Effective Home Remedies to Cure High Blood Pressure

Hypertension Exercise Program

Natural Blood Pressure is a comprehensive program that helps people lower, control the high blood pressure in the most effective way. By plain explanation as well as instruction, Christian Goodman (Blue Heron), the creator of Natural Blood Pressure will drop your blood pressure to normal in less than a week. Blue Heron says that it doesn't matter why you are experiencing high blood pressure, their program will help you permanently lower it in a short amount of time. It does this without side effects, and it only takes about 30 minutes per day. Along with the main program, you also get a bonus called The Natural Blood Pressure Lifestyle Report. This report complements the blood pressure program by helping you understand how high blood pressure occurs, how you can tweak your diet and lower it, different herbal medications that can help, and how your lifestyle can influence your blood pressure in a big way, plus much more. More here...

Hypertension Exercise Program Summary


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Author: Christian Goodman
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The author presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this ebook are precise.

When compared to other e-books and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

Effects Of Crude Rp Extract And Its Isoflavones On Hypertension

Heart Rates Mammals

Radix pueraria was shown to lower blood pressure in both normal and hypertensive laboratory animals. In normal anesthetized dog, intravenous administration of crude extract of RP, its total isoflavones or a pure preparation of puerarin elicited a short and quick reduction in blood pressure. In normal unanesthetized dogs, orally administered a crude water extract (2g kg), an alcohol extract (2g kg), a total isoflavone fraction or a puerarin preparation produced similar effect on blood pressure (Zeng etal., 1974 Fan, 1977). When puerarin was administered intraperitoneally (100mg kg) to spontaneous hypertension rat (SHR), both blood pressure and heart rate (Figure 8.1) were lowered as compared to the controls. Such effect was more potent in SHR than in normal Wistar rat (Song etal., 1988). It has also been shown that puerarin significantly reduced plasma renin activity (PRA) in SHR by radioimmunoassay, reduced it by 67 per cent from 2.1 0.45 ng ml h to 0.73 0.20ng ml h. However, the...

Taming High Blood Pressure Naturally

Hypertension is one of the greatest health care problems facing today's world with 50 million North Americans suffering from this often-silent killer. According the American Heart Association, one in three U.S. adults has hypertension, and one-third are unaware that they have it.1 Elevated blood pressure is a known risk factor for heart attacks and strokes along with excess wear and tear throughout the body, and hypertension is the foremost cause of unexpected death. Hypertension also contributes to comorbidity in individuals with diabetes More than 73 of people with diabetes also have elevated blood pressure.2 One of the most challenging aspects of treating a patient with hypertension is that the majority of cases of hypertension are categorized as essential hypertension, that is, the condition's cause is not readily identifiable. Thus, clinically deciding which of the multiple drug therapies that are most apt to help a given patient is as much art as it is clinical protocol. The...


Common antihypertensive medications include beta-adrenergic blockers, calcium-channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, diuretics, and vasodilators. According to the American Heart Association, an estimated 65 million Americans, almost one in three adults, has high blood pressure.45 Vasodilators such as hydralazine deplete vitamin B6.46 Captopril, an ACE inhibitor, has been shown to cause hyponatremia by increasing sodium excretion and may cause hyperkalemia.47,48 In addition, studies with the beta blocker propranolol have shown that the drug inhibits the CoQ10 enzymes in the myocardium.49 Clinically, it is imperative to control for potential overt and subclinical deficiency states that may otherwise spur the progression of the disease state being treated, or that may manifest with new adverse biochemical imbalances that may otherwise ripple through the 50-trillion-plus cells that comprise the human frame.


Hypertension is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. In hypertensive patients with elevated plasma renin activity, increased incidence of myocar-dial infarction by fivefold has been demonstrated.9 In hypertensive patients, serum concentrations of angiotensin II (Ang-II), an active vasoconstrictor produced by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS), are elevated.10 Ang-II was implicated in acceleration of atherosclerosis11,12 not only by causing hypertension, but also by stimulating proliferation of smooth muscle cells,13 activation of blood platelets,14 and accumulation of cholesterol in arterial macrophages,1517 and by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxides and other free radicals in plasma18,19 and in macrophages.20 In addition, Ang-II was shown to modify LDL to yield an atherogenic lipoprotein, which is taken up by macrophages at enhanced rate through the scavenger receptors. Ang-II also enhances the...

Coping Mechanisms For Stress And Disease

Inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1, interleukin-8, and TNF-alpha, are also elevated in hostile and depressed individuals.62 Additionally, suppressed anger is associated with increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and stiffness.63 Socioeconomic and psychosocial stressors are also associated with decreased post-stress recovery of systolic blood pressure to baseline.64 Studies have also shown that individuals with metabolic syndrome and high levels of hostility demonstrate a fourfold increase in the risk of having a myocardial infarction.65 Hostility, anger, and depression are correlated with increased insulin resistance and elevated fasting insulin and glucose in women.66 Researches also propose a correlation between perceived loss of control over one's environment as a risk factor for increased hypertension and cardiovascular disease.67

Processing and utilization

Soybean polypeptide is a hydrolyzed product of protein through special treatment. Generally, it consists of peptides of 3-6 amino acids. Soybean polypeptide has a high nutritional value, high digestibility coefficient and low antigenicity, and the results of experiments show that its digestibility coefficient is much better than that of protein or amino acids. Soybean poly-peptide can be used as a raw material for or additive to health foods. It has a therapeutic effect on high blood pressure and cardiovascular and cerebro-vascular diseases, and is safe and reliable. Soybean polypeptide also decreases the deposition of subcutaneous fat and increases fat burning and it is, therefore, a safe food for people who want to lose weight. Soybean polypeptide also has an antioxidant effect, and it has been claimed that the muscle cells of athletes recover faster when they imbibe a polypeptide-containing drink (Wang et al., 2004).

