Drake et al., 1978

Patrick, 1997; Kempers etal., 1998




Anaerobic stress


Reduced ATP caused SEL to increase from 1 kDa to between 5 and 10 kDa in stressed roots.

Metabolic CCCP and probenicid increased inhibitors symplastic movement from transport phloem in Arabidopsis roots.

Cytochalasin, which depolymerises actin, widened the neck of plasmodesmata in Nephrolepis exaltata.

Cytochalasin increased SEL in epidermal cells of Nicotiana tabacum from 1 to 20 kDa.

Actin-binding protein profilin increased SEL in Nicotiana tabacum.

Phalloidin, which stabilises actin filaments, inhibited cell-to-cell movement.

BDM, which can increase cytoplasmic Ca2+, induced constriction in the neck region of Allium cepa, Zea mays and Horedum vulgare PD.

No effect


Membrane resistance (electrical coupling ratio), a measure of PD, resistance unaffected.

Cytochalasin had no effect on plasmodesmal aperture in roots of Hordeum vulgare and Azolla.

Cleland etal., 1994 Zhang & Tyerman, 1997 Wright & Oparka, 1997

White et al., 1994

Ding etal., 1996 Ding etal., 1996 Ding etal., 1996 Radford & White, 1998

Secondary messengers

Group II/ divalent cations

Myosin inhibitor BDM constricted PD in maize roots.

IP2 and IP3 inhibited cell-to-cell transport in Setcreasea purpurea, by releasing Ca2+ from internal stores into the cytosol via inositol triphosphate-sensitive channels.

Elevated cytosolic Ca2+ decreased PD permeability in Egeria densa leaves.

Elevated Ca2+ restricts dye movement in soybean microcallus cells.

Free Ca2+injected into cytosol transiently closed PD of maize cells increasing electrical resistance between cells.

Cytoplasmic increases in other group II ions, e.g. Mg2+ and Sr2"1", decrease PD permeability.

High level of cytosolic Ca2+ stopped dye movement in Setcreasea purpurea cells.

No effect of Ca2+ on PD

permeability in the green alga Chara.

Samaj et al., 2000

Tucker, 1990; Tucker & Boss, 1996

Erwee & Goodwin, 1983

Baron-Epel et al., 1998

Reid & Overall, 1992

Holdaway-Clarke et al., 2000

Erwee & Goodwin, 1983

Tucker, 1990




No effect


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