regions the seedlings are transplanted to secondary nursery beds when they are about 6 months old, where as in Karnataka, the practice is sowing seeds in the primary nursery and thinning out excess seedlings and then allowing the remaining ones to grow right in the same place. Transplanting seedling to secondary nursery reduces nursery diseases. Korikanthimath (1982) has shown that following both primary and secondary nursery practices would be needed to get vigorous...

Conclusion Of Medicinal Plant

Though cardamom is a perennial crop, its growth behaviour resembles more to a biennial crop in the sense that vegetative phase (tillers) emerging in one year turns into reproductive phase during the second year and produce panicles, flowers and capsules. Cardamom, being cultivated as an undergrowth with shade trees, competition for inputs among them makes nutritional management an important practice in realizing optimal yield of the crop. Escalation in cost of fertilizers makes necessary their...

Spacing

The spacing should be decided based on variety and duration of the crop in the field. Where it is intended to grow on a limited cycle, with regular replanting, it is obviously desirable to plant as closely as possible without unduly restricting the plants, so that early crops may be as large as possible. If a crop is only meant to last for 10 years, a commonly suggested crop cycle, only eight harvests are likely to be taken and the first two at least will be dependent on the number of plants...

Water harvesting

Often the terrain of cardamom estates is undulating with moderate to steep slopes. Quite a number of small and fairly big streams pass through many of these areas. Runoff from the cardamom watersheds can be collected in farm ponds and check dams or underground water tapped through dug wells. Harvested water can be stored in ponds and checkdams by minimizing the losses through seepage, evaporation and recycling. Apart from improving and stabilizing yields under rainfed cardamom cultivation,...

Pharmacological Properties

In Ayurveda and Sidha systems of medicine cardamom finds application as a component of several therapeutic formulations. Charakasamhita, the ancient Indian medical text, describes the use of cardamom as an antidote for food poisoning. This forms a constituent of Bhrahmi rasayana, which is used as a treatment for inflammations. Also used as a component of many balms, ointments and therapeutic oils used against cramps, rheumatic pain, inflammations etc. In Ayurvedic texts the properties of...

References

Aleksandrov, L.G., Serdyuk, V.I. and Anoshin, I.M. (1969) Determination of the co-efficients of molecular diffusion of some extracts of vegetable raw materials in liquid carbon dioxide Fzv Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved. Pishch. Tekhnol., 2, 143-144 (Russian). Anandaraman, S. and Reineccius, G.A. (1980) Microencapsulation of flavours. Food, 1(9), 14. Anonymous (1975) C.C. Spice open new mill. Food Process. Ind, 44(529), 36. Anonymous (1977) Pulverising System. Food Process, 38(3), 108. Anonymous (1985)...

Anatomy Embryology Cytology 21 Anatomy

Portion Enlarged

Tomlinson 1969 and Mercy et al. 1977 carried out preliminary anatomical studies on aerial stem, rhizome, leaf sheath and root of cardamom plants. Aerial stems of leafy shoot has the typical monocot structure with numerous closed collateral endarch vascular bundles scattered in the ground parenchyma Fig. 2.3 . The stem is solid. There is a thin sub-epidermal layer of sclerenchymatous cells separating the inner vascular bundles from the outer ones. Each vascular bundle is surrounded by a...

Methods of irrigation

Among the various methods of irrigation viz., surface irrigation, sub-surface or trench irrigation and overhead irrigation or sprinkler irrigation, the last one is ideally suited in cardamom plantations. Overhead irrigation with sprinkling unit is found well suited for cardamom on account of its several advantages over other irrigation methods. Cardamom is grown on hill slopes with undulating topography and for such land, sprinkler irrigation can provide uniform water supply. The plantation can...

Root grubs Basilepta fulvicorne Jacoby

Isolat Beauveria Bassiana

Root grub is a serious subterranean pest of cardamom Fig. 8.5a,b . It damages roots and thereby obstructs uptake of nutrients, leading to yellowing of leaves and gradual death of plants in case of severe infestation Gopakumar etal., 1987 . The pest is noticed both in nurseries and plantations of Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu Varadarasan et al, 1988 . However, in Karnataka Thyagaraj et al. 1991 observed it as a serious pest only in the primary and secondary nurseries. Biology and management...

