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Quit Smoking Magic Summary


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Processing and utilization

Isoflavones also can be extracted from lactoserum waste water. Soybean isoflavone consists of flavone glycoside (97-98 ) and aglycones (2-3 ). Agly-cones have biological activity. Isoflavone glycoside is separated from agly-cones by the actions of different isoflavone-glucosidases, and the genistein with biological activity is then released. Genistein can attenuate postmeno-pausal osteoporosis in humans. Isoflavones have inhibitory effects on the early transformation and proliferation of cancer cells. They can effectively inhibit the angiogenesis of a cancer structure and thus block the supply of nutrients to cancer cells. Therefore, isoflavone is of therapeutic use in breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, leukaemia and others.

Distribution of Heavy Metals and Conjugating Ligands in Shoots

(e.g., Pb and As), Cd has a higher propensity to accumulate in shoots other than the roots. Still, there is normally more Cd in roots than in leaves, and even less in fruits and seeds (Wagner 1993). The tendency of tobacco plants to translocate Cd quite efficiently to the leaves contributes to the fact that tobacco smoke is an important Cd source for smokers (Lugon Moulin et al. 2004). But recently, some research showed that tobacco develops an original mechanism of metal detoxification by the exudation of metal Ca-containing particles through leaf trichomes (Choi et al. 2001 Choi and Harada 2005 Sarret et al. 2006).

Markers Of Inflammation Creactive Protein and Fibrinogen

Which in turn confers an increased risk of the cardiovascular events. An elevated CRP level is normally treated with aspirin prophylaxis and hyperlipidemia medications, or statins. While obesity is, itself, a well-known risk factor for CHD, lowering CRP via lowering body fat will decrease CRP and CHD. In particular, high-sensitivity hsCRP is considered to be a promising marker for CHD and is interrelated with obesity and other risk factors, such as age, tobacco use, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia.48 One of the most common causes of an elevated CRP has been shown to be periodontal disease.

Human Use of Defensive Chemicals

Humans have exploited plant chemicals for thousands of years. Many uses derive directly from their defensive action. Nicotine was among the earliest of insecticides developed by humans, a practice that continues today with the isolation of antimicrobial and antiherbivore chemicals and eventual synthesis of analogs. Citrus chemistry is exploited as a mosquito repellent. Many antiseptic and antibiotic agents are derived from plants (e.g., terpenes in pine-scented cleaners). The nervous system activity of some alkaloids has been exploited for recreational and religious drug use (opium, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine, and mescaline) and medicine (opium and codeine). The ability of some to block signal transmission at neuromuscular junctions makes them important in surgery as well as hunting tools (e.g., curare). Polyphenols have broad antimicrobial activity they inhibit oxidative enzymes (e.g., cyclooxygenases) that cause disease, and their antioxidant characteristics are thought to prevent...

Chemical Diversity and Biosynthesis

Alkaloids are classified in several families that present totally different biosynthetic pathways. Four major families, for which the biosynthesis and the regulation are more particularly studied, are discussed in this chapter, these being monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIA), benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA), tropane and nicotine alkaloids (TNA) and purine alkaloids (PA Fig. 8.1, Table 8.1). Despite their chemical diversity, alkaloids share the fact that they originate commonly from primary metabolites such as amino acids or bases (Fig. 8.1). Except for Nicotiana tabacum, no genome sequencing project exists for the major alkaloid-producing plants. Therefore, most of the enzymatic steps have been identified using classical biochemical and molecular biology studies. The ongoing elucidation of some biosynthetic pathways illustrates the recruitment of enzymes belonging to recurrent multigene families such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, acetyl transferases or methyltransferases....

Additional Functions Of Floral Scents

The primary function of floral scent in flowering plants is to attract and guide pollinators.43-121-124 However, additional functions are ascribed to the presence of volatile chemicals in flowers (reviewed in Pichersky and Gershenzon125), including defense and protection against abiotic stresses. These additional functions may help explain some of the abundance and variety of different constituents detected. Because flowers produce pollen and ovules for the next generation, they have a high fitness value to the plant, and the finding of chemicals that defend flowers against herbivores and pathogens is not surprising. Apart from attracting pollinators, floral scent chemicals may also increase the risk of herbivore attack on floral structures, as shown in Nicotiana attenuata, and floral tissues may therefore require relatively more protection from enemies.87 In N. attenuata, this was achieved through a herbivore-induced increase in corolla pools of nicotine, a biocidal defense...

Discovery and Structure Elucidation

Nicotiana tabacum, the main species used commercially for the production of tobacco, is one of the most, if not the most, studied species today in plant and biological science as well as in chemistry (Tso 1999). According to Leete (1983) tobacco was more thoroughly examined than any other plant product. The scientific history of the alkaloid which turned out to become one of the most (ab)used secondary metabolites of the plant kingdom, the active principle of tobacco leaves, started already in the beginning of the nineteenth century when Vauquelin (1809a) discovered its volatile property ( essence de tabac ). Two decades later it was isolated and named nicotine by Posselt and Reimann (1828). However, complete structure elucidation took up one century starting with the summation formula (Barral 1847), followed by the constitution (proposed Pinner 1893, 1895 proved Pictet and Genequand 1897 Pictet and Rotschy 1904) and the configuration which turned out to be the same as l-proline...

