Natural Cure for Cardiovascular Disease

The Big Heart Disease Lie

The Big Heart Disease Lie is a book written by doctors who are members of the International Truth In Medicine Council they are also the authors of The Big Diabetes Lie. In this book you will be getting over 500 pages of scientifically proven, doctor verified information that you will not find anywhere else, not even bookstores.If you have high blood pressure or cholesterol, fatigue, shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, swollen feet or ankles, chest pain, fainting, diabetes, asthma or allergies, pain, fatigue, inflammation, any troubling health issue, or simply want to discover the most powerful health and anti-aging program, then you really need to read this book. The book is a step by step guide that contains techniques scientifically verified and proven by doctors to reverse the symptoms of heart disease, and normalize blood pressure and cholesterol levels. These techniques have been used successfully by tens of thousands of people all over the world, and allowed them to take health into their own hands, ending the need for drugs, hospitals, doctors' visits, expensive supplements or grueling workouts. Read more here...

The Big Heart Disease Lie Summary

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Author: Andrew Clark
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Highly Recommended

The writer presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this manual are precise.

I give this ebook my highest rating, 10/10 and personally recommend it.

Flavonoids And Cardiovascular Diseases

Flavonoids compose the largest and the most studied group of plant phenolics. Over 4000 different flavonoids have been identified to date. Flavonoids are grouped into anthocyanins and anthoxanthins. Anthocyanins are glycosides of anthocyanidin, and they are the most important group of water-soluble plant pigments, responsible for the red, blue, and purple colors of flowers and fruits. Anthoxanthins are colorless or colored white-to-yellow, and include flavonols, flavanols, flavones, flavans, and isoflavones. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants, and their activity is related to their chemical structure.118,119 Plant flavonoids can act as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation,120,121 or of macrophage oxidation.122 Dietary consumption of flavonoids was shown to be inversely related to morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease.123 Moreover, an inverse association between flavonoid intake and subsequent occurrence of ischemic heart disease, or cerebrovascular disease, was...

Coffee And Cardiovascular Disease

In the United States, cardiovascular disease leads to one death every 33 seconds and contributes to 70 of total deaths annually. This makes identifying functional foods as potential modifiers of this disease prevalence an invaluable endeavor. Researchers have investigated whether green coffee bean extract (GCBE), which is rich in chlorogenic acid, may bejust such a disease modifier. In one study, two groups were created with 10 people ingesting a green coffee bean extract and 10 ingesting a placebo drink for four months. At the end of the study, the treatment group experienced significant decreases in total plasma homocysteine levels and improvements in vasoreactivity.32 The ability of GCBE to make an impact on these two independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease progression is significant.

Cardiovascular Disease Statistics

The 2002 World Report on Violence and Health published by the WHO (Geneva)4 lists ischemic heart disease as the top cause of death among its member states, accounting for 12.4 of all deaths in 2000.45 Cerebrovascular disease, or stroke, accounted for 9.2 of deaths.4 In Canada, cardiovascular disease accounted for 74,626 Canadian deaths (32 of all male deaths and 34 of all female deaths) in 2002.23 In the U.S.119 and Canada,23 stroke is the third leading cause of death after heart disease and cancer, accounting for close to 7 of all deaths. Each year approximately 500,000 Americans suffer a first stroke and another 200,000 experience a recurrent attack.1 Demographically, more women than men have a stroke increasing age and race (African Americans) increases the chance of suffering a stroke. Of the two types of stroke, 8 to 12 of ischemic strokes and 37 to 38 of hemorrhagic strokes result in death within 30 days, while one quarter of all stroke victims die within a year. Of the...

Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Diseases

There are several factors that increase the risk of developing CVD. These risk factors may be nonmodifiable, such as a family history of cardiovascular disease, race (black, aborginal), and age.1,3,19 However, many of the risk factors for heart attack and stroke are indeed modifiable with changes in behavior, drugs, or diet. Eighty percent of the Canadian population has at least one modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease.3 Smoking is the single most important cause of preventable illness and premature death for Canadians.3 Other risk factors that can be controlled are diabetes and obesity (or metabolic syndrome20,21), sedentary lifestyles, stress, hypertension,3,10 and dyslipidemia.3,8 Thus, the incidence of cardiovascular disease can be attenuated by increases in physical activity, smoking cessation, controlling diabetes with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, controlling hypertension with various antihypertensive drugs, cholesterol-lowering therapy with drugs, and...

Blood Lipids and Heart Disease

Inulins and fructooligosaccharides help maintain the health of the cardiovascular system and may reduce the risk of heart disease. A key factor in this is the maintenance or improvement of blood lipid composition, through decreases in triglycerides (triacylglycerols), and the lowering of cholesterol and homocysteine levels (Hidaka et al., 2001 Luo et al., 1996 Tungland, 2003). Convincing lipid-lowering effects have been demonstrated in animals (e.g., Delzenne et al., 1993 Fiordaliso et al., 1995 Kok et al., 1998 Trautwein et al., 1998). Rats on inulin-rich diets, for example, had lower blood cholesterol and total lipid levels than control animals, while reductions in serum triglycerides were reported for rats on diets containing 5 to 20 fructooligosaccharides (Roberfroid, 1993). However, the situation is less clear-cut for humans, where higher inulin doses (over 30 gday-1) can produce adverse gastrointestinal symptoms (Williams, 1999). Some human studies have found no effects, while a...

Heart Disease

Ischemic heart disease (coronary artery disease) is the most common spectrum of heart disease.1-6 It develops gradually as the coronary arteries supplying blood to the heart become progressively blocked with atherosclerotic plaque, a combination of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL), inflammatory cells (macrophages), smooth muscle cells, and debris1218 (see other chapters). Eventually, blood supply may become completely interrupted by plaque, or more commonly by a coronary thrombosis (blood clot) when plaque ruptures, precipitating a heart attack (myocar-dial infarction, MI).18 As ischemia continues for several minutes, the myocardium is deprived of oxygen and muscle cells may die, leading to permanent damage to heart tissue, heart failure, or sudden death. Other heart disorders include arrhythmias (dysfunction of the electrical conduction system of the heart) valve disorders and congestive heart failure. The pain or discomfort associated with advanced ischemic heart disease is...