Whitefly [Kanakarajiella cardamomi David and Subr David and Sundararaj

Images White Fly Cardamom

Infestation of whitefly was a rare phenomenon in cardamom till 1980s, its sporadic occurrence was limited to Nelliampathy and Vandiperiyar areas Anonymous, 1980 Butani, 1984 . Its infestation is now noticed at many places in Udumpanchola and Peermedu taluks of Idukki District of Kerala and lower Pulneys of Tamil Nadu. The species of whiteflies reported to infest cardamom are Dialeurodes cardamomi David and Subr. presently known as Kanakarajiella cardamomi David and Subr. David and Sundarraj...

Cardamom thrips [Sciothrips cardamomi Ramk

The cardamom thrips Fig. 8.1 is the most destructive and persistent pest of cardamom. Ayyar 1935 reported its infestation on cardamom at Anamalai Hills of Tamil Nadu, and described the pest as Taeniothrips cardamomi, which was later renamed by Bhatti 1969 as Sciothrips cardamomi. Nature of damage and biology of the insect were described by Cheriyan and Kylasm 1941 , Nair 1975 , Anonymous 1985a , Kumaresan et al. 1988 and Krishnamurthy et al. 1989 . The larvae and adults lacerate tissues from...

R D Efforts In Cardamom

The research and development efforts in cardamom were initiated after independence. The first centre for cardamom research was established at Pampadumpara in Idukki district of Kerala in 1956, and in 1957 a centre was started at Mudigere in Chikmagalur district of Karnataka. Both these centres are now with the respective state Agricultural Universities. Though the work in cardamom was initiated in 1956 57, the impetus came only with the establishment of All India Coordinated Cashew and Spices...

Large Cardamom Plant

Abheywickrama, B.A. 1959 A provisional checklist of the flowering plants of Ceylon. Ceylon J. Sci. Biol. Sec. , 2, 119-240. Abraham, P. and Thulasidas, G. 1958 South Indian cardamom and their agricultural value. Tech. Bull, 79, ICAR, New Delhi, pp. 1-27. Anonymous 1958 South Indian cardamoms their evolution and natural relationships. Tech. Bull, 57, ICAR, New Delhi. Anonymous 1986 Annual Report, ICRI, Spices Board, India. Anonymous 1987 Annual Report, ICRI, Spices Board, India. Anonymous 1996...

Cardamom In Traditional Systems Of Medicine

In Indian systems of medicine Ayurveda, Sidha and Unani, cardamom is used as a powerful aromatic stimulant, carminative, stomachic and diuretic. It also checks nausea and vomiting and is also reported to be a cardiac stimulant. Powdered cardamom seed mixed with ground ginger, cloves and caraway is helpful in combating digestive ailments. Tincture of cardamom is also made and used chiefly in medicines for windiness or as stomachic. A good nasal application is prepared by using extracts of...

Hairy caterpillars

Lenodera Vittata

Hairy caterpillars of cardamom are a group of defoliators that appear sporadically and cause severe damage to the crop. Incidence of these pests was reported by Puttarudriah 1955 , Rajan 1958 , Ayyar 1961 , John 1967 , Joseph etal. 1983 and Selvan and Singh 1993 . Nine species of hairy caterpillars are known to infest cardamom. They are Eupterote canaraica Moore, E. cardamomi Renga, E. fabia Cram., E. testaceae Walk., E. undata, Linodera vittata Walk., Euproctis lutifacia Hamp., Alphaea...

History

Cardamom is known to be in use in India from ancient times. It is known as Ela in Sanskrit and references to this can be found in ancient Sanskrit texts. Taitreya Samhita, which belongs to the later Vedic period ca. 3000 BC , contains mention of cardamom among the ingredients to be poured in the sacrificial fire on the occasion of a marriage ceremony Mahindru, 1982 . The ancient Indian Ayurvedic texts, Charaka Samhita and Susrutha Samhita, written in the post-epic period 1400 600 BC also...

Fertilizer Requirements 61 Fertilizer scheduling

As stated earlier, cardamom is being grown in the rich fertile soils of forest eco-system. Up to the middle of fifties, it was cultivated without any manuring or limited to organic manures, if at all applied. As importance of this spice crop was increasingly felt in the national and international market scenario, its cultivation was taken up in a more systematic and scientific manner and many of the planters started applying chemical fertilizers. de Geus 1973 suggested a fertilizer dose of 45...