Reasons For Cholesterol

Lower Your Cholesterol Book

Beat Cholesterol In 30 Days is the latest program that teaches people how to control their cholesterol levels, and reduce their risk of a heart attack dramatically. The program also provides people with easy and simple exercises to get lean, fit, and healthy. In addition, this program is designed by Scott Davis, an alternative health expert and medical researcher who has over 14 years of experience in the healthcare industry. This program reveals to people some main factors that cause their hypercholesterolemia such as smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and family history of heart disease. The program also covers tips to prevent the recurrence of hypercholesterolemia such as eating a low-fat and low-salt diet, stopping smoking, losing extra pounds, and maintaining a healthy weight. When you download the e-book you learn how to be in control of your cholesterol and live a longer and more fulfilling life. Youll also learn diet tips, discover supplements that can help you and even learn how to avoid toxins found in most water. However, the most important thing that youll get is a 30 day action plan. Continue reading...

Natural Cholesterol Guide Summary


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My Natural Cholesterol Guide Review

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The writer presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this manual are precise.

When compared to other e-books and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.


Statin drugs are widely used to decrease elevated cholesterol levels and prevent atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The statin drug Lipitor is one of the top-selling pharmaceuticals worldwide and brought in an estimated 12.2 billion in sales to Pfizer in 20 05.40 Statins inhibit the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMGCoA) reductase, which decreases cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting the conversion of acetyl CoA to mevalonate. Mevalonate is also necessary for the production of ubiquinone, or CoQ10. Numerous studies have demonstrated that statin drug therapy significantly decreases plasma levels of CoQ10.41 CoQ10 is necessary for mitochondrial energy production, and CoQ10 has potent antioxidant activity.42 Some researchers suggest that the depletion of CoQ10 could account for some side effects associated with statin drugs, such as myotoxicity and hepatotoxicity.43,44 It has also been hypothesized that the relatively common side effects of fatigue and...

Alternative Treatments And Lifestyle Changes

Such as gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), are often taken as supplements to utilize their potent anti-inflammatory properties. EPA and DHA are found in high levels in fish oils and provide both anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects. Specifically, EPA's cardioprotective effects include decreasing triglycerides, increasing high-density lipoprotein, and preventing arrhythmias.46 EPA and DHA decrease inflammatory eicosanoids by competing with arachidonicacid (AA) in the lipo-oxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase pathways. Fish oils have been shown to decrease several pro-inflammatory cytokines as well.47 GLA is commonly found in borage (Borago officinalis) seed oil, evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) oil, and black currant (Ribes nigrum) oil. GLA decreases the inflammatory response by inhibiting the production of inflammatory leukotrienes from AA.48

Markers Of Inflammation Creactive Protein and Fibrinogen

Which in turn confers an increased risk of the cardiovascular events. An elevated CRP level is normally treated with aspirin prophylaxis and hyperlipidemia medications, or statins. While obesity is, itself, a well-known risk factor for CHD, lowering CRP via lowering body fat will decrease CRP and CHD. In particular, high-sensitivity hsCRP is considered to be a promising marker for CHD and is interrelated with obesity and other risk factors, such as age, tobacco use, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia.48 One of the most common causes of an elevated CRP has been shown to be periodontal disease.

High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry MS

Gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detectors have been utilized for the identification of lipid-soluble pomegranate phytochemicals such as fatty acids, triglycerides, and other components of its seed and seed oil.50 The use of GC and GC-MS usually requires derivatization of samples before they can be analyzed.

Mode of action studies

Be predicted for herbicides because of the wide variety of organic phases within a plant, such as hydrocarbon waxes, triglycerides, proteins, lignins or even carbohydrates. However, Briggs and colleagues (Bromilow et al., 1986I have found that the partition coefficient can give a good prediction of systemicity. For acids and bases the dissociation constant of the chemical and the natural pH of the various plant compartments will also determine the proportion of ionised and non-ionised forms present. Ionisation decreases log Kow and so can have a dramatic effect on the movement of a compound in a plant. Most phloem-mobile, systemic compounds are therefore weak acids with log Kow in the range of -1 to 3, but the immobile soil-applied herbicide diflufenican has a log Kow value of 4.9 (Table 2.9).

Biochemical And Histological Effect Of P Tuberosa In Control And Ovariectomized Rats

Shukla etal. (1987b, 1989a) have reported physiological and biochemical changes in female genital tract of ovariectomized and control rats treated with butanolic extract of P. tuberosa. Administration of the butanolic extract of P. tuberosa provoked a successive and significant increase in the wet weight and protein contents of the ovary, uterus, cervix and vagina. Glycogen content of the ovary, uterus and cervix increased significantly at all time intervals measured (from 6 to 24 days), but decreased in the vaginal samples. The level of total cholesterol did not change appreciably in the organs examined in the initial days of treatment, i.e. 6 and 12 days, but after prolonged treatments, i.e 18 and 24 days, cholesterol levels increased significantly. The extract provoked sharp elevation in acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in all organs at consecutive time intervals. Further Shukla etal. (1987c) have also observed the role of butanolic extract of P. tuberosa DC in the movement...

Applications in Biotechnology

It could be argued that this is metabolic engineering rather than manipulation of partitioning, but any metabolic engineering intervention inevitably changes the partitioning of assimilate in that it alters metabolic pathways to induce more carbon flux to a chosen target. This may seem like stretching the point, but biotechnologists ignore the regulation of partitioning and metabolism at their peril when planning a metabolic engineering project. Indeed, increasing lysine biosynthesis was achieved only by using an unregulated form of the key enzyme in the pathway. Another excellent example of this is the manipulation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway to increase phytosterol yield. The phytosterols are attractive targets for biotechnologists because the predominant naturally occurring phytosterols are structurally related to cholesterol (Fig. 4.6). These compounds are known as 4-desmethylsterols because of the absence of methylation at the fourth carbon in the chain and include...