Coping Mechanisms For Stress And Disease

Personality and temperament play a role in modulating the stress response and help explain why individuals with certain personality traits are more prone to acquiring stress-related diseases. Individuals with the Type A personality are described as competitive, impatient, and exhibit time urgency and intense achievement drive. Numerous studies have confirmed that this personality type is an independent risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease and have increased related morbidity and mortality.56 More recentstudies indicate that hostility is more predictive than the Type A personality profile for acquiring stress-related disease. Researchers have demonstrated a 35 increase risk of cardiovascular events in women with higher scores on hostility inventories when adjusting for other risk factors.57 Increased mortality in younger individuals with diagnosed coronary artery disease isalso associated with hostility.58 Studies indicate that hostile individualsexhibit increased levels...

Nutraceuticals For Treating Adrenocortical Dysfunction

B vitamins, such as pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, thiamine, and cobalamin, have been shown to improve aspects of the stress response and stress-related disease. Pyridoxine, or vitamin B6, is required for amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism. Pyridoxine has been shown by numerous studies to modulate the stress response. Animal studies indicate that pyridoxine deficiency causes hypertension and increased sympathetic stimulation and decreased serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and pyridoxal phosphate. Pyridoxine supplementation in these animals reversed these finding demonstrating normal GABA, serotonin, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels.116 Vitamin B6 is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Low levels of pyridoxal 5 -phosphate, the active form of vitamin B6, is associated with elevation in the inflammatory marker CRP independent of homocysteine levels.117 Low levels of vitamin B6, B12, and folate are associated with increased homocysteine and...

Preface to the Series

I always look forward to the journal HerbalGram (HG), of the American Botanical Council, which was founded by Mark Blumenthal in 1988. He continues as the Executive Director and as the Editor of HG. In it he regularly justifies the status of a medicinal plant and challenges official bodies when necessary. In HG Number 80 (2008), he tells the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to rescind the 1991IMPORT ALERT on the herb stevia (Vol. 19 in this series) because the United Nations and the World Health Organization have concluded that stevia extract, containing 95 stevia glycosides, is safe for human use as a sweetening agent, in the range 4 mg kg body weight per day. This has paved the way for regulatory approval around the world for the use of this low-cost noncaloric material and notably for those obese persons facing cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Health Effects Of Sleep Apnea

Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease Sleep apnea increases the levels of many inflammatory markers, which may be one of the mechanisms by which it affects cardiovascular health. An example is C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker correlated with atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. A study performed on males with OSA showed a direct correlation between an increasing AHI and increasing CRP levels.19 Coronary artery disease

Niacin and Other B Vitamins

Niacin (vitamin B3) is a water-soluble vitamin. The FDA has approved the use of high-dose niacin for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Numerous studies have verified the efficacy of niacin for this purpose. In one study, dyslipidemic patients were supplemented with time-released nicotinic acid (mean 1,297 mg per day) for a mean duration of 7.4 months. HDL levels increased a mean of 18 , total cholesterol concentrations decreased 9 , the ratio of total cholesterol HDL decreased 25 , LDL cholesterol levels decreased 13 , and triglyceride levels decreased by 20 .34 Niacin is frequently prescribed in addition to statin therapy. Studies show that adding prolonged-release nicotinic acid to statin therapy in patients at increased cardiovascular risk increased HDL cholesterol by 23 , decreased triglycerides by 15 , and decreased LDL by 4 .35 The most common side effect reported was flushing. When examining lipid subclasses, the most atherogenic appear to be the small, dense LDL and large VLDL...

Markers Of Inflammation Creactive Protein and Fibrinogen

CRP, an emerging marker of CHD risk, is a nonspecific acute-phase reactant protein for which the concentration in serum becomes increased in response to inflammatory stimuli. Studies show that CRP is notjust a marker of inflammation it also acts as a mediator that amplifies the inflammatory cascade. High values are noted in early bacterial infections, active rheumatoid disease, Crohn's disease, acute myocardial infarction, and following trauma. In patients with ischemic chest pain, elevated CRP is associated with a negative prognosis upon hospital admission. In seemingly healthy individuals, elevated CRP indicates an increased risk of atherosclerotic disease and reflects a chronic nonspecific inflammatory process in the body, This being said, complementary and alternative practitioners view CRP as yet another risk factor for CVD in patients who do not manifest the other pathologies that cause elevated CRP. The strong association between elevated CRP and cardiovascular disease supports...

Treatments For Inflammation Nattokinase and Serrapeptase

Serrapeptase is a proteolytic enzyme originally isolated from the silkworm. It has antiinflammatory and fibrinolytic activity and decreases swelling. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study demonstrated that serrapeptase supplementation rapidly decreased inflammation and decreased symptoms in a group of patients suffering from ENT symptoms.61 Although there are no current studies with serrapeptase and cardiovascular disease, it may provide benefit for decreasing inflammation associated with these conditions.

Dietary Interventions

Dietary interventions can be an important modality in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The traditional Mediterranean diet has been shown to benefit individuals with cardiovascular disease. It is characterized by moderate energy intake, low animal fat, high fish intake, high olive oil, high cereals, high legumes, nuts and vegetables, and regular and moderate wine intake. In a recent randomized, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial, 372 subjects at high cardiovascular risk were assigned to a low-fat diet, a traditional Mediterranean diet plus virgin olive oil, or traditional Mediterranean diet plus nuts. After three months, the mean oxidized LDL levels decreased in both Mediterranean diet groups, while no changes in oxidized LDL was seen in the low-fat diet group.82 Another study examined the effect of the Mediterranean diet in individuals with a high risk of cardiovascular disease on cardiovascular inflammatory markers. The study showed that a higher consumption of fruits...

Health aspects of carotenoids

In human nutrition, carotenoids play an important role as a source of provitamin A. In the gastrointestinal tract 3-carotene gets converted to vitamin A, which plays an important role in the regulation of vision, growth and reproduction (Ong and Choo, 1997). More recently, however, the protective effects of carotenoids against serious disorders such as cancer (Peto et al., 1981 Shekelle et al., 1981), heart disease, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, oral tumours and degenerative eye disease have been recognized, and have stimulated intensive research into the role of carotenoids as antioxidants and as regulators of the immune response system. The antioxidant property of 3-carotene by its effective radical trapping was studied by Burton and Ingold (1984). Kunert and Tappel (1983) reported the efficient reduction of lipid peroxidation by prior treatment with 3-carotene in guinea pigs.

Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid

One potentially emerging biomarker for risk of Alzheimer's disease could be blood levels of homocysteine. In a study of 164 patients with clinical diagnoses of dementia of the Alzheimer's type and 108 controls, the patients with Alzheimer's disease had significantly higher levels of total homocysteine and significantly lower levels of serum vitamin B12 and folate compared to controls.44 In addition, a follow-up for three years of the subjects with Alzheimer's disease showed a correlation between the progression of the disease measured radiographically and the level of homocysteine seen at the beginning of the study. Additional studies have shown that higher folate intake may decrease the risk of Alzheimer's disease independent of other risk factors and levels of vitamins B6 and B12.45 Such research may underscore the importance of maintaining a healthy vasculature throughout the whole body. Indeed, as we learn more about the involvement of vascular health as it relates to dementia, we...

Steroids are synthesized from farnesyl pyrophosphate

A class of glucosylated steroids, named saponins because of their soaplike properties (Fig. 17.12), functions in plants as toxins against herbivores and fungi. The glucosyl moiety of the saponins consists of a branched oligosaccharide built from glucose, galactose, xylose, and other hexoses. The hydrophilic polysaccharide chain and the hydrophobic steroid give the saponins the properties of a detergent. Saponins are toxic, as they dissolve the plasma membranes of fungi and cause hemolysis of the red blood cells in animals. Some grasses contain saponins and are therefore a hazard for grazing cattle. Yamonin, a saponin from the yam plant (Dioscorea), is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a precursor for the synthesis of progesterones, a component of contraceptive pills. A number of very toxic glucosylated steroids called cardenolides, which inhibit the Na+ K+ pump present in animals, also belong to the saponins. A well-known member of this class of compounds is digitoxigenin (Fig....

Processing and Products

The global goal for soybean processing and utilization is to strengthen the development of new food, feed, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and industrial products, including co-products and ingredients for speciality applications. As of now, soybean derivatives are gaining importance not only in nutritious food products, but also as sources of phytochemicals and nutraceuticals to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes and so on. The emphasis in the non-food or industrial products markets is on biodegradable adhesives, plastics, coatings, inks, lubricants, biodiesel and more.

Mechanisms Of Stroke Damage

Ischemic stroke is thought to be the product of atherosclerotic plaque inflammation followed by plaque rupture and thrombosis (with or without embolism), which occludes cerebral arteries.19,22-25 Platelet activation is a crucial mechanism in arterial thrombogenesis and therefore in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke.23 Accordingly, antiplatelet therapy plays a central role in prevention of ischemic stroke. Despite many experimental studies, there is as yet no generally accepted effective treatment in the acute phase of stroke.

Nitric Oxide A Powerful Clinical Therapy

Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas that has significant effects on many physiologic processes in the body. This gas plays a role in inflammation, the immune response, and neurotransmission in the brain, as well as in the functioning of the cardiovascular system. Dysfunction in the NO pathway is associated with many diseases. Conditions such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes, hypertension, erectile dysfunction, and stroke are correlated with NO pathology. Current research suggests that manipulation of NO activity may have profound effects on overall health. Many pharmaceuticals as well as nutrients, supplements, and diet are being investigated and prescribed to modulate NO activity.

When There Is Not Enough No

NO deficiencies in the body may present as a variety of different health conditions. Most commonly, individuals with low levels of NO will have signs and symptoms of cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, CAD, and stroke. In addition, NO deficiency can present as inflammatory conditions or erectile dysfunction. Because NO produced by white blood cells is bacteriocidal and tumoricidal, individuals with deficiencies may present with infections and possibly malignancies. Because of their physiologic effects on the body, manipulation of NO levels can provide avenues for health modification. Cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke, hypertension, and CAD can be attenuated by increases in NO synthesis and activity. Anemia, cancer, diabetes, and erectile dysfunction can also be ameliorated by NO manipulation. Both natural therapies and pharmaceuticals can augment NO bioavailability. Erectile dysfunction is significantly increased in individuals with...

Pharmaceuticals That Affect No Levels

While there are clearly a large number of natural therapies that can address NO dysfunctions, there are also pharmaceuticals that are aimed at the problem. Nitroglycerin, sodium ni-troprusside, and other nitrates and nitrites increase NO in the endothelium and cause vasodilation of the arteries. These drugs are used to treat hypertensive crisis, angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Tadalafil (Cialis), vardenafil (Levitra), and sildenafil (Viagra) are pharmaceuticals prescribed for erectile dysfunction. They are phosphodiesterase inhibitors that cause vasodilation and hypotension. They are contraindicated for patients who are taking nitrates because NO increases cGMP by activating the enzyme guanyl cyclase and phosphodiesterase metabolizes cGMP. In other words, the enhancement of NO activity by pharmaceuticals may potentiate the effects of the nitrates.67 It is prudent to use these pharmaceuticals cautiously, especially with patients who have leukemia,...

Flavonoids And Vitamin C

Administered in combination with a flavonoid-rich citrus extract, ascorbate was absorbed by an increased 35 over ascorbate that was administered alone.29 Another investigation demonstrated the antioxidative abilities of soy (Glycine soja) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) extracts, both of which have flavonoids as main active ingredients.30 The two extracts had notable antioxidant capability as expressed by decreased LDL oxidation however, when acerola cherry (Malpighia glabra) extract (which is rich in ascorbic acid) was added, the antioxidative effect was enhanced further. The investigators concluded that ascorbate could enhance the activity of flavonoid-rich antioxidants. It was suggested that this synergistic activity was the result of the peroxidolitic action of ascorbic acid complemented by flavonoid-induced stabilization of the LDL in this particular study and the suppression of free-radical species propagation. This research team also noted that the combination decreased the...

