Conclusion

Metal stress alters the plant cell redox state causing serious reversible and irreversible oxidative changes in the proteome. Nowadays, the information about the content and distribution of metals (Salt et al. 2008) together with the cell redox proteomics (Rinalducci et al. 2008) is beginning to shed light about the impact that biological and environmental relevant metal concentrations have on plant cells. The widespread occurrence of protein modifications, the selectivity in the oxidation, the existence of regenerative mechanism of oxidative modifications and the regulated control of proteolysis are indicating a key role of the process of protein oxidation in normal plant cell physiology and in the response to stress conditions. The idea is emerging that protein oxidative modifications, together with other post-translational modifications like protein glutathionylation, nitrosylation, or even ubiquitination, could have signalling ramifications (M0ller and Sweetlove 2010).

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