Clathrin Mediated Endocytosis

The adaptor proteins AP-2 and AP-180 mediate clathrin cage assembly. AP-2 is a heterotetramer like AP-1, AP-3, and AP-4, as described earlier, but AP-180 functions as a monomer and also appears to interact with aC-adaptin (AP-2 subunit) (Barth and Holstein 2004). The AP-2 subunit p.2 is responsible for cargo selection, and until recently was thought to be the only subunit involved in cargo selection. The p2 subunit has also been shown to participate in cargo selection independent from p.2 in mammals, and a point mutation in p2 cannot recruit specific proteins (e.g., p-arrestin or autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein) to clathrin structures (Keyel et al. 2008).

Proteomics Of Model Legume Medicago Truncatula

Analyzed soy proteins from seeds used in most clinical studies of hypercholesterolemia. Multiple samples used in Europe and the United States were analyzed by 2-DGE and MS 41 . The authors reported on the difference in soy proteins used in different clinical studies and discussed the implications of these results on the outcome of clinical studies. In another study, 422 proteins were identified in developing soybean seeds by 2-DGE and MS 42 . This research addressed the use of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in combination with chemical analysis for predicting protein and carbohydrate composition. Also, they reported a negative correlation between the seed storage protein G1 glycinin precursor and carbohydrates such as nonstarch polysac-charides and raffinose. As the first of its kind, recent research has applied comparative proteomics to analyze storage proteins in wild and cultivated soybean seeds 43 . The authors reported a higher degree of electrophoretic heterogeneity in...

Nutraceutical Supplements

Fructooligosaccharides have been used as food supplements in Japan since 1983. A wide range of inulin-containing functional foods are marketed as beneficial for gastrointestinal conditions and for the promotion of mineral absorption (Hidaka et al., 2001). Over 700 products in Europe included inulin as a nutraceutical ingredient by 2000, including yogurts. One of these yogurts became the first functional food to have its health-promoting claims challenged in court. The yogurt, containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and inulin, was claimed to have cholesterol-lowering properties. The claim was upheld and the company (Mona, The Netherlands) won the case (Heasman and Mellentin, 2001).

Time Of Stratification In Weeks

Respiration of seeds involves oxidative breakdown of organic constituents, primarily sugars, starches, fatty acids, and triglycerides, to provide energy in the form of ATP, which drives anabolic aspects of germination. The ATP is required for synthesizing new cellular constituents in seedlings and for forming protein-synthesizing machinery in producing enzymes for degradation and conversion of storage compounds. Respiration also provides much reducing power in the form of NADH. Hence, respiratory products play an important role in seed germination (Kozlowski, 1992).

The Effect Of Pomegranate Juice On Serum Lipid Pattern

Pomegranate juice concentrate (50 mL day, equivalent to 1.5 mmol of total polyphenols) administration to healthy men for a period of 2 weeks had no significant effect on plasma lipid profile, including total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations. Similarly, no significant effect could be demonstrated on plasma lipid concentrations in the E mice after consumption of PJ, in comparison to control mice that consumed only water.145 The effect of PJ consumption on serum lipid profile was also studied in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia.157 In this study, 22 type II diabetic patients with cholesterol levels higher than 5.2 mmol L and triglyceride levels higher than 2.3 mmol L consumed 40 g day of concentrated PJ for 8 weeks. After consumption of concentrated PJ, significant reductions were seen in total cholesterol, in LDL cholesterol, and in the ratio of LDL-cholesterol HDL-cholesterol, as well as total cholesterol...

Perspectives And Future Directions

FIGURE 4.5 Major pathways by which pomegranate polyphenols inhibit macrophage foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. PJ polyphenols affect LDL directly by their interaction with the lipoprotein and inhibition of LDL oxidation (1). PJ polyphenols can also protect LDL indirectly, by their accumulation in arterial cells and protection of arterial macrophages against oxidative stress (2). This latter effect is associated with inhibition of the formation of oxidized macrophages and reduction in the capacity of macrophages to oxidize LDL (3). In addition, PJ polyphenols preserve or even increase paraoxonase activity, thereby increasing hydrolysis of lipid peroxides in Ox-LDL ( LDL ) (4) or in oxidized macrophages in the atherosclerotic lesion ( Macrophage ) (5), or increasing HDL-mediated efflux from macrophages (6), leading to attenuation in the progression of atherosclerosis. PJ polyphenols can also reduce the oxidative capacity of macrophages by reducing the activation of the...

Essential Fatty Acids

Essential fatty acids cannot be made by the body and thus need to be consumed in the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and omega-6 fatty acids such as gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) are often taken as supplements because of their strong anti-inflammatory action. EPA and DHA are present in high amounts in fish oils and produce anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects. Specifically, EPA has cardioprotective effects, such as decreasing triglycerides and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL).60 As previously mentioned, women with PCOS often have hyperlipidemia with elevated triglyceride levels and low HDL levels. EPA and DHA decrease inflammatory ei-cosanoids by competing with arachidonic acid (AA) in the lipo-oxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways. GLA is commonly found in borage (Borago officinalis) seed oil, evening primrose (Oenothera spp.) oil, and black currant (Ribes nigrum) oil. GLA metabolites decrease the inflammatory...

Strategies for Preventing Metabolic Syndrome

However, one does not need to look far for the basic causes of metabolic syndrome. All four conditions (obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperinsulinemia) can be linked to one related cause poor dietary choices, namely, imbalanced consumption of simple carbohydrates. Thus, the main treatment for metabolic syndrome is dietary therapy. One study in women with a family history of cardiovascular disease, following a low-GI diet for four weeks, resulted in increased insulin sensitivity after a glucose challenge and increased glucose uptake in isolated fat cells. Even in lean young adults, a low-GI diet reduced muscle triglycerides, a marker of insulin resistance.12 In addition, consuming high levels of high-glycemic carbohydrates causes enhanced appetite and a tendency to overeat.13,14 However, a complete reversal of consuming refined carbohydrates and saturated fats and switching to a complex carbohydrate, protein-rich diet with healthy fatty-acid ratios is not likely to...