Common Nutrient Depletions Caused By Pharmaceuticals

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a common prescription for menopausal women. These estrogen progestin combinations are used to decrease symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, sleep disturbances, and fatigue. In the United States, from 1999 to 2002, approximately 15 million women were on HRT, accounting for 90 million prescriptions per year.2 The Women's Health Initiative study was widely publicized in 2002 this study demonstrated that HRT increases the risk of coronary heart disease, breast cancer, and strokes.3 Following the publication of the study, HRT prescriptions decreased by approximately 32 in 2003.4 Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) also contain estrogen progestin combinations. OCPs have been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular events as well as breast, cervical, and liver cancer.5,6

Applications of modified levels of plant PDglucans

Officinarum), while numerous forage and fodder grass species support the production of sheep, cattle and other domesticated livestock. Maize (Zea mays) is also used widely for animal feed, while switchgrass (Panicum virga-tum) and other perennial grasses are showing considerable promise as future biomass energy crops in North America (McLaren 2005 Burton et al. 2006 ). In the areas of human health, the (1,3 1,4)-P -d- glucans are components of dietary fibre that are highly beneficial in the prevention and treatment of serious human health conditions, including colorectal cancer, high serum cholesterol and cardiovascular disease, obesity, and non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes (Brennan & Cleary 2005). In contrast, (1,3 1,4)-P-d-glucans have antinutritive effects in monogastric animals such as pigs and poultry (Brennan & Cleary 2005), and are important in many cereal processing applications, including malting and brewing.

Plants Having Stimulating Effects

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, family Solanaceae) leaves are smoked or chewed to act as a stimulant, depressant, or tranquilizer. Tobacco with the addictive alkaloid nicotine is perhaps the most physiologically damaging substance generally used by humans. Its use is a direct cause of lung and other cancers, coronary artery disease, and emphysema.

Reasons for increases in the price of soybean products

Declined slightly in response to increasing dietary health and livestock-related food safety concerns. Soybean is perceived as having health benefits that address these concerns. In the USA, the Federal Food and Drug Administration allows foods containing 5 g of soybean protein per serving to be labelled as reducing heart disease (Ash et al., 2006). The use of high amounts of soy protein (soy isoflavones) in fortified foods and supplements for the prevention of osteoporosis is growing rapidly.

Strategies for Preventing Metabolic Syndrome

However, one does not need to look far for the basic causes of metabolic syndrome. All four conditions (obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperinsulinemia) can be linked to one related cause poor dietary choices, namely, imbalanced consumption of simple carbohydrates. Thus, the main treatment for metabolic syndrome is dietary therapy. One study in women with a family history of cardiovascular disease, following a low-GI diet for four weeks, resulted in increased insulin sensitivity after a glucose challenge and increased glucose uptake in isolated fat cells. Even in lean young adults, a low-GI diet reduced muscle triglycerides, a marker of insulin resistance.12 In addition, consuming high levels of high-glycemic carbohydrates causes enhanced appetite and a tendency to overeat.13,14 However, a complete reversal of consuming refined carbohydrates and saturated fats and switching to a complex carbohydrate, protein-rich diet with healthy fatty-acid ratios is not likely to...

Conium Maculatum Phytoremediation

Haustorium haustoria, 2 180, 3 45, 110, 111, 118 Hawaiian Islands, 2 4, 3 92, 4 31 endangered species hot spot, 1 69 invasive species, 3 49 plants of, 1 101 species diversity, 1 78-79 threatened plants, 1 71 Hawk moths, 1 114, 3 178-179, 4 8 Hay fever, 3 174 Head (inflorescence type), 3 38 Heart disease, 3 11, 70, 71-72, 172 Heartwood, 4 172 Heather family. See Ericaceae Heaths, tundra species, 4 138 Heat stress, adaptations, 4 80

Fatty Acid Desaturases

Currently, industries that manufacture shortening, margarine, and confectionery products use considerable amounts of stearate (18 0) produced mainly from partially hydrogenated plant oils (Facciotti et al., 1999). Hydrogenation not only adds extra cost, but also generates significant amounts of trans-fatty acids which have been associated with an elevated risk of heart disease (Katan et al., 1995 Nelson, 1998 Facciotti et al., 1999). Industries manufacturing shortenings and confectionery products could benefit from oil crops that accumulate high levels of stearate. However, stearate (18 0) does not naturally accumulate to abundant levels in most cultivated oil crops including soybeans, and the production of a high-stearate phenotype has only had modest success so far through conventional breeding and mutagenesis techniques (Facciotti et al., 1999). Although stearic acid (18 0) is one of the major saturated fatty acids in most seed oils, its percentages vary among the different oilseed...

Sexhormone Binding Globulin

Levels of sex-hormone binding globulin, as previously mentioned, play a role in numerous conditions. Low levels are associated with hormone-related conditions such as breast cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome, and insulin resistance. Furthermore, decreased levels of this protein are associated with cardiovascular risk factors as well. A recent study showed that low SHBG is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, increased triglycerides, and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in men and women. In women, decreased SHBG was also associated with elevated apolipoprotein B and diabetes.10 SHBG has also been shown to inhibit the estradiol-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells.11

Role Of Pomegranate Fruit Phytochemicals In Bioactivity

And atherosclerotic, apolipoprotein E-deficient (E0) mice. The authors demonstrated that PJ consumption has antiatherogenic properties with respect to all three related components of atherosclerosis it significantly affected plasma lipoproteins, arterial macrophages, and blood platelets, all of which was attributed to the effects of the PJ's antioxidant constituents, specifically to a fraction containing ellagitannins.54 In another study, Aviram and Dornfeld55 tested the effect of PJ consumption by hypertensive patients on their blood pressure and on serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. Hypertension is a known risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, whereas inhibitors of ACE, an enzyme facilitating the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, have been shown to attenuate the development of atherosclerosis in several animal studies.56 PJ consumption for 2 weeks caused a minimal reduction in blood pressure, but significantly decreased ACE activity by 36...

Natural Treatments For Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X or cardiovascular metabolic syndrome, is comprised of hyperlipidemia (elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol), central (abdominal) obesity, hypertension, and concomitant insulin re-sistance glucose intolerance. Although no specific cause-and-effect relationship has been established, the outcomes of these associative factors are significantly increased risks for developing diabetes and heart disease. Eric S. Freedland, M.D., a senior editor of Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders1 based in Boston, Massachusetts, notes that the escalating worldwide epidemic of metabolic syndrome affects each of us either directly or indirectly. It demands multidisciplinary efforts and cooperation to e nsure better understanding of its causes and to develop effective approaches to preventing and treating its associated conditions.'' Using a sample of 3,477 Mexican-American, 3,305 African-American, and 5,581...

