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Planting method may also help in managing crops under saline conditions. With such problematic soils, the crop may be planted on raised bed rather than flat sowing. Furthermore, the planting should not be on the top of the bed rather, it should be on the side of the bed at a slanted position so that, with evaporation, the salts accumulate on the top of the bed and thereby have little effect on the crop.
Ginger is sown on raised beds or on flat land. Spacing is 20 cm both within rows and between rows for ware (Process)-ginger production and 10 or 15 cm within and between rows using the minisett technique for seed ginger growing. Some available evidence indicates that the optimal depth for seed placement is 5 cm, but results of later studies (Okwuowulu, 1992a) show that under certain conditions, adopting a 5 cm depth predisposes the rhizomes to significant (P .05) loss due to desiccation, especially if harvesting is delayed. Seed placement of up to 10 cm was recommended, especially in areas of plantation cropping where harvesting stretches from November to February (Okwuowulu, 1992a). Setts are manually prepared, 30 workdays are required to cut enough ginger to establish one hectare. It requires normally 150 workdays to plant one hectare of ginger, but this operation is amenable to mechanization using a modified motorized potato planter. This has an output of 0.1 ha per hour (Whiley,...
Nitrogen deficiency waterlogged soil. Drench soil and spray foliage with compost tea, fish emulsion, or fish-meal tea, or side-dress plants with compost to alleviate deficiency symptoms. Waterlogged soil damages roots and prevents them from using nutrients available in the soil. Prevent problems by choosing well-drained sites, adding organic matter to the soil to improve drainage, and planting in raised beds.
Prior to the development of modern fungicides, any method of improving soil drainage was used to reduce disease. Raised beds, ranging from a few centimetres to 25 cm or more, have been used. Improvements in surface drainage, whereby depressions are drained by cutting of ditches or filling to eliminate standing water, have reduced disease levels (Pegg, 1969). Cultural practices such as pineapple-trash mulch have generally, but not always, increased disease incidence.
Flood irrigation is a common practice in flat-bed-sown crops, whereas in raised bed or ridge-sown crops irrigation is applied in furrows. Furrow irrigation has a higher WUE than flood irrigation in soybean. Furrow opening after two rows of soybean provide a significantly higher seed yield and WUE compared with flat sowing without furrow opening (Autkar et al., 2006). Soybean has a higher WUE in a broad-bed and furrow system with irrigation at 0.6 IW CPE ratio than in a flat-bed system (Bharambe et al, 1999). The width of the raised bed may influence the crop yields. Although less water is used for irrigation with wider raised beds, the central rows in the bed are not able to benefit from the furrow-applied irrigation. On the other hand, with a narrower width of the raised bed, and consequently more frequent furrows, drainage of excess water is easier and fast in the case of heavy rains. Among 6, 9, 12 and 15 m-wide raised beds, the highest seed yields of soybean have been obtained in...
Like drought, excessive soil moisture or waterlogging also has adverse effects on soybean plants (Thomas and Sodek, 2005). Waterlogging may be caused by heavy rainfall or over-irrigation and the problem is more common in fine-textured soils. Furthermore, excessive soil moisture is also experienced in paddy fields due to the formation of a hard pan owing to puddling operations. This excessive soil moisture induces growth losses in the succeeding soybean crop, particularly during vegetative growth. The problem is more severe in crops sown on a flat bed. Crops sown on raised beds or ridges do not generally experience the adverse effects of excessive soil moisture (van Cooten and Borrell, 1999 Seong et al., 2000a). However, the height of the raised bed or ridge also matters. In a rice field in Korea, the total dry matter accumulation was found to be severely decreased until the growth stage of R5 when soybean was sown at a 10-cm ridge height as compared to at ridge heights of 30 and 50 cm...
Cause Damping-off. Prevent problems by planting in raised beds and presoaking seed in compost tea. same symptoms. Spray plants and drench roots with fish emulsion or fish-meal tea to alleviate symptoms. Plant in raised beds to improve drainage and add compost before planting to prevent problems.
Spacing varies with soil fertility, cultivar, climate, and management practices. Earlier reports indicated that closer spacing gave better yield (Loknath and Das, 1964 Aiyadurai, 1966 Randhawa et al., 1972 Nair, 1982). Based on trials, planting of ginger is recommended on raised beds (in order to facilitate drainage) at a spacing of 20 X 20 cm or 25 X 25 cm and a depth of 4 to 5 cm with the viable bud facing upward. Pandey (1999) reported that among different spacings (40 X 20, 30 X 20, 40 X 30 and 50 X 20 cm) the highest yield was observed under closest spacing. Planting of irrigated ginger in raised beds (see Figure 5.2) gave the highest yield when compared to planting in ridges, furrows, and flat ground (KAU, 1993). The seed rhizome is placed 3.5 to 5.0 cm deep in a pit and soil is pressed over it (see Figure 5.3) followed by light irrigation. Mulching the beds twice with green leaves is important (see Figure 5.4). In general, the planting depth varies with the size of the planting...
