Climatic indicators

Mean annual rainfall: 360-2180 mm.

Rainfall regime: Uniform/bimodal, winter, summer.

Natural distribution

Growth characteristics Fast-growing. Coppices root-suckers. Tolerates a variety of acid to slightly alk; soils from sands to clay. Frost-tolerant. Inland high alti provenances are more frost-tolerant than lower elevatio coastal provenances. No insect damage reported in South Wales. Medium susceptibility to brown swan-leaf beetle in southern Queensland. Tolerates drought, periodic waterlogging and flooding and moderately siii^. soils. Can tolerate strong winds. Performs well u irrigation (northern Victoria). Exhibits substantial inter-intra-provenance variation for a wide range of attril (e.g. for growth, frost tolerance, salt tolerance). Beet chlorotic on calcareous soil. Moderately salt-tole Expect reduced growth at ECe ca. 5-10 dS/m and red survival above ca. lOdS/m.

Natural distribution

Description Medium to tall tree (10-35 m), erect single stemmed. Bark is dark grey, hard, deeply furro Foliage is persistent to ground level. Leaf'teeth' in whor 8-10 carried on thin dark-green branchlets (10-15 cm 1 with small internodes. Male and female flowers usi occur on separate trees; male flowers form short coloured spikes at the tips of the branchlets and fe: flowers are small, reddish and grouped together in alternating whorls of 6-8 flowers. Flowers appearin February to March. Fruits are small, spherical (6-10 cones and mature February to March (northern Austr and April to May (southern Australia). Approx. 100-viable seeds/g.

Uses

Fodder:

Firewood: Wood:

Other:

Foliage of younger trees is a useful drought reserve. Excellent.

Pinkish grey to purple brown heartwoi sapwood is distinctively paler. Moden strong and very tough when seasoned. Diverse uses include casks, handles, r( shingles flooring, packing cases, partii board and turnery. Air dry density 77C kg/m3. Wood from young trees (20 ye. is pale in colour with an air dry density of 450-500 kg/m3.

Windbreaks, riverbank protection, sand stabilisation, erosion control, shade, ornamental. Reasonable source of pollen.

Estimated climatic range

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