Recent developments

A new class of adjuvant producing increased efficacy and an improved environmental profile is the amido propyl amines. N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine is condensed to

Figure 3.12 Structure of amido propylamines, where R-i can be C8 / C10, COCO or SOY fatty acids.

Figure 3.12 Structure of amido propylamines, where R-i can be C8 / C10, COCO or SOY fatty acids.

fatty acid molecules (Figure 3.12). Surface properties are dependent on the pH environment. At high pH, these molecules are non-ionic, but at pH values below 8 the amine will protonate and the molecule will become more cationic. This may lead to more absorption to the negatively charged leaf surface.

Van der Pol and colleagues ( 2005) have developed lactate esters (n- propyl lactate, n-butyl lactate and 2-ethylhexyl lactate) that enhance the efficacy of the dimethylamine salt of 2,4-D and the 2-ethylhexyl ester of 2,4-D on fat hen (Chenopodium album). The lactate esters may act as solvents or penetrate the leaf cuticle itself and enhance the mobility of the herbicide through the cuticle. No phytotoxic effects were observed on tomato seedlings, suggesting promising potential for these ' green' solvents.

In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the problems associated with spray drift and how they might be overcome. Polymers of polyacrylamide, hydroxypropyl guar and ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (EHC) have been incorporated into the tank mix to reduce spray drift. Hazen ( 2005) found increased glyphosate retention in Echinochloa crus - galli when EHC was added to the formulation leading to enhanced bioefficacy.

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