Germination depth

Most arable weeds germinate in the top 5 cm of soil and it is this region that soil-acting (residual) herbicides aim to protect. Where minimum cultivation or direct drilling is carried out, the aim is to avoid disruption of this top region of soil in an attempt to minimise weed-seed germination. A small number weed species can germinate from

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Figure 1.1 Germination periods of some common annual weeds. Hance, R.J. and Holly, K. (1990) Weed Control Handbook, 8th edn.

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Aethusa cynapium (Fool's parsley) Alopecurus myosuroides (Black-grass) Anagallis arvensis (Scarlet pimpernel) Aphanes arvensis (Parsley piert) Atriplex patula (Common orache) Avena fatua (Wild oat) Avena ludoviciana (Winter wild oat) Capsella bursa-pastoris (Shepherd's purse) Chenopodium album (Fat hen)

Chrysanthemum segetum (Corn marigold) Fumaria officinalis (Common fumitory) Galeopsis tetrahit (Common hemp-nettle) Galium aparine (Cleavers)

Matricaria discoidea (Pineappleweed) Matricaria recutita (Scented mayweed) Medicago lupulina (Black medic) Pa paver rhoeas (Common poppy) Plantago major (Greater plantain) Poa annua

(Annual meadow-grass)

Figure 1.1 Germination periods of some common annual weeds. Hance, R.J. and Holly, K. (1990) Weed Control Handbook, 8th edn.

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Polygonum aviculare (Knotgrass) Fallopia convolvulus (Black bindweed) Persicaria maculosa (Redshank) Ranunculus arvensis (Corn buttercup) Raphanus raphanistrum (Wild radish) Senecio vulgaris (Groundsel) Sinapis arvensis (Charlock) Solanum nigrum (Black nightshade) Sonchus asper (Prickly sow-thistle) Spergula arvensis (Corn spurry) Stellaria media (Common chickweed) Thlaspi arvense (Field penny-cress) Tripleurospermum inodorum (Scentless mayweed) Urtica urens (Small nettle) Veronica hederifolia (Ivy-leaved speedwell) Veronica persica (Common field speedwell) Vicia hirsuta (Hairy tare) Viola arvensis (Field pansy)

A greater width of the bar reflects greater germination. Reproduced from greater depths and this appears to be due to these species possessing larger seed. A good example of this is wild oat (Avena spp.), which can successfully germinate and establish from depths as low as 25 cm.

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