Peptides And Proteases

The best-studied peptides are peptide hormones because they carry relevant biological activity. Their precursor molecules sometimes carry several distinct biological activities that are inactive after protein biosynthesis. A prime example is the pro-opio-melanocortin gene (POMC), which contains over 10 different peptide hormones and neuropeptides that are released by action of different prohormone conver-tases. The tissue-specific distribution of these peptidases is one key factor to determine which collection of hormones will be cleaved from the precursor molecule. This demonstrates that the release and the activation of individual peptides from precursors are triggered by specific proteolytic processing. Only at certain times and in specific compartments are they are activated by different proteolytic processes. The regulated release of biologically active compounds from inactive (precursor) molecules is used to allow for the timely presence of a certain molecule in just the...

Diet And Lifestyle Changes

Dietary and lifestyle interventions, without question, are the most challenging with regard to compliance for all patients. However, tackling the very patterns of behavior that have contributed to onset of a disease state is essential when reestablishing a health-promoting homeostasis. The maintenance and protection of the 60,000 miles of blood vessels that include 18,000 miles of capillaries are governed by what a person eats and how much that person exercises. Both a healthy diet and a consistent exercise routine are important keys to preventing and controlling hypertension. In a randomized and multicenter study published in 2004 of more than 800 patients, the group that was involved in increased physical activity, weight loss, and decreased sodium and alcohol intake had its baseline rate of hypertension cut by more than half.3 Moreover, a recent epidemiologic study assessing the contribution of Western society's common risk factors in hypertension found that physical inactivity...

Cardiovascular Therapies

There are numerous natural therapies that have shown efficacy in balancing abnormal lipids and blood pressure. Botanicals often used for modulating lipids include guggulipid (Commiphora mukul), garlic (Allium sativum), artichoke (Cynara scolymus), turmeric (Curcuma longa), and red yeast rice. (See Chapter 8 on cardiovascular health.) Many botanicals and nutrients have demonstrated blood-pressure lowering action such as hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), olive leaf (Olea europaea), coleus (Coleus forskohlii), garlic (Allium sativum), pomegranatejuice (Punica granatum), L-arginine, fish oils, and the minerals calcium, magnesium, and potassium. (See Chapter 19 on hypertension.)

Minerals and vitamins

Soybean contains about 5-6 ash content, which is an index of its mineral concentration. Potassium, generally recommended for treating hypertension, is found in the highest concentration (2.3 ) in soybeans. In addition, other major minerals - calcium (0.2 ), magnesium (0.3 ) and phosphorus (0.6 ) - are also found. Silicon, zinc, iron, manganese, copper, molybdenum, boron, chromium and lead are the important minor minerals present in soy flour. The iron content in soybean varieties is about 8 mg 100 g-1 on a dry weight basis. Most of these minerals are retained with meal instead of following the oil fraction. respectively. Pantothenic acid and niacin are generally prescribed for controlling high blood pressure. Mature soybean contains almost negligible amount of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) however, every 100 g of immature green seeds and an equal amount of soy sprout contains about 16 and 30 mg of this vitamin, respectively. Above all, the newly discovered vitamin pyr-roloquinoline...

Nitric Oxide A Powerful Clinical Therapy

Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas that has significant effects on many physiologic processes in the body. This gas plays a role in inflammation, the immune response, and neurotransmission in the brain, as well as in the functioning of the cardiovascular system. Dysfunction in the NO pathway is associated with many diseases. Conditions such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes, hypertension, erectile dysfunction, and stroke are correlated with NO pathology. Current research suggests that manipulation of NO activity may have profound effects on overall health. Many pharmaceuticals as well as nutrients, supplements, and diet are being investigated and prescribed to modulate NO activity.

When There Is Not Enough No

NO deficiencies in the body may present as a variety of different health conditions. Most commonly, individuals with low levels of NO will have signs and symptoms of cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, CAD, and stroke. In addition, NO deficiency can present as inflammatory conditions or erectile dysfunction. Because NO produced by white blood cells is bacteriocidal and tumoricidal, individuals with deficiencies may present with infections and possibly malignancies. Because of their physiologic effects on the body, manipulation of NO levels can provide avenues for health modification. Cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke, hypertension, and CAD can be attenuated by increases in NO synthesis and activity. Anemia, cancer, diabetes, and erectile dysfunction can also be ameliorated by NO manipulation. Both natural therapies and pharmaceuticals can augment NO bioavailability. Atherosclerosis, hypertension, and CAD have all been shown to have a...

Strategies for Preventing Metabolic Syndrome

However, one does not need to look far for the basic causes of metabolic syndrome. All four conditions (obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperinsulinemia) can be linked to one related cause poor dietary choices, namely, imbalanced consumption of simple carbohydrates. Thus, the main treatment for metabolic syndrome is dietary therapy. One study in women with a family history of cardiovascular disease, following a low-GI diet for four weeks, resulted in increased insulin sensitivity after a glucose challenge and increased glucose uptake in isolated fat cells. Even in lean young adults, a low-GI diet reduced muscle triglycerides, a marker of insulin resistance.12 In addition, consuming high levels of high-glycemic carbohydrates causes enhanced appetite and a tendency to overeat.13,14 However, a complete reversal of consuming refined carbohydrates and saturated fats and switching to a complex carbohydrate, protein-rich diet with healthy fatty-acid ratios is not likely to...

