References

Ayre DJ, Grosberg RK (2005) Behind anemone lines: factors affecting division of labour in the social cnidarian Anthopleura elegantissima. Anim Behav 70:97-110 Barneah O, Benayahu Y Weis VM (2006) Comparative proteomics of symbiotic and aposymbi-

otic juvenile soft corals. Mar Biotechnol 8:11-16 Beutler B (2004) Innate immunity: an overview. Mol Immunol 40:845-859 Bigger CH (1988) The role of nematocysts in anthozoan aggression. In: Hessinger DA, Lenhoff

HM (eds) The biology of nematocysts. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 295-308 Bigger CH, Hildemann WH (1982) Cellular defense systems of the coelenterate. In: Cohen A, Sigel S (eds) Phylogeny and ontogeny. (The reticuloendothelial system: a comprehensive treatise, vol 3) Plenum, New York, pp 59-87 Bosch TCG (2007a) Symmetry breaking in stem cells of the basal metazoan Hydra. Prog Mol Subcell Biol 45:61-78

Bosch TCG (2007b) Why polyps regenerate and we don't: towards a cellular and molecular framework for Hydra regeneration. Dev Biol 303:421-433 Bosch TCG, David CN (1987) Stem cells of Hydra magnipapillata can differentiate into somatic cells and germ line cells. Dev Biol 121:182-191 Bridge D, et al (1995) Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: molecular and morphological evidence. Mol Biol Evol 12:679-689

Brogden KA, Guthmiller JM, Salzet M, Zasloff M (2005)The nervous system and innate immunity:

the neuropeptide connection. Nat Immunol 6:558-564 Buss LW (1982) Somatic cell parasitism and the evolution of somatic tissue compatibility. Proc

Natl Acad Sci USA 79:5337-5341 Buss LW, Grosberg RK (1990) Morphogenetic basis for phenotypic differences in hydroid competitive behavior. Nature 343:63-66 Buss LW, Shenk MA (1990) Hydroid allorecognition regulates competition at both the level of the colony and at the level of the cell lineage. In: Marchalonis JJ, Reinisch C (eds) Defense molecules. Liss, New York, pp 85-105 Buss LW, Yund PO (1988) A comparison of modern and historical populations of the colonial hydroid Hydractinia. Ecology 69:646-654 Cadavid LF (2004) Self-discrimination in colonial invertebrates: genetic control of allorecognition in the hydroid Hydractinia. Dev Comp Immunol 28:871-879 Cadavid LF (2005) Self/non-self discrimination in basal metazoa: genetics of allorecognition in the hydroid Hydractinia. Integr Comp Biol 45:623-630 Campbell RD, Bibb C (1970) Transplantation in coelenterates. Transplant Proc 2:202-211 Chadwick-Furman N, Rinkevich B (1994) A complex allorecognition system in a reef-building coral: delayed responses, reversals and nontransitive hierarchies. Coral Reefs 13:57-63 Cherry S, Silverman N (2006) Host-pathogen interactions in Drosophila: new tricks from an old friend. Nat Immunol 7:911-917 Collins AG, et al (2006) Medusozoan phylogeny and character evolution clarified by new large and small subunit rDNA data and an assessment of the utility of phylogenetic mixture models. Syst Biol55:97-115

Du Pasquier L (1974) The genetic control of histocompatibility reactions: phylogenetic aspects. Arch Biol 85:91-103

Du Pasquier L (2001) The immune system of invertebrates and vertebrates (review). Comp

Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 129:1-15 Dunn SR, Thomason JC, Le Tissier MD, Bythell JC (2004) Heat stress induces different forms of cell death in sea anemones and their endosymbiotic algae depending on temperature and duration. Cell Death Differ 11:1213-1222 Durham F (1888) On the emigration of ameboid corpuscles in the starfish. Proc R Soc Lond B 43:328-330

Frank U, Rinkevich B (1994) Nontransitive patterns of historecognition phenomena in the Red