Pomegranate Phytochemicals

The different types of phytochemicals that have been identified from various parts of the pomegranate tree and from pomegranate fruits and seeds are listed in Table 1.1, items 1 to 31, and Figure 1.1a through Figure 1.1m show their chemical structures. The major class of pomegranate phytochemicals is the polyphenols (phenolic rings bearing multiple hydroxyl groups) that predominate in the fruit. Pomegranate polyphenols include flavonoids (flavonols, flavanols, and anthocyanins), condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins), and hydrolyzable tannins (ellagitannins and gallotan-nins). Other phytochemicals identified from the pomegranate are organic and phenolic acids, sterols and triterpenoids, fatty acids, triglycerides, and alkaloids. Fatty Acids and Triglycerides FIGURE 1.1 Chemical structures of pomegranate phytochemicals a ellagitannins and gallotannins b ellagic acid derivatives c catechins and procyanidins d anthocyanins and anthocyanidins e organic and phenolic acids f simple galloyl...

Fatty Acid Desaturases

A number of studies have demonstrated apparently beneficial effects of diets based on high MUFA content primarily derived from olive oil (Kris-Etherton et al., 1988 Spiller et al., 1992 Hegsted et al., 1993 Curb et al., 2000). The health implications of palmitoleic acid were first addressed by Yamori et al. (1986) and Abraham et al. (1989). Curb et al. (2000) compared the effects of (i) a typical American diet high in saturated fat - 37 energy from fat , (ii) the American Heart Association 'step 1' diet - 30 energy from fat (half the saturated fatty acids, normal amounts of MUFAs and PUFAs, and high levels of carbohydrates), and (iii) a macadamia nut-based mono-unsaturated fat diet (37 energy from fat). When compared with the typical diet, the 'step 1' and macadamia nut diets both had potentially beneficial effects on cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. These results are consistent with previously reported lipid-altering benefits of MUFA-rich diets, particularly those involving...

Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations

In some Chondrus species, a genus related with Gigartina, a series of sterols have been found, all of which have hypocholesterolemic activity. These sterols can also depress blood pressure in human atherosclerosis as well as low cholesterol levels in rabbits and rats. A polysaccharide extracted from Fucus vesiculosus was evaluated for hypolipidemic activity in normal and hyper lipiemic rats. The alga significantly lowered total cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and significantly increased the antiatherogenic index. Compounds obtained from extracts of Cystoseira barbata have shown hypoglycemic and lipolytic activity. A new phloroglucinol derivative isolated from brown alga Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell (Phaeophyceae) from Japan has been reported to be effective in the treatment of diabetic complications. Polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica Aresch. reduced the concentration of cholesterol, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein in quails.

Sexhormone Binding Globulin

Levels of sex-hormone binding globulin, as previously mentioned, play a role in numerous conditions. Low levels are associated with hormone-related conditions such as breast cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome, and insulin resistance. Furthermore, decreased levels of this protein are associated with cardiovascular risk factors as well. A recent study showed that low SHBG is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, increased triglycerides, and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in men and women. In women, decreased SHBG was also associated with elevated apolipoprotein B and diabetes.10 SHBG has also been shown to inhibit the estradiol-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells.11

Herbalphytochemicaldrug interactions

Health Benefits Henbane

Some of the best-selling herbal supplements are ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba, used for increasing peripheral blood flow and in senile dementia), Asian Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng, used as an 'adaptogen' to help regulate the body's reaction to various stresses), garlic (Allium sativum), used for cardiovascular health including hypercholesterolemia), echinacea (Echinacea purpurea angustifolia), used to support the immune system, especially in the prevention and treatment of colds and influenza), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), used in the management of mild to moderate depression), and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), used in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (Fig. 6.18). Despite the widespread concurrent use of conventional medicines and herbal supplements, documented herb-drug interactions (HDIs) are still sparse and consist mainly of isolated case reports and laboratory studies. For most potential interactions of herbs and drugs that are reported, the theories are based...

Role Of Pomegranate Fruit Phytochemicals In Bioactivity

Cerda et al. investigated the effects of supplementation with 1 L of juice day (more than 5 g day polyphenols, including 4.4 g day punicalagin isomers) on rats by assaying a large number of hematological and serobiochemical parameters, such as LDL, high-density lipids (HDL), triglycerides and cholesterol, plasma and urine antioxidant activities (ability to donate electrons), and the presence of certain pomegranate constituents.60 None of the major polyphenols in the original juice (ellagi-tannins, ellagic acid derivatives, and anthocyanins) were detected in the human plasma or urine. The most potent in vitro antioxidant in the original PJ, punicalagin, was not detected (intact) in the human plasma or urine, nor was punicalin or ellagic acid conjugates. It is noteworthy that in a separate study, intact ellagic acid, resulting from the in vivo hydrolysis of ellagitannins, was detected in human plasma after the consumption of PJ.61 Cerda et al.60 also reported that despite the high...

Production of Novel Carbohydrates in Transgenic Plants

From a biotechnological viewpoint, interest in fructans has continued to increase as they have been recognised as beneficial food ingredients. As part of the human diet, they are considered to be prebiotics as they selectively promote the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria. Furthermore, fructans are assumed to have anti-cancer activity, promote mineral absorption, decrease cholesterol levels and decrease insulin levels. Fructans are normally isolated from plants with low agronomic value, such as the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) and chicory. Thus, attempts have been made to produce transgenic plants with higher fructan yield or making fructans with specific properties. Transformation of sugar beet with an SST gene from Jerusalem artichoke resulted in the conversion of 90 of the vacuolar sucrose into fructan (Sevenier et al., 1998) since the sugar beet accumulates to concentrations approaching 600 mM sucrose, this represents a massive fructan yield. Weyens et al....

Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Diseases

There are several factors that increase the risk of developing CVD. These risk factors may be nonmodifiable, such as a family history of cardiovascular disease, race (black, aborginal), and age.1,3,19 However, many of the risk factors for heart attack and stroke are indeed modifiable with changes in behavior, drugs, or diet. Eighty percent of the Canadian population has at least one modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease.3 Smoking is the single most important cause of preventable illness and premature death for Canadians. 3 Other risk factors that can be controlled are diabetes and obesity (or metabolic syndrome20,21), sedentary lifestyles, stress, hypertension,3,10 and dyslipidemia.3,8 Thus, the incidence of cardiovascular disease can be attenuated by increases in physical activity, smoking cessation, controlling diabetes with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, controlling hypertension with various antihypertensive drugs, cholesterol-lowering therapy with drugs, and...

Natural Treatments For Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X or cardiovascular metabolic syndrome, is comprised of hyperlipidemia (elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol), central (abdominal) obesity, hypertension, and concomitant insulin re-sistance glucose intolerance. Although no specific cause-and-effect relationship has been established, the outcomes of these associative factors are significantly increased risks for developing diabetes and heart disease. Eric S. Freedland, M.D., a senior editor of Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders1 based in Boston, Massachusetts, notes that the escalating worldwide epidemic of metabolic syndrome affects each of us either directly or indirectly. It demands multidisciplinary efforts and cooperation to e nsure better understanding of its causes and to develop effective approaches to preventing and treating its associated conditions.'' Using a sample of 3,477 Mexican-American, 3,305 African-American, and 5,581...

Antiinflammatory properties

Aloe gel can block vasoactive substances responsible for inflammation, can constrict small blood vessels, can block PMN (polymorphonuclear leucocyte) infiltration, can inhibit the production of oxygen free radicals and can dilate capillaries allowing for increased blood supply to damaged tissue (Davis etal., 1987 DelBeccaro etal., 1978 Heggers etal., 1985). These properties have given aloe the ability to reverse progressive tissue necrosis in partially damaged tissue (Zawacki, 1974). The plant hormones called gibberellins and auxins and the group of substances related to aspirin, known as the salicylates, seem to be the mediators of this response (Davis etal., 1991). In addition, there are organic compounds in aloe such as emolin, barbaloin and emodin that can be broken down by the Kolbe reaction into salicylates (t'Hart etal, 1988). The anti-thromboxane effect of these compounds may be due to enzymatic substrate competition. Aloe gel contains an abundance of fatty acids that allow...

Partitioning Effect in Formulated Products

It is well accepted that the anti-microbial activity resides in the aqueous phase of a preserved two phase system and is therefore dependant on the equilibrium concentration of the preservative in this phase. It is expected that tea tree oil will partition between the oil and water phases present in a two component system in accordance with the partition coefficient and the relative ratio of oil and water in the system. To estimate the likely concentration in the aqueous phase of a simple two component system, the partitioning behaviour of tea tree oil between water and Crodamol GTCC (Caprylic Capric triglycerides, a typical oily component of cream formulations) was investigated. The effect of surfactant concentration was also noted.

Nutraceuticallaboratory Test Interactions

Support patients with high cholesterol, cancer, HIV, diabetes, allergies, and other conditions Promote bone health treat OA enhance mental functioning increase muscle mass, (illustrates benefits of using trace minerals therapeutically) Support patients with OA and other joint conditions, including TMJ disease

Nutritional and Economic Benefits

Soybean is high in protein and is one of the very few plant-based foods to contain all of the essential amino acids. Therapeutically, soybeans lower cholesterol, boost the immune system and, being high in fibre, ease constipation. Soybean is extremely versatile. It contains a high proportion of polyunsaturated

Prevention And Treatment Of Diabetic Retinopathy

Preliminary evidence points to the influence of free-radical formation and the development and progression of many forms of retinopathy.56 Antioxidant formulas have long been the frontline defense in preventing and managing retinopathy. With properties that include free-radical scavenging, preventing protein glycosylation, and decreasing capillary permeability and fragility, it is no wonder that vitamin C is chief among these therapies.57-60 Vitamin E, also a potent intracellular antioxidant, is considered to be effective, at a level of 1,200 international units (IU) per day or more, for preventing and treating similar conditions.61 Vitamins C and E have been shown, in limited investigations, to be present in lower levels in patients with diabetes compared to healthy controls.62,63 In addition, vitamin E has been shown to protect people with very high cholesterol levels from developing retinopathy.64 A combination of 500 mcg of selenium, 800 IU of vitamin E, 10,000 IU of vitamin A,...

Blood Lipids and Heart Disease

Inulins and fructooligosaccharides help maintain the health of the cardiovascular system and may reduce the risk of heart disease. A key factor in this is the maintenance or improvement of blood lipid composition, through decreases in triglycerides (triacylglycerols), and the lowering of cholesterol and homocysteine levels (Hidaka et al., 2001 Luo et al., 1996 Tungland, 2003). Convincing lipid-lowering effects have been demonstrated in animals (e.g., Delzenne et al., 1993 Fiordaliso et al., 1995 Kok et al., 1998 Trautwein et al., 1998). Rats on inulin-rich diets, for example, had lower blood cholesterol and total lipid levels than control animals, while reductions in serum triglycerides were reported for rats on diets containing 5 to 20 fructooligosaccharides (Roberfroid, 1993). However, the situation is less clear-cut for humans, where higher inulin doses (over 30 gday-1) can produce adverse gastrointestinal symptoms (Williams, 1999). Some human studies have found no effects, while a...

What Essential Oils Potentiate Amphetamine Locomotor Effects

In a study, ethanolic extract of N. jatamansi was studied in Wistar albino rats for cardio protective activity against doxorubicin induced myocardial injury. Doxorubicin is inhibitor of fatty oxidation in the heart and results in cardio toxicity. The rats treated with a single dose of doxorubicin (15 mg kg) intraperitoneally showed an increase in serum and cardiac lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids), along with a significant rise in serum low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins and a drop in high density lipoproteins levels, resulting in alteration of serum and cardiac lipid metabolizing enzymes. A 50 ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa (tuber) and N. jatamansi (whole plant) elevated the HDL-cholesterol total cholesterol ratio in triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats. There also was a reduction in the ratio of total cholesterol phospholipids.