Chemical Defense Based On Alkaloids

The importance of studying biosynthetic pathways in terms of alkaloidal functions was stressed more than forty years ago in an investigation of the biogenesis of nicotine.15 Recognizing that alkaloids had been customarily regarded as wastes of metabolism, it was concluded that detailed investigations of their syntheses may provide us with a back door into the intermediary metabolism of growth, and in addition, an entirely new concept of their biological significance.

Sequestration For Defense And Communication

Specialists feeding on either plants or animals that are fortified with toxic alkaloids are unpredictable in terms of how these natural products are processed. For example, nicotine, as previously mentioned, is degraded or rapidly eliminated by larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta37 Nicotine is not known to be stored by any tobacco-feeding insects and may simply be too reactive to be easily sequestered in tissues. Of course, the inability of these larvae to accumulate nicotine internally deprives them of a powerful defense, a development that must reflect the nonadaptive nature of this alkaloid for sequestration. Similarly, a tropane alkaloid, cocaine, is only sequestered in trace amounts after moth larvae, Elor a noyse , have fed on coca plants.5 The larvae of E. noyse excrete the alkaloid very rapidly, and the feces contains most of the ingested compound. Significantly, the adults are cryptically colored, which is consistent with a species that lacks protective defensive...

The Polyamine Metabolic Pathway And Its Relationship To Nitrogen Metabolism

A unique feature in plants is that SAM sits astride an important metabolic cross-road in the regulation of N metabolism (Figure 1). Thus SAM, in addition to participating in numerous transmethylation reactions, is also a precursor of ethylene via 1-aminopropyl-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) (Tiburcio et al. 1997). Furthermore, in some plants, the methyl moiety of SAM can be transferred to Put to form -methyl-Put (Figure 1), which serves as a precursor of nicotine and other related alkaloids (Tiburcio et al. 1997).

Plants Having Stimulating Effects

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, family Solanaceae) leaves are smoked or chewed to act as a stimulant, depressant, or tranquilizer. Tobacco with the addictive alkaloid nicotine is perhaps the most physiologically damaging substance generally used by humans. Its use is a direct cause of lung and other cancers, coronary artery disease, and emphysema.

The cardiovascular system

Stimulation of the preganglionic nerve fibres to the ganglia results in liberation of acetylcholine (physiological neurotransmitter in autonomic ganglia). This action is almost immediately counterbalanced by cholinesterase, which destroys acetylcholine through hydrolysis. The cholinergic actions on the ganglia are referred to as the nicotinic actions of acetylcholine because the effects of acetylcholine on the ganglia are similar to those produced by nicotine. There is initial stimulation and then blockade of the ganglion cells (Turner and Richens, 1978).

General Requirements For Promoting Healthy Skin

Lifestyle factors are critical for maintaining healthy skin. Smoking can cause dryness and premature aging of the skin. Sun exposure is associated with an increased risk of skin cancer, premature aging, and hyperpigmentation of the skin, requiring a limit to sun exposure and the use of sunscreen during prolonged exposure. Clinically, exercise has been shown to help promote a radiant, glowing complexion.

Natural Approaches To The Prevention And Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

Elevated blood sugar has been shown to cause several physiological reactions in the body leading to disease states. One of these reactions involves adding sugars to molecules, a process known as glycosylation. Advanced glycosylation end products'' (AGEs) are formed by the attachment of reducing sugars onto biological proteins. This reaction is irreversible causing these proteins with sugars attached to accumulate over time. One well-known example of AGEs is hemoglobin A1C, which is frequently measured to evaluate long-term blood sugar control in diabetics. It is proposed that AGE formation is a normal physiological process that functions as a signal for recognition of old molecules to be broken down and excreted by the kidneys. With increasing age, the excretion of these molecules decreases. AGE formation and accumulation is greatly accelerated with high levels of circulating sugars and oxidative stress seen in conditions such as diabetes.2 A study was performed with individuals...

Traditional medicinal uses

Alkaloids Alkaloids including ecliptine and nicotine have been reported. Bio-active steroidal alkaloids, verazine, 20-epi-3-dehydroxy-3-oxo-5, 6-dihydro-4, 5-dehydroverazine, ecliptalbine, (20R)-4 -hydroxyverazine, 4 -hydroxyverazine, (20R)-25 -hydroxyverazine and 25 -hydroxyverazine have been identified from the methanolic extract.

Biosynthesis of Pyrrolidine Type Nicotinoids Fig 310

Nicotine Biosynthesis

Nicotine is synthesized mainly in the roots ( 97 ) as has been proved, e.g., for N. tabacum and N. rustica (Dawson 1941 Dawson and Solt 1959). Besides its accumulation in the roots it is transported to the shoots in the xylem stream (Baldwin 1989). There it is accumulated especially in young leaves, stems, and reproductive organs as a defence agent. One of its precursors, the N-methyl-A1-pyrrolinium cation is also synthesized in the roots. The formation of this cation has been explained already before (Fig. 3.2). The second precursor, nicotinic acid, necessary for the pyridine moiety is formed in the pyridine nucleotide cycle which is also yielding the coenzymes nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide (NAD) and NADP, respectively, in all organisms. This cycle is fed by quinolinic acid (pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid) which is formed by cyclization of l-aspartic acid and 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde as has been discovered during research work with tobacco (Leete 1983 and references therein). This...

