Contents

1 Evolution of Resistance Genes in Plants 1

Shunyuan Xiao, Wenming Wang, and Xiaohua Yang

1 Evolution of the Plant R Gene System 2

2 Conservation and Diversity of Plant R Genes 3

3 NBS, LRR and TIR - Domains of Defense 6

4 Proliferation and Diversification of NBS-LRR Genes in Plants 9

5 Mechanisms of R-Avr Recognition 10

5.1 Direct R-Avr Interaction - the "Gene-For-Gene" Hypothesis . 10

5.2 Indirect R-Avr Interaction - the "Guard" Hypothesis 11

6 Patterns of R-Avr Coevolution 13

6.1 Diversifying Selection Results from Direct R-Avr Recognition? 14

6.2 Balancing Selection Results from Indirect Recognition? 15

6.3 A General Model for Evolution of the Plant R Gene System . . 17

7 New Perspectives 19

References 20

2 The Path Less Explored: Innate Immune Reactions in Cnidarians. . 27

Thomas C.G. Bosch

1 Cnidaria Are Among the Earliest Multicellular Animals in the Tree of Life 28

2 Immune Reactions in Invertebrates 30

3 Immune Reactions in Cnidaria 30

3.1 How to Fight for a Space to Live? Intraspecies

Competition in Sea Anemones 31

3.2 How to Detect Approaching Allogeneic Cells as Foreign and to Eliminate Them? Allorecognition and Cell Lineage Competition in Colonial Hydractinia 32

3.3 How to Detect and Disarm Microbial Attackers? Antimicrobial Defense Reactions in the Freshwater

Polyp Hydra and the Jellyfish Aurelia 34

3.4 How to Distinguish Between Friends and Foes:

Symbiotic Relationships in Corals and Hydra 36

4 How to Explore the Path They Went? Why Cnidarians Matter 38

References 39

3 Bug Versus Bug: Humoral Immune Responses in Drosophila melanogaster 43

Deniz Erturk-Hasdemir, Nicholas Paquette, Kamna Aggarwal, and Neal Silverman

1 Introduction 44

1.1 A Brief History 44

1.2 Overview of the Drosophila Immune Response 45

2 Microbial Recognition - the Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins . . 45

2.1 Peptidoglycan 47

2.2 NF-kB Proteins 48

3 The Toll Pathway 49

4 The IMD Pathway 55

5 Down-Regulation of the IMD Pathway by PGRP Amidases 60

6 JAK/STAT Pathway 61

7 Concluding Remarks 62

References 63

4 Cellular Immune Responses in Drosophila melanogaster 73

Adrienne Ivory, Katherine Randle, and Louisa Wu

1 Introduction 74

2 Encapsulation 75

2.1 Recognition Centers on Membrane Differences 76

2.2 Lamellocyte Proliferation: Necessary for Successful Encapsulation Response 78

2.3 Adhesion Requires Integrins, Rac, and Rho 78

2.4 Encapsulation Terminates with the Formation of Basement Membrane 82

3 Phagocytosis 83

3.1 Proteins Opsonize Invading Bacteria and Fungi to Promote Phagocytosis 84

3.2 Transmembrane and Circulating Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins are Involved in the Recognition of Bacteria 85