Characterization of Detergent Insoluble Plasma Membranes from Plants

The role of phytosterols in the lateral structuring of the PM of higher plant cells has been recently reported (Roche et al. 2008). The cyclic oligosaccharide methyl-p-cyclodextrin (MCD), a tool commonly used in animal cells to decrease cholesterol levels, was used to treat PMs of tobacco BY-2 cells. A drastic reduction (50 ) in the PM total free sterol content of the plant material was observed without modification in amounts of steryl conjugates. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments using DPH, TMA-DPH, Laurdan, and di-4-ANEPPDHQ indicated that such a depletion in sterol content increased lipid acyl chain disorder and reduced the overall liquidphase heterogeneity in correlation with the disruption of phytosterol-rich domains. MCD also prevented isolation of a PM fraction resistant to solubilization by nonionic detergents. These results suggest that free sterols are key compounds for the formation of plant PM microdomains (Roche et al. 2008). Physical tools to study the kinetics of...

Dietary Interventions

42 in the wheat group were able to stop their medication or reduce their medication by half. Treatment group participants whose medication was not reduced had substantial decreases in BP. The oats group experienced a 24.2 mg dL reduction in total cholesterol levels, a 16.2 mg dL decrease in LDL levels, and a 15.03 mg dL drop in plasma glucose levels compared to the control group.89

AGEs and Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is a medical condition characterized by central obesity, elevated triglycerides, small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, low beneficial high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, increased inflammation, and insulin resistance. AGE accumulation and RAGE expression is correlated with the symptoms of this condition. A variant of RAGE known as endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) is believed to be a decoy receptor for AGEs and increased levels of esRAGE have been shown to be protective in atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Additionally, esRAGE levels are inversely correlated with body mass index, blood pressure, insulin resistance, and triglycerides.13 (See Chapter 24 on metabolic syndrome.)

Additional Medicinal Mushrooms

The results showed a 32.9 decrease in the plasma total cholesterol, a 45.4 decrease in LDL cholesterol, a 34.3 decrease in triglycerides, an 18.9 decrease in phospholipid, 58.7 decreased atherogenic index, 20.2 decreased hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity, and a 31.1 increase in the plasma HDL cholesterol level compared to the controls.65

Niacin and Other B Vitamins

Niacin (vitamin B3) is a water-soluble vitamin. The FDA has approved the use of high-dose niacin for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Numerous studies have verified the efficacy of niacin for this purpose. In one study, dyslipidemic patients were supplemented with time-released nicotinic acid (mean 1,297 mg per day) for a mean duration of 7.4 months. HDL levels increased a mean of 18 , total cholesterol concentrations decreased 9 , the ratio of total cholesterol HDL decreased 25 , LDL cholesterol levels decreased 13 , and triglyceride levels decreased by 20 .34 Niacin is frequently prescribed in addition to statin therapy. Studies show that adding prolonged-release nicotinic acid to statin therapy in patients at increased cardiovascular risk increased HDL cholesterol by 23 , decreased triglycerides by 15 , and decreased LDL by 4 .35 The most common side effect reported was flushing. When examining lipid subclasses, the most atherogenic appear to be the small, dense LDL and large VLDL...

Small GTPases and Pollen Tube Growth

Multiple signals have been implicated to play a role in the sporophytic phase of pollen tube guidance. On the stigma surface, several potential cues have been proposed to direct pollen growth. These include lipids, water, ions and proteins. In the family Solanaceae, pollen germination and directional growth require either triglycerides in the stigma exudates, or a gradient of water established by the stigmatic lipids over an aqueous component of the exudates (Wolters-Arts et al. 1998). In the transmitting tract, several extracellular matrix proteins have been implicated in pollen tube guidance. The major extracellular arabinogalactans include TTS1 and TTS2 proteins in tobacco (Wang et al. 1993 Cheung et al. 1995 Wu et al. 2000), a 9-kd stigma-style cysteine-rich adhesion (SCA) protein (Park et al. 2000) and stylar pectic polysaccharides (Mollet et al. 2000) in lily and g-amino butyric acid (GABA Palanivelu et al. 2003). These substances provide nutritional and guidance cues, and...

Characterization of Clathrin Coated Vesicle Coat and Accessory Proteins

Ever since its discovery, AP-2 was considered as the only adaptor for endocytic cargo but this dogma has recently been refuted. Additional clathrin-dependent uptake processes of specific cargo molecules by monomeric adaptors have been observed in AP-2 depleted cells (Owen et al., 2004). Compared to wildtype cells the number of clathrin-coated pits (CCP) is remarkably reduced in these cells and endocytosis of the trans-ferrin receptor (Tf-R) is blocked. However, the uptake of the low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) remained unaffected (Hinrichsen et al., 2003 Motley et al., 2003). Two monomeric proteins, Disabled-2 (Dab2) and autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH), have been shown to recruit members of the LDL-R family. Both contain a phosphotyrosine binding domain which is able to interact with the FXNPXY motif of the LDL-Receptors (Traub, 2003 Robinson, 2004). Furthermore, there is compelling evidence that the members of...

Lipids are membrane constituents and function as carbon stores

Are fatty acid esters of glycerol (Fig. 15.1). Triacylglycerols (also called triglycerides) consist of a glycerol molecule that is esterified with three fatty acids. Whereas in animals triacylglycerols serve primarily as an energy store, they function in plants mainly as a carbon store in seeds, which are used by humans as vegetable oils. In polar glycerolipids, the glycerol is esterified with only two fatty acids, and a hydrophilic group is linked to the third -OH group. These polar lipids are the main constituents of membranes.