Adhesion Requires Integrins Rac and

Downstream of integrins, two specific Rho GTPases, Rac and Rho, cause cell spreading and then adhesion by working in opposition. Rac promotes cell spreading through lamellipodia extension, Rho inhibits lamellipodia extension and promotes cell contractility (Xu et al. 2003). Because of the importance of cell spreading and adhesion to cardiovascular disease and cancer, much of the elucidation of the roles of Rac and Rho has been done in mammalian cells. As Rho GTPases and their downstream components have been found not only in Drosophila, but also in organisms as diverse as protozoans (Arias-Romero et al. 2006 De Melo et al. 2006), yeast (Barale et al. 2006), and Arabidopsis (Gu et al. 2006), it seems likely that these cellular functions are conserved.

Medicinal Uses Of Crown Of Pineapple

Abdullah, H. and Rohaya, M.A. (1983) The development of black heart disease in Mauritius pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Mauritius) during storage at lower temperatures. MARDI Research Bulletin 11, 309-319. enzymatique de fruit translucide. Fruits 49, 83-91. Sun, S.-K. (1971) A study of black heart disease of the pineapple fruits. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan 13, 39-48.

Current research on dietary phytochemicals

Research shows that fruits and vegetables are powerful defenders of our health. Research supporting a critical role for fruits and vegetables in good health grows stronger all the time. Scientists now agree that fruits and vegetables should be the foundation of a healthy diet. Phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables can also help reduce your risk of many chronic diseases including cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, stroke and other diseases.

Nutritional and Economic Benefits

The US Food and Drug Administration has approved a health claim stating that 25 g of soy protein in a daily diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol can help reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (FDA, 1999). Various research studies undertaken the world over have indicated that the inclusion of soy foods in the daily diet not only provides good-quality protein, but also helps prevent diseases such as diabetes, breast cancer, osteoporosis, heart attack and memory loss (Holt, 1998 Patricia and Newton, 1998 Messina, 2002 SOPA, 2002). The use of whole-bean-based food provides all of the nutritional benefits that soybean offers and, when included in a diet with cereals, the food provides an excellent source of nutrition.

Ge Gen As A Dietary Supplement

Ge Gen Zhou (Kudzu and rice soup) There are three modifications to the soup for different conditions. For thirsting (diabetic), coronary heart disease, angina pectoris and chronic diarrhea, Ge Gen (30 g) and rice (50 g) are cooked untill it turns sticky. For hypertension, Sha Shen (Radix adenophorae, 30 g) and Mai Dong (Radix ophiopogon, 30 g) are added to make soup. For child cold with fever, headache and vomiting, take 15 g of Ge Gen, 50 g of rice and 6g of ginger to make soup.

Phytochemical and Nutritional Prevention and Treatment

According to the American Heart Association 2004 data, it is estimated that 79,400,000 American adults, approximately 1 in 3, had some form of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These CVDs include hypertension, stroke, and coronary heart disease, including angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Individually, 72,000,000 people had hypertension 7,900,000 suffered from acute myocardial infarction 8,900,000 people experienced angina pectoris 5,200,000 had heart failure, and 5,600,000 had strokes.1 In 2004, CVD was the underlying cause of death in 36.3 of deaths, or 1 in every 2.8 deaths, with over 147,000 deaths in Americans under age 65.2 It is not only an equal-opportunity killer for both men and women, it also decreases quality of life. The heart beats 103,680 times a day for a person with a pulse of 72 beats per minute. Even more amazing is the fact that the human body is comprised of 75 trillion cells that are nourished by 60,000 miles of blood vessels. Indeed, any given cell in the...

The Aging Process

Aging is undeniably related to lowered androgen levels. Compared to female menopause in which hormone levels are attenuated in a much narrower period of time over 5-10 years, andropause is marked by a more gradual decline of androgens. Because of the gradual nature of the decline, other phrases, such as androgen decline in aging males'' (ADAM) or alternative partial androgen decline in aging males'' are used because the decline does not result in complete deficiency. When androgen levels are low enough to become symptomatic, this condition is then called andropause,9 which is technically defined as the natural cessation of the sexual function in older men. The decline of testosterone in males that occurs with aging is associated with an increase in FSH and LH, albeit to a much lesser extent than seen in women. A low testosterone level with a transient rise in LH is suggestive of age-related impairment of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH).10 Because testosterone has only a...

Editors

Seeram, Ph.D. is assistant director of the UCLA Center for Human Nutrition and adjunct assistant professor at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles. His doctorate, in natural product chemistry, was obtained from the University of the West Indies and he conducted postdoctoral research at the Bioactive Natural Products and Phytoceuticals Laboratory at Michigan State University. In addition to his membership in numerous professional societies, Dr. Seeram serves on several scientific advisory boards and on editorial boards of scientific journals. His research has been widely reported in peer-reviewed journals, book chapters, and trade magazines and he is regularly invited to speak at national and international scientific conferences. He has 15 years of experience in phytochemicals and his research interests are currently focused on the evaluation of foods, spices, and herbal medicines in laboratory, animal, and human studies, for the...

Common Denominators

The cardiovascular link to sexual satisfaction makes sense because sufficient blood flow for both men and women is critical to optimal functioning. Both male and female erectile tissues are more sensitive and responsive to stimuli when these tissues are optimally perfused. When one also considers that an estimated 43 of every 100 Americans die from cardiovascular conditions, it is not surprising that focusing on this aspect of underlying health can yield some substantial rewards in the area of sexual satisfaction. Examine this statistic more closely If 43 of Americans have such progressive deterioration of their vascular systems that this literally kills them, one can easily extrapolate this number to an even higher percentage of people that have lesser but varying degrees of heart disease, which also affects sexual function. Thus, it is not surprising that the blood flow to the sex organs also decreases, ultimately diminishing the ability to function. This plight of the Western...

Lipid Levels

The standard lipid panel provides information about plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol. However, a patient who scores within the average ranges for these parameters should take little comfort because being average, in this case, means a greater than 50 likelihood of dying of heart disease. Other lipids and lipid-related cardiovascular risk factors include Apolipoprotein A-1, Apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein(a). Apolipoprotein A-1 is the major protein constituent of HDL cholesterol and is responsible for the activation of two enzymes that are necessary for the formation of HDL. This may be an important factor in the relationship between HDL levels and the incidence of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein B is the major protein found in LDL cholesterol. Studies suggest that this protein plays an important role in targeting the...

