Probiotics Prebiotics and Bifidobacteria

A number of health benefits attributed to Jerusalem artichoke tubers in human and animal diets are related to its role as a promoter of probiotic activity in the large intestine. Probiotics have been a dietary element for thousands of years. However, the term probiotic only gained its current usage in the early 1970s, as an organism or substance that has a beneficial effect on the balance of microorganisms in the colon. This definition coincided with work revealing the essential role of...

Blood Lipids and Heart Disease

Inulins and fructooligosaccharides help maintain the health of the cardiovascular system and may reduce the risk of heart disease. A key factor in this is the maintenance or improvement of blood lipid composition, through decreases in triglycerides (triacylglycerols), and the lowering of cholesterol and homocysteine levels (Hidaka et al., 2001 Luo et al., 1996 Tungland, 2003). Convincing lipid-lowering effects have been demonstrated in animals (e.g., Delzenne et al., 1993 Fiordaliso et al.,...

Dkhel15

Source The Nordic Gene Bank database, http tor.ngb.se sesto . (For further details on individual accessions, see Section 8.14.2.) Source The Nordic Gene Bank database, http tor.ngb.se sesto . (For further details on individual accessions, see Section 8.14.2.) 19'), and one each in the Netherlands ('Dwarf'), Norway ('Nora'), Sweden ('Vanlig'), the Czech Republic ('K24'), and the Russian Federation ('Urodny') (http tor.ngb.se sesto ). A replica collection of the NGB accessions is held at...

Info

Judd, 2003 Klass, 1998 Ercoli et al., 1992 Schittenhelm, 1987 Franke, 1985 Guiraud et al., 1982 El Bassan, 1998 Kahnt and Leible, 1985 Chabbert et al., 1983 Zubr, 1988 Williams and Ziobro, 1982 Kara et al., 2005 Mays et al., 1990 Stolzenburg, 2006 Fernandez, 1998 Jerusalem artichoke mash, pulp, or juice provides a complete medium for cultures of yeasts and Z. mobilis bacteria in addition to carbohydrate, it supplies the necessary minerals and vitamins needed for growth (Duvnjak et al., 1981...

In Human Diets

Jerusalem artichoke tubers have been utilized as a staple or sustenance crop at various times and in diverse places other parts of the plant are not part of the human diet. Native Americans were the first to cultivate the crop and consume it in substantial amounts, as it originated in North America. After its introduction in 1607, it became for a time a major source of carbohydrate in the Western European diet, until the potato replaced it in the mid-18th century. It was again cultivated as a...

Carboxymethylinulin

An assortment of mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides have been carboxymethylated (e.g., cellulose, sucrose) for a diverse range of applications. Carboxymethylation of a polysaccharide involves primary or secondary alcohol groups being esterified with carboxymethyl groups. Inulin can be carboxymethylated in an aqueous alkaline solution by reacting with monochloroacetic acid (Figure 5.5) forming O-(carboxymethyl)inulin (8) (Verraest et al., 1996a). The degree of substitution is affected by the...

Inulin and Bone Health

Prebiotics and synbiotics containing fructooligosaccharides enhance mineral bioavailability by improving the absorption of minerals in the colon, especially calcium, iron, and magnesium (Caers, 2004 Coudray, 2004 Hidaka et al., 2001 Ohta et al., 1994 Roberfroid, 2005). The mechanism for this is probably enhanced passive and active mineral transport across the intestinal epithelium, mediated by increased levels of butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids and decreased pH (ScholzAhrens and...

Digestive Downsides

Jerusalem artichoke has beneficial effects on digestion. It is a good source of dietary fiber, for instance, which helps to bulk food and reduce constipation. However, there can be digestive downsides too. Human digestive enzymes do not target inulin. Around 89 (and up to 97 ) of the inulin and fructooligosaccharides that we consume, on average, remain intact in the small intestine (Andersson et al., 1999 Molis et al., 1996). As it is not digested, there tends to be a lot of inulin in the large...

Breeding Programs

Growers have selected for desirable traits in Jerusalem artichokes since the early days of its cultivation, with the result that a large number of cultivars and clones have been described. The tubers have been the main focus of selection, with substantial variation occurring in size, shape, color, and yield (see Chapter 4). The first tubers taken to Europe were larger than wild tubers and have been continuously selected by growers since the 17th century. However, the first systematic breeding...

References

Abrams, A.S., Griffin, I.J., Hawthorne, K.M., Liang, L., Gunn, S.K., Darlington, G., and Ellis, K.J., A combination of prebiotic short- and long-chain inulin-type fructans enhances calcium absorption and bone mineralization in young adolescents, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 82, 471-476, 2005. Aldini, T., Exadissima Descriptio Rariorum Quarundam Plantarum in Horto Farnesiano, Rome, 1625. Alles, M.S., Katan, M.B., Salemans, J.M., Van Laere, K.M., Gerichausen, M.J., Rozendaal, M.J., and Nagengast, F.M.,...

Inulin and Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which blood sugar is not properly taken up into cells. Thus, the level of glucose in the blood remains high. The uptake of glucose into the body's cells is controlled by the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes is due to the pancreas failing to produce sufficient insulin. It is often caused by genetic factors. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or type 2 diabetes, occurs when the body's cells are unable to respond very efficiently to...

Direct Combustion

Direct combustion converts biomass to thermal energy. The removal of access moisture as a liquid dewatering , the complete drying dehydration , and the compaction or densification of biomass are critical processes to ensure efficient combustion. The energy expended in these processes must be compensated for by increased efficiency of conversion of biomass to energy, to make direct combustion economical. Combustion is carried out in incinerators, boilers, or furnaces under controlled conditions....