A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments

Called the plasmalemma and are enclosed by a cell wall. The cell contains organelles, each with its own characteristic shape, which divide the cell into various compartments (subcellular compartments). Each compartment has specialized metabolic functions, which will be discussed in detail in the following chapters (Table 1.1). The largest organelle, the vacuole, usually fills about 80 of the total cell volume. Chloroplasts represent the next largest compartment, and the rest of the cell volume is filled with mitochondria, peroxisomes, the nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi bodies, and, outside these organelles, the cell plasma, called cytosol. In addition, there are oil bodies derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. These oil bodies, which occur in seeds and some other tissues (e.g., root nodules), are storage organelles for triglycerides (see Chapter 15).

Processing and Products

The restructuring of separated and modified triglycerides of oils and polypeptides of proteins with unique properties and chemical-enzymatic modifications of components to enhance functionalities, such as foaming, emulsification, film and adhesive properties, are enhancing the continued development of new food, feed and industrial applications.

Plant PLA1

Evolutionarily, animal PLA1 enzymes are derived from lipases. The shift in substrate specificity seems to be mainly achieved by acquiring a smaller lid that covers the substrate-binding site when no substrate is bound. The smaller lid enables these enzymes not only to accept triglycerides but also phospholipids and galac-tolipids (Carriere et al. 1998), so that such lipases could act as galactolipases. When residing in the chloroplast, it makes sense to expect them to liberate linolenic acid from galactolipids to start JA biosynthesis (Ishiguro et al. 2001 Wasternack 2007).

Ergot Sclerotia

In cytology of the cells coincide with increasing levels of lipids which are predominantly triglycerides with the fatty acid ricinoleate (Corbett et al., 1974). This increase in total lipid content from 10 to 30 of the dry weight is the first metabolic indicator of the morphogenesis of sclerotial cells (Bassett et al., 1972). The youngest fungal cells of the sclerotial stroma are longitudinally organized, distinct, frequently septate hyphae forming the prosenchymatous region at the proximal end of the sclerotium. Lipid content is evident in these storage cells, thus they are packed with osmiophilic globules in contrast to the differentiating hyphae of the generative zone in the lower ergot region. In the medulla, distal from the prosenchymatous region, fungal cells form a region of a compact plectenchyma which is build out of bulbous storage cells interspersed with narrower hyphae (Shaw and Mantle, 1980b). The absorbing hyphae, which connect the sclerotium to the ovary stalk and form...

Red Yeast Rice

Red yeast rice is formed from the fermentation of rice with Monascus purpureus. Red yeast contains mevinic acids, which have been shown to inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, thus blocking cholesterol synthesis similarly as statin pharmaceuticals. Studies indicate that red yeast rice supplementation significantly decreases total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides in hyperlipidemic patients.33 Of the mevinic acids, also known as monacolins, the highest concentration is a constituent called monacolin K (also known as mevinolin or lovastatin). Most studies use a proprietary blend red yeast rice product standardized to monocolin K. Many preparations sold in the United States have low levels of monacolin K, thus, they may not effectively reduce cholesterol. Additionally, some products contain a nephrotoxin that results from incorrect rice fermentation processes known as citrinin. Thus, patients should be advised to use only standardized products to...


Decreases in total serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and very low-density cholesterol and triglycerides, while levels of HDL remained unchanged.34 Another study was performed with patients with type 2 diabetes. After two months, fenugreek seed extract supplementation of 1 gm per day was shown to improve glycemic control, decreases insulin resistance, decrease serum triglycerides, and increase HDL cholesterol.35 Animal models have elucidated some of the mechanisms that Fenugreek provides these positive effects. A study with both type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats has shown that supplementation with Fenugreek soluble dietary fiber fraction decreases sugar digestion and absorption. It also increases insulin action peripherally and enhanced total antioxidant status.36 that people with higher initial plasma glucose levels may benefit more from cinnamon intake.43 Another study with type 2 diabetic patients examined the effect of 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon supplementation per day on...

Omega3 Fatty Acids

Fish oils from fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, and herring are especially high in theomega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils have anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects because they compete with arachidonic acid in the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. Omega-3 fatty acids suppress COX-2 expression and the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a).24 A study with highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl esters at a dose of 4 g per day was shown to significantly decrease both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in mildly hypertensive individuals.25 Additional studies have shown that 4 g per day of fish oil reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as decreased triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol.26

Oils Plant Derived

Oils from plants are chiefly triglycerides, which are made up of one glyc-erol molecule linked to three fatty acids. The fatty acids have linear carbon chains varying in length, generally from six to twenty-two carbon atoms, with various amounts of hydrogen linked to the carbon. Carbon chains that hold all the hydrogen that they can are called saturated, and those with less hydrogen are unsaturated. Where the unsaturation occurs, the carbon chain is linked by double bonds.


Another botanical medicine from the Ayurvedic system, gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) leaf extract is used as an adjunctive to insulin and oral hypoglycemic therapies for treating patients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Gymnema causes additional reductions in blood glucose levels as well as decreasing glycosylated hemoglobin.38 In addition, this herb is effective for lowering total cholesterol and triglycerides in patients with type 2 diabetes, and researchers have speculated that therapy with a specific gymnema extract may stimulate production of endogenous insulin by regenerating and or revitalizing residual beta cells in these patients.39 Other studies have shown that gymnema decreases blood-sugar levels, serum triglycerides, and total cholesterol including very low-density lipoprotein and LDL cholesterol.40 One early study suggested that gymnemic acids, which are derivatives of the leaf, may inhibit intestinal absorption of glucose and may stimulate pancreatic beta-cell...


Lecithin , phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol) extracted as a by-product during the degumming of crude soybean oil. It constitutes about 0.5-1.5 of the soybean seed or 1-3 of crude soybean oil. Commercially, lecithin is available from a dark-tan to reddish-brown colour and in a fluid state to powdered form it constitutes about 75 phospholipids, while the rest is unrefined oil, moisture and so on. Lecithin is an important nutraceutical component of soybean. It improves liver function, cardiovascular health, fetal brain development, memory function and the reproductive system. Lecithin is an indispensable component of cell membranes, constituting about 10 of the human spinal cord and 5 of the brain hence, its deficiency restricts the free passage of nutrients from and into the cells. Therefore, it is of great therapeutic value for patients with Alzheimer's disease who are deficient in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Lecithin is also recommended for relieving depression....

