Info

(continued)

(continued)

Table 3 (continued)

Plants

Comparison

Main observation

Reference

T. caerulescens roots from accessions Lellingen and La Calamine

T. caerulescens and A. thaliana roots

T. caerulescens and A. thaliana roots

Zn-tolerant ccession from metalliferous soil vs non-tolerant accession from non-metalliferous soil

Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator vs non-accumulator at different Zn concentrations

Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator vs non-accumulator under Zn or Cd treatment

Higher expression in Zn Plessl et al. tolerant: Glycoprotein (2005)

EP1, sulfur metabolism,

High constitutive Van de expression in Mortel accumulator: metal et al.

homeostasis, abiotic (2006)

stress response, lignin biosynthesis High constitutive Van de expression in Mortel accumulator: metal et al.

transporters, lignin (2008)

biosynthesis, GSH synthesis, sulphate metabolism response to low and high Zn concentrations. Further experiments by Filatov et al. (2006) examined the differential gene expression between A. halleri and A. petraea, extending the observations to F3 families of the segregating progenies. Genes with higher expression in the accumulator plant were also highly expressed in the accumulator progenies, identifying the heritability of this trait. Other transcriptomic studies which identified several interesting candidate genes differentially expressed in the hyperaccumulator A. halleri were performed by Chiang et al. (2006), Talke et al. (2006); Weber et al. (2004, 2006). Hammond et al. (2006) showed the transcriptomes of T. caerulescens and T. arvense could be effectively analysed with A. thaliana gene chips. They showed differential expression for thousands of genes, including many involved in metal homeostasis. In 2006 and 2008, Van de Mortel et al. analysed gene expression in T. caerulescens in comparison to A. thaliana, identifying high levels of expression for several genes for metal transport, as ten genes of the ZIP family. Other genes with high levels of expression included transcription factors, enzymes of lignin biosynthesis, glutathione biosynthesis and sulphur metabolism. In particular, they demonstrate several differences in the transcription response to metal excess or deficiency.

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