The cardiovascular system

These drugs have a depressant effect on the heart muscle and some are particularly suited to the treatment of arrhythmias (anti-arrhythmic drugs). By slowing the cardiac rhythm they often have an antihypertensive action, either through vasodilatation of the coronary arteries or through direct control by the nervous system.

Properties And Indications Of Ge Gen In Traditional Chinese Medicine

Modern scientific research has led to the use of Ge Gen for coronary disease and angina pectoris. This new use is based on the research on the effects of Ge Gen on smooth muscle, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular systems (see Chapter 8 for details). Ge Gen is also recommended for stiff neck and pain from hypertension based on lengthy clinical experience of using Ge Gen for neck stiffness and pain from externally contracted disorders (Bensky and Gamble, 1986).

Zizyphus oxyphylla Edgew

2-3 times, and cut into small 2-3-in. pieces. They are boiled in 5-6 L of water for 1-2 h. When 1 liter of water is left, it is filtered with a cloth, stored in a glass bottle, and given to patients suffering from mouth sores, skin diseases, pimples, skin lesions, earache, eye diseases, and high blood pressure. For children, earache, eye diseases, and high blood pressure.

Spirulina Aphanizomenon and Chlorella sp

A recent clinical trial, reported hypolipidemic and antihypertensive activities of 4.5 G of Spirulina per day for 6 wk. Animal trials in India, have reported anti-tumor, radio protective, and gastroprotecive activities of Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella kessleri. Human trials have reported the usefulness of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in hyperlipidemia, hypertension and fibromylagia.

Biosynthesis of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids MIA


The approximately 2,000 MIA chemical structures described so far are widespread in a large number of plant species (Ziegler and Facchini 2008). Some of these molecules are of interest to human health, such as the anticancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine and the antihypertensive drug ajmalicine specifically produced in Catharanthus roseus, the anti-arrythmic ajmaline produced in Rauvolfia serpentina, or the anticancer compound camptothecin produced mostly in Camptotheca acuminata (Fig. 8.1, Table 8.1). These molecules are part of the large array of MIA Antihypertensive

Subfamily Cerberoideae

Ouabain Plant

C The seeds yield 3-7 of g-strophanthin or ouabain, first isolated in crystallized form in 1877 (Paris and Moyse, 1971, vol. 3). On hydrolysis, rhamnose and ouabagenin are obtained (Euw and Reichstein, 1950a, b). The seeds also contain several minor alkaloids such as acolongo floroside K and strogoside (0.4 ) (Geiger et al., 1967). P Ouabain is used in preference to digitalis when a more rapid action is required. The effect is more potent but is of shorter duration and non-cumulative (Martindale, 1958, p. 580). As it is badly absorbed when given orally, it is mostly administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It does not cause peripheral vasoconstriction as does digitalis. In toxic doses ouabain produces hypertension, tachycardia, auricular and ventricular dissociation and, finally, cardiac arrest, in the dog. Thevetin is used to a limited extent clinically in cases of intolerance to digitalis and where oedema persists after digitalis therapy. It is...

Role Of Pomegranate Fruit Phytochemicals In Bioactivity

And atherosclerotic, apolipoprotein E-deficient (E0) mice. The authors demonstrated that PJ consumption has antiatherogenic properties with respect to all three related components of atherosclerosis it significantly affected plasma lipoproteins, arterial macrophages, and blood platelets, all of which was attributed to the effects of the PJ's antioxidant constituents, specifically to a fraction containing ellagitannins.54 In another study, Aviram and Dornfeld55 tested the effect of PJ consumption by hypertensive patients on their blood pressure and on serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. Hypertension is a known risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, whereas inhibitors of ACE, an enzyme facilitating the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, have been shown to attenuate the development of atherosclerosis in several animal studies.56 PJ consumption for 2 weeks caused a minimal reduction in blood pressure, but significantly decreased ACE activity by 36...

Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Diseases

There are several factors that increase the risk of developing CVD. These risk factors may be nonmodifiable, such as a family history of cardiovascular disease, race (black, aborginal), and age.1,3,19 However, many of the risk factors for heart attack and stroke are indeed modifiable with changes in behavior, drugs, or diet. Eighty percent of the Canadian population has at least one modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease.3 Smoking is the single most important cause of preventable illness and premature death for Canadians. 3 Other risk factors that can be controlled are diabetes and obesity (or metabolic syndrome20,21), sedentary lifestyles, stress, hypertension,3,10 and dyslipidemia.3,8 Thus, the incidence of cardiovascular disease can be attenuated by increases in physical activity, smoking cessation, controlling diabetes with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, controlling hypertension with various antihypertensive drugs, cholesterol-lowering therapy with drugs, and...