Fibrinogen

Fibrinogen is independently, consistently, and vigorously associated with risk of CVD, based on multiple prospective epidemiologic studies and clinical observations.51 The reasons for elevation of fibrinogen in CVD are not well-elucidated yet however, it has been speculated that cellular components involved in the atherosclerotic process produce cytokines that induce an acute-phase reaction, leading to increased fibrinogen levels. Fibrinogen plays several roles in the cardiovascular system such as forming the substrate for thrombin and represents the final step in the coagulation cascade, is essential for platelet aggregation, modulates endothelial function, promotes smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and interacts with the binding of plasmin with its receptor.52 The role of fibrinogen in the etiology of CVD is yet to be completely determined. Even so, fibrinogen is an important cardiovascular disease marker. With the knowledge that CRP and fibrinogen are signatures of...

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is another widely researched adjunctive therapy, with various effects throughout the body and on inflammatory diseases. Vitamin E exists as eight different forms including four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. A powerful antioxidant with several antiatherogenic effects, much attention has been focused on vitamin E in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin E exerts beneficial effects on LDL oxidation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and CRP levels.64 Providing patients with 1,200 international units (IU) per day of alpha-tocopherol significantly lowered interleukin-6 and hsCRP levels in a five-month study.65 Other studies have shown a direct dose-response effect of up to 1,200 IU of vitamin E on anti-inflammatory effects and inhibition of CRP.66 In another study, 1,200 IU of vitamin E reduced elevated CRP levels by 33 in control subjects who were nondiabetic and by 25 in patients with type 2 diabetes after three months of supplementation.45 A similar...

Homocysteine

Associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, elevated plasma levels of the amino acid homocysteine are affected by genetic, physiologic, and nutritional factors. Increased homocysteine levels are considered to be, collectively, an independent predictor for atherosclerosis and thromboembolism and are correlated with significant risk of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular occlusive disease, cerebral vascular occlusive disease, and retinal vascular disease.77 Research has also shown that elevated homocysteine is associated with an increase risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, cognitive impairment, pregnancy complications, and osteoporosis.78 The association between homocysteinemia and CVD is causal, because an increase in plasma homocysteine precedes the onset of cardiovascular disease.79 Desirable plasma levels are below 10 mmol L. The plasma concentration ranges for mild, moderate, and severe homocysteinemia are, respectively 15-25 25-50...

Heavy Metals

Physiologic, psychologic, and pathologic stressors may interfere with metabolic homeostasis and cause excess toxic burdens. Numerous disease processes and stressors can result in dysfunction of normally functioning, sufficient pathways. Oxidative, physiologic, and psychologic stressors can contribute to such impairments. Such stressors can result in direct increases in free-radical production as a result of altered biochemical pathways shunted to cope with such stressors. As a consequence of these altered biochemical pathways, over the course of time, disease processes can take hold within the body. These disease processes can also have devastating consequences, such as those that arise from diabetes mellitus, including glycosylation of proteins and accumulation of sorbitol. Advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs) can be ingested in the diet generally in the form of foods undergoing prolonged heating, particularly fats, meat and meat-substitutes, and broiled foods.2 Studies show...

Alliaceae

Many Allium species are also grown as ornamentals including A. gigan-teum, A. christophii, A. karataviense, A. aflatunense, A. caeruleum, the nodding onion (A. cernuum), the yellow-flowered A. moly, and the interspecific cultivar Globemaster. A few Allium species are also noxious weeds in some parts of the world (e.g., A. vineale and A. triquetrum). The consumption of garlic has been shown to significantly reduce both blood levels of cholesterol and the chance of coronary heart disease. Evidence also suggests that garlic has anticancer and antibiotic properties and can reduce hypertension and blood clotting. Other alliums, particularly onion, have some of the same health benefits of garlic, but effects vary widely between species. see also Economic Importance of Plants Monocots.

Etiology

Researchers have found a genetic correlation in endometriosis development. Women who have first-degree relatives with the disease have 10 times the risk of developing endometriosis.3 In addition, women with family histories of endometriosis are statistically more likely to experience an earlier onset and increased severity of the disease.4 Recent studies suggest oxidative stress, environmental toxin exposure, and immune dysfunction as possible factors in the onset and progression of endometriosis. Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as dioxin and polychlo-rinated biphenyls (PCBs), which have adverse clinical effects on the immune and endocrine systems, have been associated with endometriosis. For example, several studies on monkeys have demonstrated a direct correlation between dioxin exposure and endometriosis. In these studies, the amount of dioxin exposure was correlated with severity of disease. The monkeys showed immune system dysfunction similar to the immune abnormalities seen in...

Uses of carotenoids

Carotenoids are important in human nutrition as a source of vitamin A (eg. from 3-carotene) and as a preventive agent for cancer and heart disease. In addition, carotenoids add colour to foods and beverages (eg. orange juice). And in addition, carotenoids are the precursors of many important chemicals responsible for the flavour of foods and the fragrance of flowers. Carotenoids have been considered important only as precursors of vitamin A. However, there has been significant interest in the evaluation of carotenoids for roles that are unrelated to their conversion to vitamin A. Recent studies have emphasized the role of carotenoids in disease prevention. When ingested they have shown important biological functions, such as antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging (Hornero-Mendez et al., 2000).

Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), one of the better-studied supplements with regard to hypertension, also plays a crucial role in energy protection and performance of the myocardium. The clinical literature reports on the hypertensive benefits of CoQ10 go back as early as the mid 1970s, with an early study on five patients with essential hypertension who also had deficient activity of the CoQ10-dependent enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase-CoQ10 reductase.6 Four of the five patients experienced significant reductions in blood pressure when given CoQ10 for three to five months. In a more recent trial, 26 patients with essential hypertension were given 50 mg of CoQ10, two times per day for 10 weeks.7 At the end of the 10 weeks, the subjects' average systolic blood pressure had dropped from 164 mmHg to 146 mmHg, and their average diastolic blood pressure had decreased from 98 mmHg to 86 mmHg, a significant and relevant decrease. As an indication of this supplement's effect on total heart health, total...