Uses If Barteria Nigritiana

Rotenone has an isoflavone nucleus combined with a furan and pyran ring. It is said to belong to the isoflavones (Paris and Moyse, 1967, p. 387), or to the phenyl-propanoid flavonoids (Towers and Wat, 1979). Substances chemically related to rotenone, also found in these Fabaceae, are called rotenoids. Thus, degueline is an isomer with a 2-dehydrobenzopyran nucleus tephrosine or toxicarol have phenolic hydroxyl groups. Derric acid constitutes the common half of the molecule of rotenone and these rotenoids. The oral lethal toxicity of rotenone is low for mammals 3 g for the rabbit, 0.6 g for the rat and 0.06 g for the guinea pig. In insects and fish it acts on ingestion or contract and is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidation (Towers and Wat, 1979) it is active in dilutions down to 1 20000000. At this concentration it can kill goldfish in 2.5 h. As a stomach poison in silkworms, rotenone is 30 times as toxic as lead arsenate. It is 15 times as toxic as nicotine when used as a...

Holycross Cholla Tasajillo Christmas Cholla Diamond Cactus Darning Needle Cactus Pencil Joint Cholla

Several species of wild tobacco are found in the desert. Of these, tree tobacco is conspicuous because of its rank growth, its large leaves, and the spectacular clusters of tubular, yellow flowers. In addition to nicotine, tree tobacco contains an aikaioid, anabasine. This conspicuous plant occurs in moist locations below 3,000 feet elevation and bears flowers throughout the entire year. Although now thoroughly naturalized in the Southwest, it is a native of South America.

Biosynthesis of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids MIA


Fig. 8.1 Chemical structures of precursors and examples of alkaloids from the four families where the major advances in the elucidation and regulation of the biosynthetic pathways have been obtained. MIA, monoterpene indole alkaloids BIA, benzylisoquinoline alkaloids TNA, tropane and nicotine alkaloids PA, purine alkaloids MEP, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate Fig. 8.1 Chemical structures of precursors and examples of alkaloids from the four families where the major advances in the elucidation and regulation of the biosynthetic pathways have been obtained. MIA, monoterpene indole alkaloids BIA, benzylisoquinoline alkaloids TNA, tropane and nicotine alkaloids PA, purine alkaloids MEP, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate Tropane and nicotine alkaloids Nicotine Alkaloid family tropane and nicotine alkaloids (TNA) Solanaceae methyltransferase pmt) ABI93948(methylputrescine oxidase mpol) DQ131886 (CYP82E4vl nicotine N-demethylase) 8.2.3 Biosynthesis of Tropane and Nicotine Alkaloids...

Research findings on psychological effects of lavender

Act by a variety of mechanisms to prevent convulsions other than glutamate binding inhibition. For example, Yamada et al. (1994) found that inhaled lavender oil reduced pentetrazol, nicotine and electroshock induced convulsions in mice, and suggested that these effects may be due to an augmentation of GABA-ergic action. Evidence for this mechanism comes from Aoshima and Hamamoto's (1999) investigation of the potentiation of GABAa receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by lavender oil components. These increased response in the presence of GABAA at low concentrations, possibly through binding to the potentiation-site in GABAA receptors, thus increasing the affinity of GABAA to the receptors.

Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Diseases

There are several factors that increase the risk of developing CVD. These risk factors may be nonmodifiable, such as a family history of cardiovascular disease, race (black, aborginal), and age.1,3,19 However, many of the risk factors for heart attack and stroke are indeed modifiable with changes in behavior, drugs, or diet. Eighty percent of the Canadian population has at least one modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease.3 Smoking is the single most important cause of preventable illness and premature death for Canadians. 3 Other risk factors that can be controlled are diabetes and obesity (or metabolic syndrome20,21), sedentary lifestyles, stress, hypertension,3,10 and dyslipidemia.3,8 Thus, the incidence of cardiovascular disease can be attenuated by increases in physical activity, smoking cessation, controlling diabetes with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, controlling hypertension with various antihypertensive drugs, cholesterol-lowering therapy with drugs, and...

Medically Important Compounds Derived From Plants

Mitotic Poison

Attempts to find safer compounds led chemists to manipulate the molecule, and by trial and error they discovered a semisynthetic derivative that proved at least as effective as the original compound without the same level of toxicity. (Semisynthetics are products of chemical manipulation using the naturally occurring plant compound as a base.) A compound called etopo-side was eventually found most valuable in treating a type (non-small cell) of lung cancer, testicular cancer, and lymphomas (cancer of lymphoid tissue), and particular (monocytic) leukemias (cancer of blood-forming organs) by preventing target cells from entering cell division. Etoposide was approved for use in the United States in 1983, twelve years after its discovery. Peak annual sales of the compound reached approximately 300 million in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and thousands of lives have been prolonged or saved during nearly two decades of its use as a leading anticancer drug derived from plants. It is...