Natural Treatments For Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X or cardiovascular metabolic syndrome, is comprised of hyperlipidemia (elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol), central (abdominal) obesity, hypertension, and concomitant insulin re-sistance glucose intolerance. Although no specific cause-and-effect relationship has been established, the outcomes of these associative factors are significantly increased risks for developing diabetes and heart disease. Eric S. Freedland, M.D., a senior editor of Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders1 based in Boston, Massachusetts, notes that the escalating worldwide epidemic of metabolic syndrome affects each of us either directly or indirectly. It demands multidisciplinary efforts and cooperation to e nsure better understanding of its causes and to develop effective approaches to preventing and treating its associated conditions.'' Using a sample of 3,477 Mexican-American, 3,305 African-American, and 5,581...

Botanical Agents For Treating Glaucoma

With concurrent hypertension and Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo),48,49 especially for compromised circulation (mixed review data). Combine equal parts of ginkgo, hawthorn, bilberry, and elderberry (Sambucus nigra) in a tincture to strengthen vascular tissues and improve circulation. Several conditions can cause damage to the retina of the eye, with long-term uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and poorly managed hypertension being the two most frequent problems. This book covers, specifically, diabetic retinopathy (DR). DR is an ocular abnormality that is associated with poorly controlled diabetes and is defined by the presence of microaneurysms, punctate hemorrhages, white and yellow exudates, flame hemorrhages, and neovascular vessel growth.51 DR is the leading cause of blindness in patients with type 1 diabetes. The degree of retinal damage is closely associated with the length (generally not less than 10 years) of the disease process and the degree of glucose regulation and monitoring. There...

Current research on dietary phytochemicals

Research shows that fruits and vegetables are powerful defenders of our health. Research supporting a critical role for fruits and vegetables in good health grows stronger all the time. Scientists now agree that fruits and vegetables should be the foundation of a healthy diet. Phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables can also help reduce your risk of many chronic diseases including cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, stroke and other diseases.

Ge Gen As A Dietary Supplement

Ge Gen Cha (Kudzu tea) Tea made from 30 g of Ge Gen can be used daily to improve hypertension and chronic headache. It can also be ground to powders together with Huai Hua (Flos sophorae) to make Ge Gen Huai Hua tea which is beneficial to people with mild form of hypertension. Ge Gen Zhou (Kudzu and rice soup) There are three modifications to the soup for different conditions. For thirsting (diabetic), coronary heart disease, angina pectoris and chronic diarrhea, Ge Gen (30 g) and rice (50 g) are cooked untill it turns sticky. For hypertension, Sha Shen (Radix adenophorae, 30 g) and Mai Dong (Radix ophiopogon, 30 g) are added to make soup. For child cold with fever, headache and vomiting, take 15 g of Ge Gen, 50 g of rice and 6g of ginger to make soup.

Phytochemical and Nutritional Prevention and Treatment

According to the American Heart Association 2004 data, it is estimated that 79,400,000 American adults, approximately 1 in 3, had some form of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These CVDs include hypertension, stroke, and coronary heart disease, including angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Individually, 72,000,000 people had hypertension 7,900,000 suffered from acute myocardial infarction 8,900,000 people experienced angina pectoris 5,200,000 had heart failure, and 5,600,000 had strokes.1 In 2004, CVD was the underlying cause of death in 36.3 of deaths, or 1 in every 2.8 deaths, with over 147,000 deaths in Americans under age 65.2 The American Heart Association (AHA) identifies increasing age, male gender, and heredity as uncontrollable risk factors for heart disease. Tobacco smoking, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, physical inactivity, obesity overweight, and diabetes are modifiable risk factors for heart disease. Other negative risk factors identified by the AHA as...

What Essential Oils Potentiate Amphetamine Locomotor Effects

21.4 Jatamansone (valeranone) Animal studies done on jatamansone have reported antioestrogenic, antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive, anticonvulsant, sedative and tranquilizing activities. In animal experiments, a limiting effect upon convulsant thresholds and a reduction of motor coordination

Lavender oil and its supposed functions

'Lavandula angustifolia has a yang quality and its ruling planet is Mercury (Tisserand, 1985).' That author lists its properties as 'analgesic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, antiseptic, antispas-modic, antitoxic, carminative, cholagogue, choleretic, cicatrisant, cordial, cytophylactic, deodorant, diuretic, emmanogogue, hypotensive, nervine, sedative, splenic, sudorific, tonic, vermifuge and vulnerary'. Its uses are for 'abcess, acne, alopecia areata, asthma, blenorrhoea, blepharitis, boils, bronchitis, carbuncles, catarrh, chlorosis, colic, conjunctivitis, convulsions, cystitis, depression, dermatitis, diarrhoea, diphtheria, dyspepsia, earache, eczema, epilepsy, fainting, fistula, flatulence, gonorrhoea, halitosis, headache, hypertension, hysteria, influenza, insomnia, laryngitis, leucorrhoea, migraine, nausea, nervous tension, neurasthenia, oliguria, palpitations, paralysis, pediculosis, psoriasis, rheumatism, scabies, scrofula, gall stones, sunstroke, throat infections,...

