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5.6 (2.1)a

Total Zn in mg kg-1(c)

645 (81)

1158 (216)

245 (179)

Total Cu in mg kg-1(c)

525 (62)

264 (43)

188 (158)

Total Cd in mg kg-1(c)

2.0 (0.4)

2.8 (0.7)

1.2 (0.7)

Soluble Zn in mg kg-1(c)

0.08 (0.03)

7.4 (5.9)

bdl

Soluble Cu in mg kg-1(c)

0.7 (0.2)

0.4 (0.1)

bdl

Soluble Cd in mg kg-1(c)

2.0 (0.6)

13 (11)

bdl

a 11 samples. b 3 samples.

c FAC, Methoden für die Bodenuntersuchungen, Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrikulturchemie und Umwelthygiene, Bern-Liebefeld, Switzerland, 1989. d bdl = below detection limit.

a 11 samples. b 3 samples.

c FAC, Methoden für die Bodenuntersuchungen, Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrikulturchemie und Umwelthygiene, Bern-Liebefeld, Switzerland, 1989. d bdl = below detection limit.

Note: Soil parameters are average values with standard deviations given in parentheses.

Sources: After Kayser, A. et al., Environ. Sci. Technol., 34, 1778, 2000 (Dornach and Caslano); Hammer, D. et al., Soil Use Manage., 19, 187, 2003 (Dornach and Caslano); Keller, C. et al., Plant Soil, 249, 67, 2003 (Dornach and Caslano); and Keller, C. et al., unpublished data, 1997-2004 (Les Abattes).

the site is used as a private garden and a meadow for fodder production. At both sites, the contaminated layer is between 0.20 and 0.60 m thick.

• The third experimental site was designed for forest rehabilitation and is located on the former landfill "Les Abattes" (Le Locle, Switzerland), in the Swiss Jura mountain chain. The 2-ha landfill was used for inert and uncontaminated waste material deposits [10], but the landfill was capped in 1990 with a final top layer (0.05 to 0.60 m thick) made up by a mixture in varying proportions of contaminated compost originating from contaminated sewage sludge and uncontaminated local calcareous soil and gravel (calcaric anthroposol). Thus, heavy metal concentrations in the final top layer were spatially highly variable as a consequence of the heterogeneous mixing of the components [8].

In addition, for illustration of some specific points, results from other soils are presented. The important characteristics of these soils are given together with the results.

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