Cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors

The cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors (CBIs) are a small group of chemically unrelated compounds including the herbicides dichlobenil, isoxaben and flupoxam (Figure 11.1). They are all effective CBIs, and because this site of action is not shared with mammals, they may be ideal choices for the purposes of registration and selective herbicidal activity. A lack of observed resistance in the field may enable them to become useful agents in the control of resistant weeds. Furthermore, they have...

Herbicide safeners and synergists

Herbicide safeners, also termed antidotes in some texts, are chemicals that, when applied before or with herbicides, increase the tolerance of a cereal crop to a herbicide. This activity has been known since the 1970s and the safening effect is not seen on the weeds. A list of herbicide safeners available as commercial products is given in Table 4.2. As some safeners may show structural homology with herbicides, it was previously thought that they competed with the herbicide molecule for the...

Phases of herbicide metabolism

Herbicide metabolism has been well documented in the last two decades and much progress has been made in our understanding of the enzyme systems involved and where they act in the plant cell. The four phases commonly observed are as follows Some herbicides have been shown to undergo bioactivation within plant cells, where a pro-herbicide is converted to a phytotoxic agent by the action of plant enzymes. Before this activation they may be less or non-phytotoxic, so the plant can be instrumental...