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Soil pH

FIGURE 4.6 Relationship between soil pH and exchangeable Ni (top left), organic matter associated (top right), and carbonate bound fractions of Ni and Cu (bottom left and right, respectively).

Soil pH

FIGURE 4.6 Relationship between soil pH and exchangeable Ni (top left), organic matter associated (top right), and carbonate bound fractions of Ni and Cu (bottom left and right, respectively).

(data not shown). Copper concentration in wheat seeds was significantly increased in all treatments containing fly ash and sewage sludge (Figure 4.7).

Molybdenum showed an unexpected trend in that its concentration was higher in the control (C) and the inorganic fertilizer treatment (IF) in which soil pH was lower, although one would expect the opposite behavior (Figure 4.7). Zinc, on the other hand, increased significantly from 20 mg kg-1 (in the control) to around 33 to 35 mg kg-1 (at FASS1 and FASS2 treatments) (Figure 4.8). Finally, Mn showed an unclear trend (Figure 4.8). Therefore, heavy metal accumulation in wheat

FIGURE 4.7 Influence of fly ash on the concentration of Cu and Mo in wheat grain. (Different letters on bars symbolizing the same parameter show significant difference at probability level P < 0.05.)

C IF FA1 FA2 FAS SI FASS2

Treatments

FIGURE 4.8 Influence of fly ash on the concentration of Mn and Zn in wheat grain. (Different letters on bars symbolizing the same parameter show significant difference at probability level P < 0.05.)

C IF FA1 FA2 FAS SI FASS2

Treatments

FIGURE 4.8 Influence of fly ash on the concentration of Mn and Zn in wheat grain. (Different letters on bars symbolizing the same parameter show significant difference at probability level P < 0.05.)

grain had no clear effect in all cases studied except for Zn and Cu, which clearly exhibited an increasing trend with increase in fly ash application rate.

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