Occurrence in the Solanaceae Tables 31 and

The accumulation of large amounts of nicotine and or its congeners is confined to four solanaceous genera belonging to two clades of the subfamily Nicotianoideae (Nicotianeae clade Nicotiana Cyphanthera clade Crenidium, Cyphanthera, Duboisia). As already mentioned, most of the commercial tobaccos produced in the world belong to Nicotiana tabacum L., which is assumed to be an allotetraploid, natural hybrid of two wild species, N. sylvestris (maternal genome) and N. tomentosiformis (paternal genome), also supported by phylogenetic molecular analysis based on ITS regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA (Chase et al. 2003). Alternatively, though less likely the latter is assumed to be N. otophora. However, a molecular analysis based on five genes encoding putrescine N-methyltransferase supported the hypothesis of Kenton et al. (1993) that the progenitors are N. sylvestris and an introgressed hybrid between N. tomentosiformis and N. otophora (Riechers and Timko 1999 and references therein). There...

Authentification of lavender essential oil

Regression of various tumours including pancreatic, mammary, and liver tumours (Belanger, 1998). It is also a chemopreventative agent for colon, skin and lung cancer. It is also a chemotherapeutic agent for treating neuroblastoma and prostate and colon cancer. Preliminary trials in human cancers have not been successful as remission has not occurred and there are gastrointestinal and other side effects.

Nitrogen Containing Secondary Compounds

Often secondary metabolites are accumulated in plant tissues and concentrations of 1-3 dry weight have been determined (Wink, 1999a). Secondary compounds in plants usually have a pharmacological effect on humans (Watzl and Leitzmann 1999). Sullivan and Hagen (2001) provide detailed information about the psychotropic effect of alkaloids. Secondary metabolites are used as dyes (e.g. indigo, shikonin), flavours (e.g. vanilline, capsaicine, mustard oils), fragrances (e.g. rose oil, lavender oil), stimulants (e.g. caffeine, nicotine, ephedrine), hallucinogens (e.g. morphine, cocaine), insecticides (e.g. nicotine, pyrethrine), vertebrate and human poisons (e.g. strychnine, coniine), but their possible functions in plants have, until now, often been obscure (Wink 1999a). Secondary metabolites have been shown to be crucial for plant defence mechanisms against viruses, bacteria, fungi, competing plants (allelopathies) and herbivores, and are triggers for pollination and seed dispersal (Wink...

Biosynthesis of Piperidine PiperideineType Nicotinoids Fig 310

The biosynthesis of the piperidine-type nicotinoid anabasine proceeds in an analogous manner to nicotine, with A1-piperideine (instead of the N-methyl-A1-pyrrolinium cation) as the counterpart of nicotinic acid 3,6-dihydronicotinic acid (Leete 1969). Consequently, l-lysine is the source of the piperidine ring instead of l-ornithine (Solt et al. 1960). Unlike the conversion of the latter to the N-methyl-A1-pyrrolinium cation via free putrescine, the conversion of lysine to A1-piperideine is assumed to proceed via a bound cadaverine (Friesen et al. 1992).

Types of Chemical Defenses

There are more than ten thousand different alkaloids and relatives known from plants. Alkaloids are cyclic nitrogen-containing compounds. They are widely distributed among many higher plant families, where they are often produced in roots. Their activity in animals is diverse, but many interfere with neurotransmitters. When consumed, many alkaloids are addictive. Examples include caffeine (coffee), morphine (poppy), tomatine (tomato), nicotine (tobacco), and lupine alkaloids (legumes).

Responses of Pollinators

Sexual reproduction of many plants species depends on pollination by honey bees, bumble bees, solitary bees, syrphid flies or moths (Klein et al. 2006). Herbivory in early stages of plant growth reduces the photosynthetic area of the plant, and may result in smaller plants and a shorter flowering period. This is possibly due to allocation of resources to defenses, rather than growth and reproduction (Poveda et al. 2003). Herbivory may affect the production of pollen and nectar, the quality of nectar, morphology of flowers and may reduce seed production (Lehtila and Strauss 1997 Hamback 2001 Poveda et al. 2003). Both nectar quality and quantity are parameters that determine the number and type of pollinators that are attracted to the plants (Potts et al. 2003). While extrafloral nectar is known to increase after her-bivory, it remains unknown whether herbivory also affects floral nectar production (Adler et al. 2006). Just a handful of studies have addressed the effect of herbivory on...

Inducible Resistance Factors for Direct Defense

And increased seed mass (a correlate of lifetime fitness). This experiment confirmed a role in direct defense for trichomes and glucosinolates as inducible physical and chemical resistance factors, respectively (Agrawal 1998, 1999). Likewise, in Nico-tiana attenuata, the induced production of nicotine as a chemical resistance factor was associated with metabolic costs, but provided a fitness benefit when plants were under attack by herbivores (Baldwin 1998 see also Steppuhn and Baldwin this volume). Although these findings should not be generalized and a defensive role should not be assumed for all plant responses to wounding and herbivory, the prevalence of inducible resistance traits in present day plant-herbivore systems implies that such responses are likely the result of natural selection imposed by insect herbivores during evolution.