Dietary Interventions

Dietary whole grains have also been associated with decreased cardiovascular risk. Whole-grain foods provide complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants. Research indicated that whole grain dietary intake decreases the risk of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and heart failure.87 In one study to evaluate the role of whole grains and atherosclerosis, whole-grain intake was evaluated and carotid intimal medial thickness was measured. Whole-grain intake was shown to be inversely associated with common carotid artery intimal medial thickness and intimal medial thickness progression.88 A 12-week, randomized, controlled trial compared two whole-grain oat-based cereals with two refined grain wheat-based cereals to evaluate their effects on the need for antihypertensive medications in patients with hypertension. At the end of 12 weeks, 73 of participants in the oats group versus

Diagnosing Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea is frequently underdiagnosed. It is estimated that 80 -90 of OSA cases go undiagnosed.15 Studies suggest that 30 of patients with essential hypertension have undiagnosed and thus untreated OSA.16 Diagnosis of OSA includes a thorough history and physical examination, using polysomnography to make the diagnosis definitive. The history should evaluate the occurrence of chronic snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, and any medial condition associated with sleep apnea. There are many questionnaires for assessing daytime sleepiness in addition, sleep latency time can be measured. A physical examination should evaluate any anatomical abnormalities that might cause airway obstruction, such as enlarged adenoids, septal deviation, and nasal polyps. A fiber-optic endoscopy may be done to assess pharyngeal narrowing. Confirmation of the diagnosis is done with overnight polysomnography. Portable home devices used for diagnosis have been developed as a less-expensive alternative,...

Pathophysiology Of Sleep Apnea

The obstruction present in OSA, the most common type of sleep apnea, can occur at multiple levels including the nasal cavity, the nasopharynx, and the tongue. A greater negative pressure is required to produce a given airflow volume when narrowing in these areas is present. Dilator muscles provide tone to the pharyngeal muscles to hold the airway open but are not sufficient to compensate for the closure of the airway in OSA. In addition, increased nasal resistance will increase the potential of collapse in the pharynx. Nasal obstruction often results from hypertrophy of the adenoids or palatine tonsils.2 Chemoreceptors within the brain decrease in sensitivity to carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, so that even when CO2 is raised, these receptors do not compensate properly by altering the rate and depth of lung ventilation. This results in a decrease in respiratory effort at a time when an increase is actually needed, leading to partial or total collapse of the airway and limited gas exchange...

Nutraceuticals For Treating Adrenocortical Dysfunction

B vitamins, such as pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, thiamine, and cobalamin, have been shown to improve aspects of the stress response and stress-related disease. Pyridoxine, or vitamin B6, is required for amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism. Pyridoxine has been shown by numerous studies to modulate the stress response. Animal studies indicate that pyridoxine deficiency causes hypertension and increased sympathetic stimulation and decreased serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and pyridoxal phosphate. Pyridoxine supplementation in these animals reversed these finding demonstrating normal GABA, serotonin, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels.116 Vitamin B6 is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Low levels of pyridoxal 5 -phosphate, the active form of vitamin B6, is associated with elevation in the inflammatory marker CRP independent of homocysteine levels.117 Low levels of vitamin B6, B12, and folate are associated with increased homocysteine and...

Dietary Interventions In Diabetes Mellitus

An additional consideration in the diet of patients with diabetes is the amount of protein they consume in relation to the health of their kidneys. One commonly referred to hypothesis suggests that too much protein intake causes hyperfiltration and glomerular hypertension, which leads to reduced kidney function and eventual nephropathy in some patients with diabetes.64 Clinical data that seem to support this hypothesis come from trials that have utilized limited protein intake and have shown subsequent, significant drops in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and or the amount of albumin excretion in subjects with diabetes.65,66 The complete relationship between protein consumption and kidney health in patients who have diabetes is a complex one and is beyond the scope of this book. One interesting hypothesis, however, is that, while some forms of protein, especially beef, increase postprandial renal plasma flow and GFR, soy does not seem to alter postprandial renal function, suggesting...

Biochemical Reactions To Stressors

Following normal diurnal patterns for the release of serum cortisol, glucocorticoid levels are at their lowest point at approximately midnight to 1 am. Peak levels occur between 6 am and 8 am. Research has shown that elevation or suppression of daily cortisol levels indicates imbalanced hypothalamus-pituitary-axis (HPA) activity.12 This may be interpreted as hyper-function or hypofunction, depending on a patient's levels of cortisol and his or her clinical presentation. Sustained activation of the sympathetic nervous system marks the compensation stage, also known as the adrenal hyperfunction stage, with a secondary influence on the HPA axis. The pituitary gland responds to the influence of sympathetic nervous system activity by releasing adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In turn, the adrenal glands respond to the pituitary release of ACTH by producing excess cortisol and androgen hormones. In an attempt to compensate for this faulty hyperfunction, the HPA becomes less sensitive to...

AGEs and Cardiovascular Disease

AGE accumulation is associated with cardiovascular dysfunction and diseases such as atherosclerotic plaque formation, decrease in vascular and cardiac elasticity, endothelial dysfunction, and hypertension.10 More specifically, AGEs have been shown to quench nitric oxide (NO) which is an endothelium-derived relaxing factor in smooth muscle. Quenching NO impairs this relaxation and is associated with the pathology seen with hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes.11 AGEs also interact with specific cell receptors, such as RAGE, leading to chronic activation of these receptors. Studies indicate that RAGE activation may lead to an increase in inflammatory markers and cellular injury.12


Many Allium species are also grown as ornamentals including A. gigan-teum, A. christophii, A. karataviense, A. aflatunense, A. caeruleum, the nodding onion (A. cernuum), the yellow-flowered A. moly, and the interspecific cultivar Globemaster. A few Allium species are also noxious weeds in some parts of the world (e.g., A. vineale and A. triquetrum). The consumption of garlic has been shown to significantly reduce both blood levels of cholesterol and the chance of coronary heart disease. Evidence also suggests that garlic has anticancer and antibiotic properties and can reduce hypertension and blood clotting. Other alliums, particularly onion, have some of the same health benefits of garlic, but effects vary widely between species. see also Economic Importance of Plants Monocots.