Sea hydrocoral Millepora dichotoma. Mar Biol 118:723-729 Fujita T (2002) Evolution of the lectin-complement pathway and its role in innate immunity

(review). Nat Rev Immunol 2:346-353 Gravato-Nobre MJ, Hodgkin J (2005) Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for innate immunity to pathogens (review). Cell Microbiol 7:741-751 Grosberg RK, Hartt MW, Levitan DR (1997) Is allorecognition specificity in Hydractinia symbio-

longicarpus controlled by a single gene? Genetics 145:857-860 Habetha M, Bosch TCG (2005) Symbiotic Hydra express a plant-like peroxidase gene during oogenesis. J Exp Biol 208:2157-2165 Habetha M, Anton-Erxleben F, Neumann K, Bosch TCG (2003) The Hydra viridis/Chlorella symbiosis. Growth and sexual differentiation in polyps without symbionts. Zoology 106:101-108

Hartog JC den (1977) The marginal tentacles of Rhodactissanctithomae (Corallimorphia) and the sweeper tentacles of Monrastrea cavernosa (Scleractinia): their cnidom and possible function. Proc Int Coral Reef Symp 3:463-469 Hauenschild VC (1954) Genetische und entwichlungphysiologische Untersuchungen ueber Intersexualitaet und Gewebevertraeglichkeit bei Hydractinia echinata Flem. Wilhelm Roux Arch Entwicklungsmech Org 147:1-41 Hauenschild VC (1956) Uber die Vererbung einer Gewebevertraeglichkeitseigenschaft bei dem Hydroidpolypen Hydractinia echinata. Z Naturforsch 1956:132-138

Hemmrich G, Miller DJ, Bosch TCG (2007) The evolution of immunity - a low life perspective.

Trends Immunol (in press) Hildemann WH, Jokiel PL, Bigger CH, Johnston IS (1980) Allogeneic polymorphism and alloimmune memory in the coral, Montipora verrucosa.Transplantation 30:297-301 Ivker FB (1972) A hierarchy of histo-compatibility in Hydractinia echinata. Biol Bull 143:162-174

Kasahara S, Bosch TCG (2003) Enhanced antibacterial activity in Hydra polyps lacking nerve cells. Dev Comp Immunol 27:79-166 Kass-Simon AA, Scappaticci AA (2002) The behavioral and developmental physiology of nema-

tocysts. Can J Zool 80:1772-1794 Khalturin K, Bosch TCG (2006) Self/nonself discrimination at the basis of chordate evolution:

limits on molecular conservation. Curr Opin Immunol 19:4-9 Khalturin K, Panzer Z, Cooper MD, Bosch TCG (2004) Recognition strategies in the innate immune system of ancestral chordates. Mol Immunol 41:1077-1087 Kim DH, Ausubel FM (2005) Evolutionary perspectives on innate immunity from the study of

Caenorhabditis elegans (review). Curr Opin Immunol 17:4-10 Kusserow A, et al (2005) Unexpected complexity of the Wnt gene family in a sea anemone. Nature 433:156-160

Lang J (1973) Interspecific aggression by scleractinian corals. 2. Whythe race is not only to the swift. Bull Mar Sci 23:260-279 Lange R, Plickert G, Miller WA (1989) Histocompatibility in a low invertebrate, Hydractinia echinata: analysis of the mechanism of rejection. J Exp Zool 249:284-292 Leclerc M (1996) Humoral factors in marine invertebrate. In: Rinkevich B, Müller WEG (eds) Progress in molecular and subcellular biology: invertebrate immunology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1-9 Lenhoff HM, Muscatine L (1963) Symbiosis: on the role of algae symbiotic with hydra Science 142:956-958

Lubbock R (1980) Clone-specific cellular recognition in a sea anemone. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:6667-6669

Medina M, et al (2001) Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:9707-9712 Meinardi E, Florin-Christensen M, Paratcha G, Azcurra JM, Florin-Christensen J (1995) The molecular basis of the self/nonself selectivity of a coelenterate toxin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 216:348-354