3.3 Receptors with Scavenger-Like Activity Recognize a Variety of Microbes 86

3.4 Phagocytosis Requires Reorganization of the Actin Cytoskeleton 88

3.5 Engulfed Pathogens are Degraded in Phagolysosomes 89

3.6 Interactions Between Cellular and Humoral

Immune Responses 90

References 91

5 Immune Reactions in the Vertebrates' Closest Relatives, the Urochordates 99

Konstantin Khalturin, Ulrich Kürn, and Thomas C.G. Bosch

1 Introduction 100

2 Urochordates are at the Root of Vertebrate Evolution 100

3 Natural History and Ecology of Urochordates 101

4 Immunity in Urochordates 102

4.1 Antimicrobial Peptides from Urochordates 103

4.2 Allorecognition in Urochordates 104

4.3 Complement in Urochordates 106

4.4 Despite the Absence of MHC, Urochordate Blood

Contains NK-Like Cells 107

5 Conclusion 108

References 108

6 Innate Immune System of the Zebrafish, Danio rerio 113

Con Sullivan and Carol H. Kim

1 Overview 114

2 Components of Innate Immunity 115

2.1 General Description 115

2.2 Drosophila Toll: Identification and Recognition of a Dually Functioning Pathway 116

2.3 TLRs and TIR-Bearing Adaptor Proteins 117

3 Zebrafish as a Model for Infectious Disease and Innate

Immune Responses 118

3.1 Overview 118

3.2 Forward and Reverse Genetics 119

3.3 An Infectious Disease and Innate Immunity Model 120

4 NK-Like Cells 122

5 Additional Innate Immunity Receptors in Zebrafish 124

6 Zebrafish Phagocytes 126

7 Conclusion 126

References 127

7 Toll-Like Receptors in the Mammalian Innate Immune System . . . . 135

Andrei E. Medvedev and Stefanie N. Vogel

1 Introduction 136

2 TLRs as Primary Sensors of Pathogenic PAMPS

and Endogenous "Danger" Molecules 137

3 TLR Signaling Pathways 141

3.1 Interaction of TLRs with PAMPs and Co-Receptors

Initiates Signaling 141

3.2 Role of TIR-Containing Adapter Molecules in TLR Signaling 142

3.3 TLR Specificity for PAMPs in the Ectodomain and Adapters in the TIR Domain Underlie a Dual Recognition/Response System 146

3.4 The IRAK Family: Key Regulators of TLR Signaling 147

4 Mutations in TLRs and IRAK-4: Implications for Disease 149

5 Conclusions 155

References 156

8 NLRs: a Cytosolic Armory of Microbial Sensors Linked to Human Diseases 169

Mathias Chamaillard

1 Introduction 170

2 NLRs, a Conserved Cytosolic Arm of the Innate Immune System . . 171

3 Physiological Role of NLRs in Innate and Adaptive Immunity:

NLRs Join TLRs 174

3.1 Host Sensing of Non-TLR PAMPs: Lessons from NOD1

and NOD2 Studies 174

3.2 NLRs Promote Maturation of TLR-Induced Il-1 ß

and IL-18 Release 176

4 What Can we Learn from NLRs Linked to Human Diseases? 177

4.1 NOD1 and NOD2 Mutations Linked to Chronic

Inflammatory Diseases 178

4.2 Auto-Inflammatory Diseases 179

4.3 Reproduction Diseases 179

5 Concluding Remarks: Towards the Development of "Magic" Bullets 179

References 180

9 Antimicrobial Peptides as First-Line Effector Molecules of the Human Innate Immune System 187

Regine Gläser, Jürgen Harder, and Jens-Michael Schröder

1 Introduction 188

2 Epithelial Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins 189

2.1 Lysozyme 189

2.2 Human Beta Defensins 189

2.3 Human Alpha Defensins 194

2.4 RNases 195

2.5 S100 Proteins: S100 A7 (Psoriasin) 196

2.6 Others 198

3 Phagocyte Antimicrobial Peptides 200

3.1 Human Alpha Defensins 200

3.2 Cathelicidins 200

3.3 S100 Proteins: S100 A8/9 (Calprotectin) and S100A12 (Calgranulin C) 201

3.4 Others 202

4 Putative Action of Antimicrobial Peptides in the Healthy Human . 202

5 Antimicrobial Peptides and Diseases 205

5.1 Skin Diseases 205

5.2 Wound Healing 206

5.3 Diseases of the Airway Epithelial Cystic Fibrosis 207

5.4 Gastrointestinal Diseases: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases . . . 208

5.5 Diseases Associated with Phagocyte Dysfunction 209

6 General Conclusion and Future Aspects 210

References 210

10 The Complement System in Innate Immunity 219

1 The Complement System in Mammals 220

1.1 Classical Pathway 221

1.2 The Lectin Pathway 223

1.3 Alternative Pathway 225

1.4 Regulation of the Complement System 228

1.5 Complement Receptors 229

2 The Structure of Complement Proteins 230

3 Complement Across Species 232

References 233

Index 237

Was this article helpful?

0 0
How To Bolster Your Immune System

How To Bolster Your Immune System

All Natural Immune Boosters Proven To Fight Infection, Disease And More. Discover A Natural, Safe Effective Way To Boost Your Immune System Using Ingredients From Your Kitchen Cupboard. The only common sense, no holds barred guide to hit the market today no gimmicks, no pills, just old fashioned common sense remedies to cure colds, influenza, viral infections and more.

Get My Free Audio Book


Post a comment