Supporting Detoxification Within The Body

This common herb, used frequently in the form of turmeric (Curcuma longa), has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Curcumin has been shown to help inhibit the carcinogenic effects of benzopyrene that arise from the consumption of charbroiled meat. This herb has been shown to modulate phase 1 detoxification while inducing phase 2 of the process. When 1.5 g of turmeric was given to 16 smokers and 6 nonsmokers (control subjects), it was shown that, after 30 days of consuming turmeric, urinary excretion of mutagens in smokers was nearly equivalent to that of nonsmokers. This study demonstrated that turmeric is an effective inhibitor of phase 1 detoxification, preventing the excess accumulation of toxic metabolite conversion of

Lifestyle Modification

Lifestyle modifications can have a great impact on GERD symptoms. Diet recommendations include avoiding foods that trigger symptoms. Common culprits include acidic foods, such as tomatoes, coffee, tea, and citrus foods. Additionally, avoidance of foods that decrease LES pressure, such as high-fat foods, chocolate, peppermint, and alcohol, may be necessary. Research has shown that diets high in the antioxidant vitamin C are associated with less risk of GERD symptoms, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma.55 In addition, a small study showed that very-low-carbohydrate diets reduce GERD symptoms and decrease lower esophageal acid exposure in obese individuals with GERD. In fact, this study showed that diets containing less than 20 g of carbohydrates per day significantly reduced symptoms in less than six days.56 Another study demonstrated that chewing sugar-free gum for one half-hour after a meal reduced postprandial esophageal reflux possibly by increasing the frequency of...

Nutritional Antioxidants And Polyphenolic Flavonoids

We have performed in vitro and ex vivo studies in humans and in the atherosclerotic E0 mouse, and in a cell-free system, which demonstrated that the licorice root extract and its purified isoflavane glabridin protected LDL against macrophage-induced oxidation.31-35 Flavonols and their glycosides are effective antioxidants against 2,2'-azobis 2-amidino-propane dihydrochloride (AAPH- free-radical generator) and copper ion-induced LDL oxidation. The flavonols bearing the orthodihy-droxyl groups possess significantly higher antioxidative activity than those bearing no such functionalities. The flavonol glycosides are less effective in this respect.36 Red wine and its flavonol quercetin were shown to inhibit LDL oxidation in both water and lipid-soluble free-radical-generating systems.37,38 We have previously shown that preparation of white wine from whole squeezed grapes in the presence of 18 alcohol remarkably increased the extraction of grape skin polyphenols into the produced white...

Femalespecific Health Considerations

When considering which natural substances to use for nourishing a woman's sexual vitality, the traditional focus is on herbal products that help to modulate female hormones. Yet, there are natural medicines that enhance blood flow, and these are also critical to a woman's optimal sexual satisfaction. These latter substances are discussed in the section about nutrients that are supportive for both genders. Female-specific herbs include dong quai (Angelica sinensis), black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), chaste tree (Vitex agnus castus), and wild yam (Dios-corea villosa). Each of these herbs has the ability to modulate and amplify, as needed, the body's hormonal balance. They have all been used traditionally to address the signs and symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome and menopause. (See Chapter 16 on female hormones.) Beyond herbal medicine, some good holistic approaches can maximize well-being and optimize sexual functioning. Some common lifestyle-improvement tips include...

Response of the Plant

In response to arthropod herbivory the plant may activate several major signal-transduction pathways involved in the defense response the JA (jasmonic acid), SA (salicylic acid) and ET (ethylene) pathways (Dicke and Van Poecke 2002). These signaling pathways are differentially induced by different feeding guilds or artificial damage (Ozawa et al. 2000 Walling 2000 Dicke and Van Poecke 2002 De Vos et al. 2005 Zheng et al. 2007). The three signal-transduction pathways also interact JA can inhibit the effect of SA, and SA can interfere with JA-mediated induction (Pefia-Cortes et al. 1993 Sano and Ohashi 1995). Similarly, JA and ET synergistically affect induction of defense gene expression in tomato (O'Donnell et al. 1996), while ET inhibits the effect of JA on nicotine induction in tobacco (Kahl et al. 2000).

Evolution And Function Of Secondary Metabolites

Several SM have been used by mankind for thousands of years22,27 as dyes (e.g., indigo, shikonine), flavors (e.g., vanillin, capsaicin, mustard oils), fragrances (e.g., rose oil, lavender oil and other essential oils), stimulants (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, ephedrine), hallucinogens (e.g., morphine, cocaine, mescaline, hyoscyamine, scopolamine, tetrahydrocannabinol), insecticides (e.g., nicotine, piperine, pyrethrin), vertebrate and human poisons (e.g., coniine, strychnine, aconitine) and even therapeutic agents (e.g., atropine, quinine, cardenolides, codeine, etc.).

Alkaloids For Defense And Exploitation

In general, plants do very well in their environments, notwithstanding the omnipresence of a multitude of potential insect herbivores and a number of vertebrate herbivores as well. Some plant species are very insecticidal, as a consequence of their producing a variety of alkaloids including nicotine, piperine, lupine alkaloids, steroidal alkaloids, ephedrine, berberine, strychnine, gramine, and caffeine.37 These biologically active alkaloids also function as deterrents. In terms of families, caffeine is the the most widely distributed alkaloid, a fact that may be significant because this compound is very insecticidal for a large number of species. Nicotine is also very deterrent and toxic to insect herbivores and has been utilized as a commercial insecticide for many years. On the other hand, plants in the genus Nicotiana (Solanaceae) are fed upon readily by larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. This insect is a specialist on nicotine-fortified plants, tolerating diets...