P In doses of 0.2 g kg a rootbark extract of D. mespUiformis produces hypertension and exaggerated respiration in dogs. The rootbark of all the species here noted and of D. tricolor (Schum. & Thonn.) Hiern has an antibacterial action on staphylococci, streptococci and diphtheria bacilli probably due to plumbagin. Besides the antibiotic action, insecticide and anthelmintic properties have also been reported in the various species of Diospyros (Paris and Moyse-Mignon, 1949a). As the naphthoquinones also have a vitamin K action, their local application in wound dressing seems fully justified (Fieser etal., 1941).


Another herb, traditionally used in India for its antihypertensive effects is coleus (Coleus forskohlii). Coleus contains diterpenes that may have antihypertensive actions.17 One of these, forskolin, is a molecule that acts directly on adenyl cyclase and leads to increased intracellular levels of the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).18 This, in turn, may lead to a cAMP-induced vasodilation and result in lower blood pressure. Some clinical experience with this herb indicates that about 540 mg per day of an extract standardized to 10 forskolin may have an antihypertensive effect in some people at this dose, it is also not unusual for loose bowel movements to occur.


The amino acid L-arginine is gaining interest as an antihypertensive agent, because of its ability to increase nitric oxide production when taken as a nutritional supplement. In one study on 13 patients with hypertension and angina, L-arginine, taken at 2 g, three times per day led to improvement of resting systolic blood pressure, reduction of angina symptoms, and better quality of life all were considered to be significant.19 In another study on patients with both hypertension and diabetes, patients were given 3 g of L-arginine every hour for 10 hours over two days, and this produced a drop in systolic blood pressure of about 12 mmHg and a drop in diastolic blood pressure of about 6 mmHg.20 These effects were reversed within hours of L-arginine cessation. As it is impractical to take L-arginine orally every hour, a three times per day dosing schedule of 2-5 g may be attempted, or a time-release product utilized. An additional benefit of L-arginine therapy is that its ability to...

Stinging Nettle

Soy (Glycine spp.) protein extracts and isoflavones produce many beneficial effects to treat PCOS symptoms. There is evidence that using soy products as supplements to treat individuals with type 2 diabetes decreases fasting glucose, fasting and postprandial insulin, insulin resistance, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and hemoglobin A1c.68-70 In addition, studies have indicated that increased soy intake decreases risks of endometrial cancer, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia.71,72


There are several other supplements that may well be useful for controlling hypertension, although the level of research evidence may not yet be as great as the level of their use among alternative and complementary medicine practitioners. Several species of hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) have garnered some research interest. In a recent double-blinded study of Iranian C. curvisepala, 92 subjects took either the hawthorn extract or a placebo for more than four months, and these produced significant drops in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure three months into the study.11 An additional pilot study showed a favorable trend toward reduced hypertension for hawthorn extract but the results did not reach statistical significance.12 Traditionally, this herb has been used as a heart tonic, and is used extensively for patients with chronic heart failure. What is important to note is that, in the practice setting, the full benefits of hawthorn in the proper dosages may take approximately...

The nervous system

On the other hand, the drugs can interfere with the catecholamines (noradrenaline and adrenaline) or the chemical intermediates in their synthesis (e.g. dopamine) in the post-ganglionic sympathetic nerves and their terminals. This action is called 'adrenergic' action. The catecholamines are also involved in central activity. In this field, the so-called 'antidepressant' drugs, for example, are supposed to act in correcting the basic biochemical trouble of the depression which could be the insufficiency of noradrenaline at the level of the encephalic synapses through degradation of cerebral catecholamines. The enzyme responsible for intracellular degradation of catecholamines is monoamine oxidase (MAO). The activity of this enzyme is blocked by a group of drugs called monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), often found in the Rubiaceae (Table 3.2), which thereby inhibit the inactivation of noradrenaline. Unfortunately, these prevent not only degradation of cerebral catecholamines but...


Garlic (Allium sativum) and its derivatives are popularly known as effective preventives and treatment options for atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases, with numerous clinical trials demonstrating its efficacy for treating these conditions.14 The pharmacologic effects of garlic are attributed to allicin, ajoene, and other organosulfur constituents in the herb.15 Efficacy of garlic compounds is determined by the ability of the product to produce allicin, the keystone constituent that yields the production of other active garlic components.


Structure Baheda Chebulagic Acid

Family Melastomataceae elaborate an unusual series of hydrolyzable tannin oligomers such as nobotannin B (Fig. 5.223), which has exhibited anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) property in vitro. Procyanidin B-2 (Fig. 5.224) and castalagin (Fig. 5.225) are ubiquitous in the family and are known to lower blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats dose-dependently through decrease of sympathetic tone.

Sesquiterpene C15

Nimbidin And Nimbolide Structure

Himachalol (Fig. 5.240), a sesquiterpene alcohol obtained from hexane soluble extract of the wood of Cedrus deodara was found to have significant anti-allergic activity. The effect was comparable to disodium cromoglycate in experimental models. Jatamansone (valeranone) and nardostachone are the principal sesquiterpenes of Nardostachys jatamansi (Figs. 5.241, 5.242). Jatamansone has antihypertensive, sedative and tranquilizing activities.