Stinging Nettle

Soy (Glycine spp.) protein extracts and isoflavones produce many beneficial effects to treat PCOS symptoms. There is evidence that using soy products as supplements to treat individuals with type 2 diabetes decreases fasting glucose, fasting and postprandial insulin, insulin resistance, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and hemoglobin A1c.68-70 In addition, studies have indicated that increased soy intake decreases risks of endometrial cancer, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia.71,72


Extracts from shiitake mushrooms have also demonstrated hypoglycemic and cholesterol-lowering action as well. Diabetic rats were treated with an exo-polymer from Lentinus edodes. The results showed a reduction of plasma glucose levels by as much as 21.5 and increased plasma insulin by 22.1 compared to controls. Additionally, total cholesterol levels were reduced by 25.1 and triglyceride levels decreased by 44.5 .60


Quercetin is a citrus bioflavonoid used for treating conditions such as atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hypercholesterolemia, vascular insufficiency, diabetes, and allergies. Many studies on rats with diabetes have demonstrated that quercetin increases NO availability and induces vasorelaxation via the endothelial NOS pathway.59,60


Niacin (vitamin B3) is integrated into the coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), which are necessary for amino acid, fat, carbohydrate metabolism, and producing cellular energy. Niacin supplementation is often used to address hypercholesterolemia and as an anxiolytic.77 Isoniazid for treating tuberculosis has been shown to inhibit the conversion of tryptophan to niacin and may cause pellagra.78


Folic acid is required for DNA synthesis and cellular division. It is also necessary for neural development and cancer prevention. Folic-acid deficiency in pregnancy is linked to multiple birth defects such as neural-tube defects. Folate is also required to convert homocysteine to methionine, thus making this nutrient important in cardiovascular disease prevention. Numerous drugs affect folate levels and metabolism. Some of these drugs include estrogens, anticonvulsants, barbiturates, sulfasalazine, and methotrexate.75 Acid blockers, aspirin, cholestyramine, corticosteroids, and the antibiotic trimethoprim also may decrease folic acid.76


The hypocholesterolemic properties of garlic are not well understood, and the mechanism of action is not entirely clear at this time. A large portion of the research on garlic has yielded positive results, showing that garlic can modestly improve total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels.16 Garlic preparations, used from 4 to 25 weeks, will typically lower serum cholesterol by 4 -12 , while conventional statin drugs lower serum cholesterol by 17 -32 . In a placebo-controlled, double-blind study, 800 mg garlic powder (standardized to 1.3 of allicin content) was given daily for 16 weeks in individuals with hypercholesteremia. Mean serum cholesterol levels dropped from 266 to 235 mg dl (12 ) and mean triglyceride levels decreased from 226 to 188 mg dl (17 ). This study also concluded that the best cholesterol-lowering effects were in the patients with initial total cholesterol values between 250-300 mg dl.17 Other research has not validated these findings. In a recent study, adults...

Sesquiterpene C15

Nimbidin And Nimbolide Structure

Phytosterols compete with dietary cholesterol for uptake in the intestines. They have demonstrated the ability to block the uptake of cholesterol and facitilate its excretion from the body. Contradicting this, some studies have reported inefficency of morning sterols in competing with dietary cholesterol. These are saturated phytosterols. Thay are widely distributed in plants. They have cholesterol lowering activity.

Oriental Medicine

A considerable amount of research has been done on isolated geraniin, which has been shown to protect against experimental hepatic injuries in rats induced by galactosamine, carbon tetrachloride and thioacetamide (Nakanishi etal, 1998a). Geraniin also prevented the accumulation of liver triglycerides and lipid peroxide levels and lowered serum levels of hepatic enzymes associated with liver damage in the rat (Nakanishi et al, 1999a). A protective effect on oxidative damage to mouse ocular lens supports the traditional use for cataract to some extent (Fukaya etal., 1988). Haematological effects of geraniin in rats have also been studied, and a decrease in serum lipid levels observed as well as a reduction in erythrocytes and leucocytes (Nakanishi etal., 1998b). The effects of geraniin on aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats included a reduction in protei-nuria, and in serum and cholesterol levels produced by puromycin (Nakanishi etal, 1999b). Macrophages are known to be affected by...

Medicinal uses

There is no denying that soybean has many health benefits. These benefits are mainly derived from the quality of the soybean proteins and from the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein. Soybean has been shown to be beneficial in conditions of lactose intolerance, high cholesterol, heart disease, cancer, menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis and diabetes. Soybean may help to prevent heart disease by reducing total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and preventing plaque build up in the arteries, which may lead to stroke or heart attack. Potential mechanisms by which soybean isoflavones might prevent atherosclerosis include a beneficial effect on plasma lipid concentrations, antioxidant effects, antiproliferative and antimigratory effects on smooth muscle cells, effects on thrombus formation and maintenance of normal vascular reactivity (Anthony et al., 1998). The soybean diet is the most potent dietary tool for hypercholesterolemia.

Food uses

Soybean oil is considered healthy for the heart as it is cholesterol-free and low in saturated fatty acids. The major unsaturated fatty acids in soybean oil triglycerides are linolenic acid (C18 3 7 ), linoleic acid (C18 2 51 ) and oleic acid (C18 1 23 ). It also contains saturated fatty acids (i.e. 4 stearic acid and 10 palmitic acid). Soybean oil contains natural antioxi-dants (vitamin E), which remain in the oil even after extraction. These anti-oxidants help prevent oxidative rancidity. As with fish oils, soybean oil contains omega-3 fatty acids, known to be protective against various cardiovascular diseases. In the process of hydrogenation, unhealthy trans fats are produced that may raise blood cholesterol levels and increase the risk of heart disease. Food manufacturers are now trying to remove trans fats from their products. Soybean oil has a shelf life of a year, but it may be better to store the oil for only a few months at room temperature. Soybean oil should be stored in a...


