Conclusion

The fluoride-enriched groundwater in the study area is a result of mixing the hot-spring water and normal groundwater as revealed from the principal component analysis. Two major factors that control the water chemistry are identified; the one associated with F-, HCO3-, and pH is the major one. Furthermore, cluster analysis classified the hydrochemical species into two identifiable categories: fluoride and pH with or without Na, Al, and Fe are related to the hot-spring activity; calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate contents in the water are mainly governed by the chemistry of the rocks.

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