Occurrence in the Convolvulaceae Table 32

Our knowledge of the occurrence and distribution of nicotine in the Convolvulaceae is strictly based on GC-MS results. It could be detected in 99 out of 150 convolvu-laceous species (66 ) throughout the family in almost all tribes, genera and even sections of large genera (Ipomoea, Merremia) included. However, in almost every case it was a minor component, present only in traces. There have been only a few exceptions. Nicotine has been reported to amount 8 to the total alkaloid content of M. quinata (epigeal vegetative parts) (Jenett-Siems et al. 2005b). It was the principal ornithine-derived alkaloid (minor components hygrine, cuscohygrine) in the epigeal vegetative parts of Argyreia nervosa. This is also true for Ipomoea alba, I. indica, and I. pes-tigridis. However, the concentrations were comparably low. Congeners of nicotine could not be found apart from odd exceptions nornicotine, myosmine (A. nervosa) and cotinine (I. indica). These nicotinoids co-occurring with nicotine itself...

Physiological And Biochemical Targets For Alkaloids

Some alkaloids interfere with the assembly of microtubules (taxol, colchicine, maytansine), inhibit key enzymes such as adenylate cyclase (papaverine, theophylline, theobromine), activate neuromuscular systems involving ACH (physostigmine, coniine, nicotine), inhibit digestive processes (emetine, lobeline, morphine), modulate liver and kidney function (pyrrolizidine alkaloids, amanitine), and destabilize the blood and circulatory system (vinblastine, colchicine).


With the knowledge that CRP and fibrinogen are signatures of inflammatory processes in the body, ACM practitioners use these markers as a sign that the body is creating inflammatory processes in the cardiovascular system, and treatments are geared toward lowering levels of these markers in the body. The inflammatory process is considered to be the premier etiologic event that initiates the development and propagation of the atherosclerotic process.53 Elevated CRP and fibrinogen levels are indirectly treated with an overall anti-inflammatory approach, involving diet, supplementation, and botanical medicines. Fibrinogen is known to be elevated in individuals with diabetes those who are overweight, sedentary and in smokers. Even in healthy people, fibrinogen levels have been shown to increase by 25 mg dL per decade.54 Studies have also shown that increased social stress, such as lack of job control, causes an increase in fibrinogen levels, suggesting the possible pathway between elevated...

Heavy Metals

Aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, and other heavy metals abound in the human environment, where they are found in pesticides, cooking utensils, paint, tin cans, solder, cigarettes, dental fillings, contaminated fish, some cosmetics and antacids, and industrial products and by-products. Battery makers, gas station attendants, agricultural workers, printers, jewelers, and dentists, for example, face increased heavy-metal exposure risks.


Alkaloids are basically compound ammonias, where various radicals replace one or more atoms of hydrogen. Alkaloids combine with acids to form crystalline salts without the production of water. The majority of alkaloids exist in solid form like atropine and contain oxygen. Some alkaloids like lobeline or nicotine occur in a liquid form and contain carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Amino acids act as a precursor for biosynthesis of alkaloids. Ornithine and lysine are common amino acids used as starting material for alkaloid biosynthesis. Cocaine and nicotine are classical examples from this series (Fig. 5.2). Lysine Nicotine Lysine Nicotine

Vitamin C

Vitamin C increases T-lymphocyte activity, phagocyte function, leukocyte mobility, and interferon production. Studies have shown abnormal phagocytes, antibodies, and cytokines in women with endometriosis, so vitamin C may be therapeutically useful. Because it is an antioxidant, vitamin C can protect cells from reactive oxygen species known to cause tissue damage and disease. This protective effect may also prevent tissue damage from dioxin and PCBs. Women with high estrogen levels, oral contraceptive users, and nicotine users will have increased vitamin C excretion and measurably lower plasma levels, and these women might require higher levels of supplementation.42,43


Used in the manufacture of cigarettes, and they account for most of the U.S. production. Over 90 percent of the tobacco grown in the United States is from North Carolina and Kentucky, but Maryland, South Carolina, Virginia, Georgia, Florida, Ohio, and Tennessee also produce substantial amounts of this crop. Tobacco leaves are covered with trichomes (hairs) that have multicellular glands on their tips. These glandular trichomes produce a sticky resinous material that contains many of the flavor and aroma components. Tobacco also produces many internal, secondary components, including pyridine alkaloids. The most important alkaloid is nicotine, which acts as a stimulant to the user and is addictive. Nicotine is quite toxic, and products containing nicotine were used as early insecticides. The adverse health effects of smoking, including nicotine addiction and the increased risks of cancer, emphysema, and heart attack, are well documented.