By 2020, CVD will be a leading cause of death. The number of deaths due to CVD is projected to pass 20 million year-1. Contrary to earlier beliefs, CVD is not confined to developed countries developing economies such as India and China together account for more deaths due to CVD than the developed countries of the world combined. Soy proteins reduce the risk of heart stroke, heart arrest, atherosclerosis and so on. Anderson et al. (1995) conducted a meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. They found that an average consumption of 47 g day-1 soy protein led to a significant reduction in total cholesterol (9 ), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (13 ) and triglycerides (11 ). Subsequently, a meta-analysis of eight randomized controlled trials in human subjects attributed these lipid-lowering effects to soy isoflavones (Zhou et al., 2004). However, contradictions persist concerning the potential mechanisms of the lipid-lowering actions of soy...

Emerging Trends

Highlighting research findings with respect to the nutritional and economic benefits of using soybean through the print and electronic media has a great potential to increase the demand for soy foods. The industry must respond to such a demand with an array of soy-based and isoflavone-fortified conventional foods. For soy foods to become truly mainstream, a variety of convenient, user-friendly products is needed and efforts should be made to make them available on the market at an affordable price. The industry will have to take soy foods to the consumer, rather than relying on the consumer to seek them out. Conventional breads, snacks, crackers and breakfast cereals to which soy has been added are likely to be particularly attractive. A breakfast cereal that combines oats or corn with soy flakes represents a convenient way for consumers to incorporate soy into their diet and it does not require lifestyle modification. Nearly half the soy protein needed to lower cholesterol could...


The extract of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) has the ability to reduce total serum cholesterol and LDL and to improve the LDL HDL ratio.22 New methods of action are continually being explained. While one study suggested a different method of action from the well-known one of lowering cholesterol by increasing its excretion in bile (and listed chemical contents that were thought to be responsible), another study suggested that inhibiting gastric emptying may lower cholesterol. Because of botanical medicines' ability to work via several different biochemical pathways to achieve the same result, the newer research covered in this article does not negate the idea that artichoke acts as a cholagogue. A yellow pigment compound derived from the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), curcumin, and its structurally related compounds (curcuminoids) produce several pharmacologic effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, hypocholesterolemic, and anti-carcinogenic activities. Precise mechanisms...

Platelet Aggregation

Thrombus formation is important in cardiovascular diseases.3334 Platelets are blood cell fragments that originate from the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and circulate in blood. They play a major role in the hemostatic process and in thrombus formation after an endothelial injury. Circulating human platelets also play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, and increased platelet aggregation is associated with enhanced atherogenicity.35 Recent studies have provided insight into platelet functions in inflammation and atherosclerosis.36 Platelets release several growth factors and bioactive agents that play a central role in the development of thrombus and intimal thickening.37 A range of molecules, present on the platelet surface or stored in platelet granules, contribute to the crosstalk among platelets and other inflammatory cells during vascular inflammation, which is involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.38,39 Platelet...


Recently, it has been discovered that choline, long considered to be a B vitamin, is produced in very small amounts in the human body. Although produced endogenously, the amount of choline is quite minimal and, when it is taken in supplemental doses, has several beneficial effects in the body. Produced in the liver, choline is used to synthesize cellular membranes12 and works as a methyl donor to create new compounds in the body. This process is important in the creation of DNA and in the conversion of homocysteine (an amino acid with negative effects on the cardiovascular system) to methionine. Choline, in the form of phosphatidylcholine, can increase the solubility of cholesterol in the body, lower cholesterol levels, and inhibit platelet aggregation.13 In a study, 32 patients with elevated cholesterol and triglycerides were treated with 3.5 g of phosphatidylcholine three times per day before meals. Among the subjects, cholesterol levels decreased by 33 , triglycerides by 33 , and...


Cobalamin (vitamin B12) is a methyl donor and is required for proper DNA synthesis. This vitamin is involved with carbohydrate metabolism and is required for myelin synthesis. Cobalamin also is necessary to convert homocysteine to methionine. Drugs that interfere with cobalamin include oral contraceptives, H2 blockers, PPIs, antibiotics such as tetracycline and neomycin, bile-acid sequestrants such as cholestyramine, and biguanides, such as phenformin and metformin.37,76


Physical activity is quite possibly the single most important preventative choice among patients whose diseases and conditions arise from a sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary lifestyle is one of the main risk factors for multiple chronic disease conditions today and sedentary death syndrome was identified and named to describe the growing life-threatening health problems caused by this lifestyle. Exercise remains the most effective therapy for preventing and reversing insulin resistance.42 The literature contains numerous references citing how effectively exercise ameliorates cardiovascular risk factors (low HDL cholesterol, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia) and mitigates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance.43 Regular exercise causes a loss of abdominal body fat in a preferential fashion (increased abdominal girth is used as a quantifying factor in diagnosing metabolic syndrome), and can increase resting fatty-acid metabolism.44 Exercise has produced improvement of...

Lipid Levels

The standard lipid panel provides information about plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol. However, a patient who scores within the average ranges for these parameters should take little comfort because being average, in this case, means a greater than 50 likelihood of dying of heart disease. Other lipids and lipid-related cardiovascular risk factors include Apolipoprotein A-1, Apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein(a). Apolipoprotein A-1 is the major protein constituent of HDL cholesterol and is responsible for the activation of two enzymes that are necessary for the formation of HDL. This may be an important factor in the relationship between HDL levels and the incidence of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein B is the major protein found in LDL cholesterol. Studies suggest that this protein plays an important role in targeting the...

Lower Your Cholesterol In Just 33 Days

Lower Your Cholesterol In Just 33 Days

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