In order to get quality seedlings, cardamom nursery has to be managed carefully and scientifically. This involves sowing seeds on raised beds, transplanting into primary and then to secondary nursery beds and finally into the field (Cherian, 1979 Kasi and Iyengar, 1961). It is always advantageous to select nursery site on gentle slope, having an easy access to a perennial source of water. The nursery area should be cleared off all existing vegetation, stumps, roots, stones etc. Raised beds are prepared after cultivating the land to a depth of about 30 45 cm. Usually beds of 1m width and convenient length and raised to a height of about 30 cm are prepared for sowing the seeds. A fine layer of humus-rich forest soil is spread over beds. The beds, when treated with formaldehyde solution (4 per cent) are found to control the damping off disease (Anonymous, 1985). After this treatment beds are covered with polythene sheets for a few days and seeds are to be sown 2 weeks after treatment....
Once the basic tillage operations (Fig. 6.5) have been performed, raised planting beds may be formed (Fig. 6.3) if there are known economic advantages. In most cases, pineapple plant growth is enhanced by planting on raised beds due to the increase in the volume of topsoil available to the root system, enhanced aeration and superior drainage. Raised beds may or may not be covered with plastic mulch, usually depending on the need for fumigation. In some cases, where capture of sparse rainfall is important, slightly depressed beds direct limited rainfall or overhead irrigation to the planting line. Despite the advantages of raised beds, they are not used where the cost of preparation exceeds the economic benefit.
McKenzie, D.C., Bernardi, A.L., Chan, K.Y., Nicol, H.I., Banks, L.W. and Rose, K.L. (2002) Sodicity v. yield decline functions for a vertisol (grey vertisol) under border check and raised bed irrigation. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 42, 363-368. van Cooten, D.E. and Borrell, A.K. (1999) Enhancing food security in semi-arid eastern Indonesia through permanent raised-bed cropping A review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 39, 1035-1046.
Root rots are controlled by improving soil water management, including raised beds, deep cultivation and improving surface-water drainage. The fungicide fosetyl aluminium has shown good control of P. cinnamomi root rot (Rohrbach and Schenck, 1985). The soil fumigant mixture of DD (Telone) was shown to reduce root rot caused by P. arrhenomanes (Anderson, 1966).
In the soybean, flood irrigation is a common practice in flat-bed-sown crop. However, where the crop has been sown on raised beds, furrow irrigation is applied. Some water-saving high-tech irrigation techniques such as sprinkler and drip irrigation are either not used or very rarely used in soybean. However, the choice of irrigation method is also determined by factors such as the source of irrigation, surface topography and soil texture.
As many crop species are now amenable to nuclear transformation, genetically engineering nuclear male sterility is an important alternative to CMS and non-GMO NMS. To overcome the limitations of NMS, in particular the problem of segregation of the male sterility trait, numerous strategies have been devised to deploy and regulate nuclear genes for the purposes of creating and propagating uniformly pollen-sterile plant populations. Reversible male sterility (also called conditional male fertility) systems avoid the elimination of segregating male-fertile plants. Moreover, a novel technology adds the creation of homozygous male-sterile plants to reversible male sterility.
Cause Crown rot. Remove and destroy diseased plants, including roots. Prevent crown rot by planting in raised beds and maintaining good drainage. Keep soil pH above 6.0. Wait 2 years before harvesting new plantings. Some research suggests that not harvesting the first spear of the spring on each plant may help prevent crown rot because the developing frond produces food for the plant. Leaves yellow growth slow. Causes Nitrogen deficiency waterlogged soil. Spray foliage with fish-meal tea and side-dress with compost to correct nitrogen deficiency. Waterlogged soil will produce the same symptoms. Make sure soil is well-drained or plant in raised beds.
Soybean is sown in rows on a flat bed either in a well-prepared field or as a no-till crop. It is also sown on raised beds. In some areas it is grown as a sole or mixed crop, while in others intercropping with cereals, oilseeds, grain legumes and fibre crops is also practised.