Miller DJ, Ball EE, Technau U (2005) Cnidarians and ancestral genetic complexity in the animal kingdom. Trends Genet 21:536-539 Miller DJ, Hemmrich G, Ball EE, Hayward DC, Khalturin K, Funayama N, Agata K, Bosch TCG (2007) The innate immune repertoire in cnidaria - ancestral complexity and stochastic gene loss. Genome Biol 8:R59 Mokady O, Buss LW (1996) Transmission genetics of allorecognition in Hydractinia symbio-

longicarpus (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Genetics 143:823-827 Müller WEG, Müller I, Zahn RK, Maidhof A (1984) Intraspecific recognition system in sclerac-tinian corals: morphological and cytochemical description of the autolysis mechanism. J Histochem Cytochem 32:285-288 O'Brien TL (1982) Inhibition of vacuolar membrane fusion by intracellular symbiotic algae in

Hydra viridis (Florida strain). J Exp Zool 223:211-218 Ovchinnikova TV, Balandin SV, Aleshina GM, Tagaev AA, Leonova YF, Krasnodembsky ED, Men'shenin AV, Kokryakov VN (2006) Aurelin, a novel antimicrobial peptide from jellyfish Aurelia aurita with structural features of defensins and channel-blocking toxins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun S348:514-523 Phillips JH (1963) Immune mechanisms in the phylum Coelenterata. In: Dougherty EC (ed) The lower metazoan: comparative biology and phylogeny. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 425-431

Raftos DA (1996) Histocompatibility reactions in invertebrates.In: Cooper EL (ed) Invertebrate immune responses: cell activities and the environment. (Advances in comparative and environmental physiology, vol 24) Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 77-121 Richardson CA, Dustan P, Lang J (1979) Maintenance ofliving space by sweeper tentacles of

Montastrea cavernosa, a Caribbean reef coral. Mar Biol 55:181-186 Rodriguez-Lanetty M, Phillips W, Weis VM (2006) Transcriptome analysis of a cnidarian-dinoflagellate mutualism reveals complex modulation of host gene expression. BMC Genomics 7:23

Sebens KP (1984) Agonistic behavior in the intertidal sea anemone Arthropleura xanthogrammica.

Biol Bull (Woods Hole, Mass) 166:457-472 Sebens KP, Miles JS (1988) Sweeper tentacles in a gorgoniaoctocoral: morphological modifications for interference competition. Biol Bull (Woods Hole, Mass) 175:378-387 Shenk MA, Buss LW (1991) Ontogenetic changes in fusibility in the colonial hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus. J Exp Zool 257:80-86 Technau U, et al (2005) Maintenance of ancestral complexity and non-metazoan genes in two basal cnidarians. Trends Genet 21:633-639 Thorington G, Margulis L (1981) Hydra viridis: transfer of metabolites between Hydra and symbiotic algae. Biol Bull 160:175-188 Wellington GM (1980) Reversal of digestive interactions between Pacific reef corals: mediation by sweeper tentacles. Oecologia 47:340-343 Wittlieb J, Khalturin K, Lohmann J, Anton-Erxleben F, Bosch TCG (2006) Transgenic Hydra allow in vivo tracking of individual stem cells during morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:6208-6211

Yund PO, Cunningham CW, Buss LW (1987) Recruitment and post-recruitment interactions in a colonial hydroid. Ecology 68:971-982 Yund PO, Parker HM (1989) Population structure of the colonial hydroid Hydractinia sp. nov. C in the Gulf of Maine. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 125:63-82

Chapter 3

Was this article helpful?

0 0
How To Bolster Your Immune System

How To Bolster Your Immune System

All Natural Immune Boosters Proven To Fight Infection, Disease And More. Discover A Natural, Safe Effective Way To Boost Your Immune System Using Ingredients From Your Kitchen Cupboard. The only common sense, no holds barred guide to hit the market today no gimmicks, no pills, just old fashioned common sense remedies to cure colds, influenza, viral infections and more.

Get My Free Audio Book


Post a comment