Tobacco

Tobacco leaves are covered with trichomes (hairs) that have multicellular glands on their tips. These glandular trichomes produce a sticky resinous material that contains many of the flavor and aroma components. Tobacco also produces many internal, secondary components, including pyridine alkaloids. The most important alkaloid is nicotine, which acts as a stimulant to the user and is addictive. Nicotine is quite toxic, and products containing nicotine were used as early insecticides. The adverse health effects of smoking, including nicotine addiction and the increased risks of cancer, emphysema, and heart attack, are well documented.

Periwinkle

Vinpocetine is another cognitive enhancer. It is derived from vincamine, a constituent of common periwinkle (Vinca minor). One study investigated 12-week oral vinpocetine therapy and blood flow parameters in patients with ischemic stroke and mild cognitive impairment both in resting conditions or following chemical stimulus, as well as the severity of mental deterioration. The results showed that vinpocetine treatment increased the blood flow velocity in resting conditions compared to baseline in the vascular group. The percent increase of mean velocity after the breath holding transcranial Doppler test showed a significant increase compared to the baseline in both ischemic stroke and mild cognitive impairment groups after 12 weeks of vinpocetine supplementation. Also, there was both objective and subjective significant improvement of cognitive functions with vinpocetine supplementation.31 Meta-analysis of three studies involving a total of 583 people with dementia treated with...

Blood Lipids

The important role of high-serum cholesterol, especially a high level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, as a risk factor for coronary artery disease is well established,60,61 and lowering of serum LDL levels reduces the risk for major coronary events.62-64 On the contrary, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) constitute an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD).65-67 Epide-miological studies have shown an inverse correlation between serum HDL concentration and CVD risk.68 HDL protects against cardiovascular disease,69 70 and recent studies have elucidated the molecular mechanisms for its action.7172 HDL has been proposed to decrease CVD by stimulating reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), a process by which HDL carries excess cholesterol from peripheral cells, including foam cells in the coronary artery, back to the liver for its removal from the body.73 Beyond reverse cholesterol transport, HDL was also shown to protect LDL from Several lines of...

Oxidative Stress

The oxidative modification of lipoproteins hypothesis of atherosclerosis proposes that LDL oxidation plays a pivotal role in early atherogenesis.82-92 This hypothesis is supported by evidence that LDL oxidation indeed occurs in vivo93 and contributes to the clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis. The uptake of Ox-LDL via scavenger receptors promotes cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation,94,95 the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. In addition, Ox-LDL atherogenicity is related to recruitment of monocytes to the intima,96 stimulation of monocyte adhesion to the endothelium,97 and its cytotoxicity toward arterial cells.98,99 The process of LDL oxidation appears to occur within the artery wall, and all major cells of the artery wall, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and monocyte-derived macrophages can oxidize LDL.100,101 Macrophage-mediated oxidation of LDL is a key event during early atherogenesis102 and requires the binding of LDL to the macrophage LDL...

Exercise

Physical activity is quite possibly the single most important preventative choice among patients whose diseases and conditions arise from a sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary lifestyle is one of the main risk factors for multiple chronic disease conditions today and sedentary death syndrome was identified and named to describe the growing life-threatening health problems caused by this lifestyle. Exercise remains the most effective therapy for preventing and reversing insulin resistance.42 The literature contains numerous references citing how effectively exercise ameliorates cardiovascular risk factors (low HDL cholesterol, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia) and mitigates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance.43 Regular exercise causes a loss of abdominal body fat in a preferential fashion (increased abdominal girth is used as a quantifying factor in diagnosing metabolic syndrome), and can increase resting fatty-acid metabolism.44 Exercise has produced improvement of...

Testosterone

Restoring testosterone levels can improve athletic performance but should be considered only for individuals with low testosterone levels. Side effects of supra-physiologic doses of testosterone can be severe, including liver disease, low sperm counts, changes in mood and behavior, increased hematocrit levels and prostate-specific antigens, decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and adverse changes in thyroid hormones.52,53 Unfavorable cardiovascular changes can occur, such as left-ventricular hypertrophy, which remain after discontinuing testosterone supplementation.54 Androgen precursors to testosterone, such as androstenediol and androstenedione, have also been studied. A study on adult males with normal testosterone levels during high-intensity resistance training found that supplementation with these products initially increased testosterone but that these levels returned to baseline within 16 weeks. In addition,...

Role in Animals

Animal products and tissues containing vitamin A, which has no color, often contain carotenoids as well. This is the case in egg yolk, butterfat, and the pink or red flesh color of certain fish, such as salmon and trout. Dietary carotenoids are readily visible in the striking and familiar colors of flamingoes, canaries, lobsters, prawn, goldfish, and ladybugs. Some of the coloration in human skin is also due to the carotenoids consumed. Beyond their important role as a source of vitamin A for humans, dietary carotenoids, including those that are not provitamin A carotenoids, have been implicated as protecting against certain forms of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Two carotenoids that appear to impart health benefits are lycopene and lutein.

Antioxidants

Reduces the risk of dying prematurely Reduces the risk of dying from heart disease Reduces the risk of developing diabetes Reduces the risk of developing high blood pressure Helps to reduce blood pressure Reduces the risk of developing colon cancer Reduces feelings of depression and anxiety Helps to control weight

Isoflavones

Cardiovascular diseases However, contradictions persist concerning the potential mechanisms of the lipid-lowering actions of soy isoflavones. Oxidative damage to the cellular lipids is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. Lipid peroxidation of PUFA is associated with the formation of hydroperoxides, free-radical intermediates and secondary oxidation products, which are excreted in urine. Fritz et al. (2003) found very low concentrations of secondary lipid oxidation products - aldehydes and carbonyl compounds (the biomarkers of lipid peroxidation) - in the urinary excretions of ten healthy women who were fed dietary soy isoflavones. This study implicated the role of in vivo antioxidant activities of soy isoflavones in reducing the risk of CVD. Apart from LDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol and apolipoproteins play no less an important role in predicting heart diseases. People with a normal LDL cholesterol level but high levels...