Valsala et al. (1990) studied the possibility of growing daincha (Sesbania aculeata) in the interspaces of ginger beds and utilizing the green leaf material for mulching in Kerala, India. The cv. Maran was grown on raised beds (3 X 1 m with 50 cm interspaces). It was given a first mulch using locally available leaves. S. aculeata was sown in the bed interspaces immediately after planting of ginger rhizomes, it was uprooted 60 days later and used as a second mulch. It provided 4 kg green leaves per 1.5 m2, which was 50 percent of the normal requirement of 8 kg 1.5 m2. The daincha roots are also considered to be a good source of organic matter.
Back in my home garden, I did buck the edibles-in-the-front-yard rule this year by scattering a few lettuce and carrot seeds in one of our flower beds. Both did quite well, which was a happy surprise given that the bed was unfenced from our resident rabbits. Perhaps some were eaten, but since I wasn't paying close attention to them I never knew what we lost. In any case, the carrots from the front yard were free of the insect damage that most of our vegetable-garden carrots bore. The lettuce was attractive and tasty until it set stems and bolted, becoming tall and bitter. All in all, it was a surprising success, and I plan to repeat the planting next year. Of course, one reason not to plant edibles in the front yard is the possibility of vegetable theft. The very concept would seem ludicrous to me had I not experienced it in our very first garden. The summer I was first married, our vegetable garden was approximately five square feet alongside the back of the house we were renting,...
Our first year in Pittsburgh, I tried to be a good suburbanite and pulled them, especially in the front yard. This year I decided to live with them, partly because I have fantasies of making another batch of dandelion wine. I caught my husband out front pulling them a few times, but neither of us ventured in back, where I had pulled hundreds the previous year.
A variety of halophytic plant species have been categorized into different groups such as euhalophytes, xerohalophytes, and hydrohalo-phytes on the basis of their growth performance in variable climatic conditions and salt concentrations in the soil which has been utilized as a source of nonconventional cash-crops (Khan and Qaiser 2006 Khan and Ansari 2008) . Hollington et al. (2001) described the successful stories of the utilization of halophytic species for the improvement of sustainable agriculture as well as sources of economy. Atriplex species showed the highest productivity and increases water uptake whereas tree species of Acacia and Prosopis have shown its role in re-vegetation and for biological drainage. Further, the use of raised-bed technology and on-farm seed priming have improved the production and efficiency of a range of halophytic plant species in saline conditions. Zhao et al. (2002) have screened the halophytic species distributed along the coast of China and...
In many other ways, including our lack of a minivan and the fact that our household has no TV, we are not quite normal for our suburb. One fact about us, however, makes us fit in perfectly with a silent majority the property around our home has a very healthy population of weeds. Although a scattering of houses on our street bear small flags either warning of or advertising some form of herbi-cidal spring lawn service, our own yard bespeaks years of pesticide-free lawn care. Dandelions and clover, plantain and spurge call our yard home and refuge. Perhaps the only way in which I don't fit in with the majority of weed-harboring property owners is that I don't feel the least bit guilty about it. I know that the ultimate solution for these woods would probably include some purchases native trees or wildflowers, for example. This little woodland, though, has exactly the same problem shared by many weedy, underappreciated areas. For one, its position on a property boundary means that it is...
Plants can be arranged in the field in single rows or in beds of two, three or four rows. The spacing between plants in the row and between rows is determined by the desired plant population density, type of planting material, planting methods, use of plastic mulch, use of raised beds, methods of plant fertilization and methods of harvesting. One of the more usual arrangements involves two-row beds with an adequately wide walk space between the beds to allow for field activities, particularly harvesting. In this scenario, the distance between the plants within a line, which should not be less than about 20 cm (about 8 in.), is less than the distance between the lines in the bed.
It thrives in any area with winter ground freezes or a dry season to provide a dormant period each year. Asparagus does best in full sun and deep, well-drained soil. Select a permanent location carefully, since plants will produce for 20 years or more. Dig out all weeds and add plenty of compost to the soil before planting. Asparagus requires high levels of phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen. Do a soil test and add amendments as necessary. If your soil is heavy or poorly drained, plant asparagus in raised beds.
The simplest example is where sowing and transplanting is done on raised beds on open land (see Duryea and Landis 1984 for a review). This type requires more land than those nurseries, which practice more intensive cultivation, and the plants raised require more resources in terms of time and labor. However, the capital costs are lower than in more sophisticated nurseries. In colder climates seedlings will require far more time to reach sufficient size for transplanting for further cultivation in the nursery. In addition the plants are likely to suffer damage from winter cold and frost-lift, and they will be susceptible to animal depredation.
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