The early postulation that 3-oxotropane (tropinone, 3-tropanone) represents an intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of the calystegines (Drager et al. 1994) has been supported by feeding experiments using 15N-labelled 3-oxotropane in root cultures of Calystegia sepium (Scholl et al. 2001, 2003). After two days 3P-hydroxy-tropane (pseudotropine, 3P-tropanol), the postulated next step of the pathway (Fig. 3.13) catalyzed by the specific tropinone reductase II (TR II), was completely labelled. During the first six days the ratio of labelled to non-labelled calystegines increased continuously. Calystegine A3 was labelled faster than its congeners B1 and B2 thus supporting the assumption that A3 could be a precursor of the latter (Fig. 3.27). Demethylation should be the intermediate step between 3P-hydroxytro-pane and the calystegines, i.e., the formation of 3P-hydroxynortropane (norpseudo-tropine, 3P-nortropanol). It has been speculated that (i) N-demethylation is an unlikely...


Epidemiological data have shown that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenical compounds is associated with liver injury, peripheral neuropathy, and increased incidence of cancer of lung, skin, bladder, and liver 9,237 . Arsenic can also cross the placenta and can cause fetotoxicity, decreased birth weight, and congenital malformation 196 . Several mechanisms have been implicated in arsenic-induced genotoxicity, which includes oxidative stress 238,239 . DNA repair inhibition 240,241 and direct mutagenesis 242 have been reported. In humans, an increased percentage of apoptosis was found in the buccal epithelial cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in China 243 . Inorganic arsenic is a known human carcinogen causing lung cancer by inhalation and skin cancer via ingestion 244 .

Psychoactive Plants

Compounds in some plants can have an overwhelming effect on the central nervous system. Plants containing those compounds are thus known as mind-altering (active) or psychoactive plants. Their effects may be separated into hallucinogenic, stimulating, or depressing properties depending on the plant used and the present compounds, which are usually secondary metabolites. A few plants, however, have major multiple effects based on one or more compounds present, such as tobacco containing nicotine, which can be both stimulating and depressing.

Hazardous Materials

Celite (diatomaceous earth) contains crystalline silica and poses a lung cancer hazard through prolonged exposure through inhalation. Severe respiratory symptoms may lead to death. It is also an irritant to the eyes and skin. Wear appropriate safety gloves and glasses. Use only with adequate ventilation and do not breathe the dust.


Diagrams Medicinal Plants

(Fig. 5.114) from Polanisia dodecandra inhibits a broad panel of cancer cells central nervous system cancer (SF-268, SF-539, SNB-75, U-251), nonsmall- cell lung cancer (HOP-62, NCI-H266, NCI-H460, NCI-H522), small-cell lung cancer (DMS-114), ovarian cancer (OVCAR-3, SKOV- 3), colon cancer (HCT-116), renal cancer (UO-31), a melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-5), and leukemia cell lines (HL-60, SR), cultured in vitro. Acacetin (5,7-dihydroxy-4'methoxy-flavone), present in Cirisium rhinoceros inhibits the proliferation of the human liver and lung cancer cells, HepG2 and A549 cells, respectively by blocking apoptosis and cell cycle progression. (Fig. 5.115). Isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid, present in licorice inhibits the proliferation of the human liver and lung cancer cells, HepG2 and A549 cels, respectively by blocking apoptosis and cell cycle progression (Fig. 5.127).


Structure Baheda Chebulagic Acid

Casuarina stricta has been reported to contain elagitannins including casuarinin, casuriin, stachyurin, casuarictin and strictinin. Casuarinin (Fig. 5.216) isolated from Terminalia arjuna has been studied as antiviral against antiherpes simplex virus type 2 and anticancer activity in non-small cell lung cancerA 549 cell line. ECGC also has an astringent effect and may inhibit cell membrane phosphorylation. The researchers do not know whether the polyphenols inhibit the initiation or the promotion of tumors. Following the oral feeding of a polyphenolic fraction, isolated from green tea, (GTP) in drinking water, an increase in the activities of antioxidant and phase II enzymes in skin, small bowel, liver, and lung of female SKH-1 hairless mice was observed. Prodelphinidin B-2 3,O-gallate (Fig. 5.227), a proanthocyanidin gallate has been demonstrated for anti-proliferative activity in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells by G0 G1 arrest and apoptosis induction.

Sesquiterpene C15

Nimbidin And Nimbolide Structure

Paclitaxel (taxol) is being used clinically in the treatment of ovarian and breast cancers, non-small-cell lung cancer, small-cell lung cancer, and cancers of the head and neck. Taxol has also been shown to bind to a second target, a protein which normally blocks the process of apoptosis (cell death). Inhibition of this protein allows apoptosis to proceed.

Metabolic Linkage

The difficulties of disentangling the fitness costs of allocating resources to a specific defense trait from the fitness consequences of shifts in allocation resulting from other processes activated during elicitation have already been mentioned. Furthermore, it is not clear whether in isogenic genotypes, disabled in the expression of a specific trait, the resources that are not used for defenses are redirected to be available for growth and reproduction. The resource allocation shifts required for a defense may occur far up-stream of the portion of biosynthetic pathway committed to the actual metabolite production, especially if a defense is produced by a long, multi-step pathway. A physiologically well-studied example of such a defense is nicotine accumulation in leaves of attacked Nicotiana species. This accumulation involves a large spatial separation between the site of synthesis and the site of herbivore attack and a long-distance signaling system is required to bridge the gap....