Food uses

Soy milk is an aqueous extract of soybeans that is inexpensive, highly digestible and nutritious. It contains no cholesterol or lactose, and is a good source of protein and iron. It can be fortified with calcium, vitamin D and vitamin B12. Because soy milk is lactose-free, it can be used as a substitute for bovine milk for lactose-intolerant people (Liu et al., 1995 Gandhi, 2000). Soybean milk contains less sodium than cow's milk and is therefore better for persons with high blood pressure (Manay and Shadaksharaswamy, 2000). Parihar (1977) and Gandhi (2000) reported that 4 protein content in soy milk is comparable to 3.7 protein in cow milk. Soy milk and soybean paneer yield and quality are affected by several factors, such as the soybean cultivar (Skurray et al., 1980 Wong et al., 1983), growth environment (Schaefer and Love, 1992) and milk-processing methods (Wang and Chang, 1995), the nature and concentration of coagulant and soy paneer processing methods. Soybean cultivars differ...


Maitake (Grifola frondosa) is found mainly in temperate mountainous regions of Japan, North America, and Europe. The fruiting body of this mushroom is one of the largest of any mushroom, approaching the size of a basketball. Maitake fruiting bodies grow with a distinctive overlapping pattern, which has been described as looking like dancing butterflies. Maitake is prized for its culinary benefits its medicinal effects have only recently been emphasized although some of them have been known for many years. The mushroom was used medicinally as a general tonic to promote wellness and vitality, and is now considered to be an adaptogenic medicine. Historically, maitake was also used for lowering high blood pressure and treating cancer these uses are two foci of current research. This mushroom has been a staple in Asian diets for thousands of years. Once difficult to cultivate, maitake is now grown relatively easily in Japan, increasing the mushroom's availability as a medicine. Maitake can...


Reduces the risk of dying prematurely Reduces the risk of dying from heart disease Reduces the risk of developing diabetes Reduces the risk of developing high blood pressure Helps to reduce blood pressure Reduces the risk of developing colon cancer Reduces feelings of depression and anxiety Helps to control weight


Reishi contains several components that improve vascular health. Among these are the alkaloid cyclo-octasulfur, which has known cardiotonic effects 33 the triterpene ganoderma-diol, known for its ability to lower blood pressure by blocking the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme 34 and the ganoderic acids, which also have antihypertensive effects and can inhibit the synthesis of cholesterol. One study showed that reishi can inhibit platelet aggregation. This dose-dependent effect was noted in both healthy subjects and in those with atherosclerotic disease.35 The exact mechanism of inhibition was not elucidated in the study, however. The reishi mushroom's wide-ranging effects on the vascular system make it an important supportive therapy for prevention or treatment of vascular conditions caused by cholesterol accumulation, platelet aggregation, and high blood pressure.

Platelet Aggregation

Thrombus formation is important in cardiovascular diseases.3334 Platelets are blood cell fragments that originate from the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and circulate in blood. They play a major role in the hemostatic process and in thrombus formation after an endothelial injury. Circulating human platelets also play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, and increased platelet aggregation is associated with enhanced atherogenicity.35 Recent studies have provided insight into platelet functions in inflammation and atherosclerosis.36 Platelets release several growth factors and bioactive agents that play a central role in the development of thrombus and intimal thickening.37 A range of molecules, present on the platelet surface or stored in platelet granules, contribute to the crosstalk among platelets and other inflammatory cells during vascular inflammation, which is involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.38,39 Platelet...

Olive Leaf Extract

Olive leaf (Olea europaea) extract is another of several botanicals with antihypertensive effects. Given orally to rats predisposed to hypertension and exposed to a hypertensive drug, olive leaf extract prevented rises in blood pressure over eight weeks in a dose-dependent manner.13 The antihypertensive effects from this plant or its subspecies are probably the result of tri-terpenoids that have been demonstrated to act as beta-adrenergic antagonists.14 Because of this potential action, it is possible for an interaction with pharmaceutical produced beta-blockers.

Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), one of the better-studied supplements with regard to hypertension, also plays a crucial role in energy protection and performance of the myocardium. The clinical literature reports on the hypertensive benefits of CoQ10 go back as early as the mid 1970s, with an early study on five patients with essential hypertension who also had deficient activity of the CoQ10-dependent enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase-CoQ10 reductase.6 Four of the five patients experienced significant reductions in blood pressure when given CoQ10 for three to five months. In a more recent trial, 26 patients with essential hypertension were given 50 mg of CoQ10, two times per day for 10 weeks.7 At the end of the 10 weeks, the subjects' average systolic blood pressure had dropped from 164 mmHg to 146 mmHg, and their average diastolic blood pressure had decreased from 98 mmHg to 86 mmHg, a significant and relevant decrease. As an indication of this supplement's effect on total heart health, total...


Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is an important coenzyme in the biosynthesis of several important neurotransmitters, including GABA, dopamine, and serotonin, all of which may be affected in anxiety. Pyridoxine deficiency causes an increased sympathetic discharge and hypertension in animals that have been suggested to reflect a decrease in production of GABA, dopamine, and serotonin. In addition, supplementing pyridoxine in these animals lowered their blood pressure.6 In another study, the use of magnesium and pyridoxine on anxiety-related premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms was investigated. Researchers showed that women who were supplemented 200 mg of magnesium with 50mg of pyridoxine daily experienced significant reductions in anxiety-related PMS symptoms, including irritability, nervous tension, and generalized anxiety.7


Calcium, magnesium, and potassium have all shown some efficacy in the management of hypertension. In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, patients with mild to moderate primary hypertension were supplemented with 6CC mg per day of magnesium for six weeks. Oral magnesium significantly reduced the systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure.27 In another double-blind crossover study of magnesium supplementation ranging from 15-40 mmol per day, a significant decrease in the mean systolic blood pressure was recorded from while the mean diastolic blood pressure decreased from 100.2 4.2 mmHg to 92.0 6.6 mmHg.28 A study examined calcium carbonate supplementation at a dosage of 1.5 g per day in hypertensive patients for eight weeks. The results showed that the salt-sensitive hypertensive individuals had a significant blood pressure decrease.29 Another study showed that there was a significant linear decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure with increasing dairy calcium...


Physical activity is quite possibly the single most important preventative choice among patients whose diseases and conditions arise from a sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary lifestyle is one of the main risk factors for multiple chronic disease conditions today and sedentary death syndrome was identified and named to describe the growing life-threatening health problems caused by this lifestyle. Exercise remains the most effective therapy for preventing and reversing insulin resistance.42 The literature contains numerous references citing how effectively exercise ameliorates cardiovascular risk factors (low HDL cholesterol, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia) and mitigates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance.43 Regular exercise causes a loss of abdominal body fat in a preferential fashion (increased abdominal girth is used as a quantifying factor in diagnosing metabolic syndrome), and can increase resting fatty-acid metabolism.44 Exercise has produced improvement of...


Pycnogenol (Horphag Research, Ltd., Geneva, Switzerland) is an extract from French maritime pine bark (Pinus maritima). This product is commonly used to treat venous insufficiency, asthma, and hypertension. Pycnogenol hasanti-inflammatoryand antioxidant properties it also decreases platelet aggregation and prevents oxidation of low-density lipoproteins.48,49 Pycnogenol has been shown to increase NOS activity in endothelial cells in vitro, resulting in an increase in NO.50

Heart Disease

Rupture of a blood vessel that is weakened (e.g., when an aneurysm occurs), brittle (after years of hypertension and atherosclerosis), or defective (when arteriovenous malformation is present) leads to hemorrhagic stroke.19 Within this category, differences exist. For example, a brain hemorrhage can be intracerebral (within the brain intracranial hematoma) or subarachnoid (between the brain and the overlying skull and connective tissue layers), depending on the site of the ruptured blood vessel. Regardless of the site, the leaking of blood into and around the brain increases intracranial pressure, which compresses brain tissue. As well, the flow of blood to certain brain regions is disrupted, ultimately damaging the brain.19


A low ratio of intracellular magnesium to intracellular calcium has been identified in all four of the conditions that comprise metabolic syndrome.16 Thus, low magnesium levels are implicated as an important precipitating factor in metabolic syndrome. Ionic intracellular imbalances are associated with cardiovascular diseases and occur in this syndrome as well.17 Magnesium also plays a main role in controlling insulin-mediated cellular glucose uptake and in counteracting calcium-directed arterial constriction.18 According to epidemiologic studies, magnesium supplementation for patients with type 2 diabetes and people with hypertension is protective against these disorders, whether they occur alone or are coexistent in an individual.19 In one study, patients with diabetes were observed to be significantly hypomagnesemic compared to control subjects, and magnesium supplementation exerted positive effects on blood-lipid profiles.20 The disorders of metabolic syndrome occur less frequently...


Short-chain amino acids produced because of gastrointestinal enzymatic digestion in the human gut or by the hydrolysis of parent proteins during the processing of food with special biological activities have attracted wide attention in the recent past. These special biopeptides may possess from 2 to 20 amino acids (Kitts and Weiler, 2003). The presence of bioactive compounds in soy proteins has been reviewed (Elvira and De, 2006). Soy peptides present in soy protein hydrolysate have been reported to possess antihypertensive, anti-cancer and antioxidant properties (Kim et al., 2000 Shin et al., 2001 Wu and Ding, 2001). Antihypertensive peptides exert their biological activity by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme, which is responsible for converting decapep-tide angiotensin I into vasoconstricting octapeptides. Soy foods, especially fermented preparations, are a rich source of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting peptides (Okamoto et al., 1995 Gibbs et al., 2004). Bowman-Birk...

Nitrate transport

H+ Na+ antiporters from the NHX gene family (Yokoi et al., 2002) have been cloned from a range of plant species and the expression level of several tonoplast and plasma membrane H+ Na+ antiporters greatly impacts on plant salt tolerance (Zhu, 2001 Vera-Estrella et al., 2005). Nevertheless, NHX isoforms may also be capable of transporting other monovalent cations. NHX antiporters typically contain 12 TMD (Colour plate 5.8), are around 120-130 kDa in weight and often have a conserved motif in the third TMD, where amiloride binds. Amiloride, a diuretic used to treat high blood pressure, inhibits many animal and plant H+ Na+ antiporters. Recent work, however, challenges the generalised NHX topology and provides evidence that the C-terminus is actually in the luminal compartment where it plays an important role in calmodulin-dependent regulation of ion selectivity (Yamaguchi et al., 2005).

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