Information about the macromolecules involved in metal tolerance and accumulation were obtained in the course of genetic studies. Specific knowledge emerged by applying different approaches: from isolation of proteins and clones of genes, to the high throughput techniques based on transcriptomics and proteomics (see Chap. 8, this book). Molecular differences between tolerant and non tolerant plants, or between accumulators and non-accumulators, can thus be hypothesized at all steps of the cellular processes from gene to protein and from protein to metabolite. Some of these observations are summarised in Table 2.
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