Osteoporosis, literally meaning 'porous bone', is a metabolic disease of bone characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissues, making the individuals prone to fracture. This is a global disease affecting 150 million individuals worldwide, cutting across ethnicity and race. Although an inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, unhealthy lifestyles marked by excessive alcohol and tobacco consumption and lack of exercise have been cited as some of the causes of the disease, the onset of menopause with a concomitant decline in estrogen renders women prone to the disease. Worldwide, the population of postmenopausal women is expected to reach 1.2 billion by 2030, indicating the magnitude of the problem that will exist in just a few years from now. Messina et al. (2004) reviewed studies showing a positive effect of soy product intake on bone health. Several studies looking at the role of soy isoflavones on bone mineral density have been conducted with peri- or...

Traditional use

Externally chamomile is applied in the form of hot compresses to badly healing wounds, such as for a hip bath with abscesses, furuncles, hemorrhoids, and female diseases as a rinse of the mouth with inflammations of the oral cavity and the cavity of the pharynx as chamomile steam inhalation for the treatment of acne vulgaris and for the inhalation with nasal catarrhs and bronchitis and as an additive to baby baths. In Roman countries it is quite common to use chamomile tea even in restaurants or bars and finally even in the form of a concentrated espresso. This is also a good way of fighting against an upset stomach due to a sumptuous meal, plenty of alcohol, or nicotine. In this case it is not easy to draw a line and find out where the limit to luxury is.

Platelet Aggregation

Thrombus formation is important in cardiovascular diseases.3334 Platelets are blood cell fragments that originate from the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and circulate in blood. They play a major role in the hemostatic process and in thrombus formation after an endothelial injury. Circulating human platelets also play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, and increased platelet aggregation is associated with enhanced atherogenicity.35 Recent studies have provided insight into platelet functions in inflammation and atherosclerosis.36 Platelets release several growth factors and bioactive agents that play a central role in the development of thrombus and intimal thickening.37 A range of molecules, present on the platelet surface or stored in platelet granules, contribute to the crosstalk among platelets and other inflammatory cells during vascular inflammation, which is involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.38,39 Platelet...

Lifestyle Factors

Lifestyle factors, such as alcohol consumption and tobacco and marijuana smoking, are well-known causes of decreased sperm counts. In drinkers, alcohol has been shown to decrease sperm count, produce morphologic abnormalities, decrease sperm motility, and increase serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and sex-hormone-binding globulin levels. Patients who abused alcohol were found to be in a state of primary hypogonadism as a result of lifetime alcohol consumption.7 Sperm count and motility were found to be lower in smokers compared to nonsmokers, and smokers had a higher incidence of oligospermia, higher levels of endogenous 17-beta-E2, and sperm counts below normal compared to nonsmokers.8 Marijuana smoking has contributed to male infertility.9 Other lifestyle factors, such as type of underwear worn by a man, appear to have an effect on fertility. Brief-style underwear holds the testes closely to the body and thus induces temperature elevations in the...


Numerous studies have been conducted on coriolus' immune-enhancing properties. These studies have identified the mushroom's active constituents. Among them are the beta-glucan polysaccharides. Coriolus contains several different types 1-3 beta-glucan, 1-4 beta-glucan, and 1-6 beta-glucan, protein-bound PSK, and polysaccharide peptide (PSP).42 The target of numerous research investigations, PSK and PSP have anti-tumor effects and are used widely as biologic response modifiers in cancer chemotherapy regimens in Japan.43,44 In fact, PSP has been used throughout Asia as an adjunctive cancer treatment for the last 30 years. PSK has shown benefit in gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast, and lung cancer therapies.45


As a therapy, zinc has been suggested as a treatment for infertile male smokers by a study that investigated the mechanism of the zinc-cadmium relationship in the testes of laboratory animals.19 Smokers had increased seminal cadmium levels, decreased sperm counts and motility, and poor sperm morphology. Therapy with zinc improved sperm quality and increased seminal levels of interleukin-4 yet the therapy also decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma. When a zinc-deficient diet was fed to the animals, this allowed cadmium from cigarette smoke to accumulate in their testicles in similar amounts to that seen in animals that were given cadmium supplements.19 The investigators of this study stated that, because of the ability of zinc to elevate Th-2 cytokines and down-regulate Th-1 cytokines, zinc may modulate the putative effects of cadmium on spermatogenesis.

Value of Plants

According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the estimated export value of major plant commodities traded in world markets for 1998 was rice ( 9.9 billion dollars), maize ( 9.1 billion), wheat ( 15.1 billion), soybeans ( 9 billion), coffee greens and roast ( 13.7 billion), sugar ( 5.9 billion), tobacco ( 24.1 billion), cigarettes ( 15.4 billion), lint cotton ( 8.2 billion), forest products ( 123 billion), and forest pulp for paper ( 13 billion).

Alkaloid Parsimony

Cinchonine, ergotamine, harmaline, strychnine, berberine, colchicine, morphine, cocaine, caffeine, coniine, and nicotine, have been demonstrated to possess allelopathic activity, but many of the compounds possess additional ecological roles. In essence, these usually bitter and toxic alkaloids are also herbivore deterrents, and in many cases they possess antibacterial and antifungal activities.3 These examples of alkaloid parsimony are illustrative of the mutifunctionality of these compounds and serve to focus on the great adaptiveness of these nitrogen heterocycles.

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