Lecithin

Lecithin , phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol) extracted as a by-product during the degumming of crude soybean oil. It constitutes about 0.5-1.5 of the soybean seed or 1-3 of crude soybean oil. Commercially, lecithin is available from a dark-tan to reddish-brown colour and in a fluid state to powdered form it constitutes about 75 phospholipids, while the rest is unrefined oil, moisture and so on. Lecithin is an important nutraceutical component of soybean. It improves liver function, cardiovascular health, fetal brain development, memory function and the reproductive system. Lecithin is an indispensable component of cell membranes, constituting about 10 of the human spinal cord and 5 of the brain hence, its deficiency restricts the free passage of nutrients from and into the cells. Therefore, it is of great therapeutic value for patients with Alzheimer's disease who are deficient in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Lecithin is also recommended for relieving depression....

Grapes

Quercetin is a citrus bioflavonoid used for treating conditions such as atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hypercholesterolemia, vascular insufficiency, diabetes, and allergies. Many studies on rats with diabetes have demonstrated that quercetin increases NO availability and induces vasorelaxation via the endothelial NOS pathway.59,60

Adult Animals

Using an adult rat model of brain H-I,61 we have recently observed a similar beneficial effect of diets containing pomegranate juice on ischemic stroke (Sweeney, M.I., Harmon, M.I., Durant, C.D., Soloman, F., and Schulman, R.N., unpublished). Pomegranate juice concentrate from the Wonderful variety of pomegranates (Pom Wonderful LLC, Los Angeles, CA) containing 8.82 mg total polyphenols ml was serially diluted in distilled water. The resulting three solutions (0.0014, 0.014, or 0.14 mg ml of total pomegranate polyphenols in water) were offered to male rats to drink ad libitum for 2, 4, or 6 weeks, while being fed normal rat chow. A molar dose of total polyphenols was estimated at 0.2, 2.4, and 30 mol day using an average molecular weight for dietary polyphenols (350 g mol)42,55 and the actual amount of fluid consumed daily. Brain damage was induced surgically by unilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by 8 oxygen (hypoxia) 24 hours later, and assessed histologically. A dramatic...

Statins

Statin drugs are widely used to decrease elevated cholesterol levels and prevent atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The statin drug Lipitor is one of the top-selling pharmaceuticals worldwide and brought in an estimated 12.2 billion in sales to Pfizer in 20 05.40 Statins inhibit the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMGCoA) reductase, which decreases cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting the conversion of acetyl CoA to mevalonate. Mevalonate is also necessary for the production of ubiquinone, or CoQ10. Numerous studies have demonstrated that statin drug therapy significantly decreases plasma levels of CoQ10.41 CoQ10 is necessary for mitochondrial energy production, and CoQ10 has potent antioxidant activity.42 Some researchers suggest that the depletion of CoQ10 could account for some side effects associated with statin drugs, such as myotoxicity and hepatotoxicity.43,44 It has also been hypothesized that the relatively common side effects of fatigue and...

Folate

Folic acid is required for DNA synthesis and cellular division. It is also necessary for neural development and cancer prevention. Folic-acid deficiency in pregnancy is linked to multiple birth defects such as neural-tube defects. Folate is also required to convert homocysteine to methionine, thus making this nutrient important in cardiovascular disease prevention. Numerous drugs affect folate levels and metabolism. Some of these drugs include estrogens, anticonvulsants, barbiturates, sulfasalazine, and methotrexate.75 Acid blockers, aspirin, cholestyramine, corticosteroids, and the antibiotic trimethoprim also may decrease folic acid.76

Hypertension

Hypertension is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. In hypertensive patients with elevated plasma renin activity, increased incidence of myocar-dial infarction by fivefold has been demonstrated.9 In hypertensive patients, serum concentrations of angiotensin II (Ang-II), an active vasoconstrictor produced by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS), are elevated.10 Ang-II was implicated in acceleration of atherosclerosis11,12 not only by causing hypertension, but also by stimulating proliferation of smooth muscle cells,13 activation of blood platelets,14 and accumulation of cholesterol in arterial macrophages,1517 and by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxides and other free radicals in plasma18,19 and in macrophages.20 In addition, Ang-II was shown to modify LDL to yield an atherogenic lipoprotein, which is taken up by macrophages at enhanced rate through the scavenger receptors. Ang-II also enhances the...

Medicinal uses

There is no denying that soybean has many health benefits. These benefits are mainly derived from the quality of the soybean proteins and from the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein. Soybean has been shown to be beneficial in conditions of lactose intolerance, high cholesterol, heart disease, cancer, menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis and diabetes. Soybean may help to prevent heart disease by reducing total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and preventing plaque build up in the arteries, which may lead to stroke or heart attack. Potential mechanisms by which soybean isoflavones might prevent atherosclerosis include a beneficial effect on plasma lipid concentrations, antioxidant effects, antiproliferative and antimigratory effects on smooth muscle cells, effects on thrombus formation and maintenance of normal vascular reactivity (Anthony et al., 1998). The soybean diet is the most potent dietary tool for hypercholesterolemia. Soy foods have a low glycemic index and...

Palavlali Navaree

Abraham, R., Riemersma, R., Wood, D., Elton, R. and Oliver, M. (1989) Adipose fatty acid composition and the risk of serious arrhythmias in acute myocardial infarction. Am. J. Cardiol., 63, 269-272. Kris-Etherton, P.M., Krummel, D., Russell, M.E., Dreon, D., Mackey, S., Borchers, J. and Wood, P.D. (1988) The effect of diet on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and coronary heart disease. J. Am. Dietet. Assoc., 88, 1373-1400. Nelson, G.J. (1998) Dietary fat, trans-fatty acids, and risk of coronary heart disease. Nutr. Rev., 56, 250-252.

Food uses

Soybean oil is considered healthy for the heart as it is cholesterol-free and low in saturated fatty acids. The major unsaturated fatty acids in soybean oil triglycerides are linolenic acid (C18 3 7 ), linoleic acid (C18 2 51 ) and oleic acid (C18 1 23 ). It also contains saturated fatty acids (i.e. 4 stearic acid and 10 palmitic acid). Soybean oil contains natural antioxi-dants (vitamin E), which remain in the oil even after extraction. These anti-oxidants help prevent oxidative rancidity. As with fish oils, soybean oil contains omega-3 fatty acids, known to be protective against various cardiovascular diseases. In the process of hydrogenation, unhealthy trans fats are produced that may raise blood cholesterol levels and increase the risk of heart disease. Food manufacturers are now trying to remove trans fats from their products. Soybean oil has a shelf life of a year, but it may be better to store the oil for only a few months at room temperature. Soybean oil should be stored in a...

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