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Graban yr hwylydd, Lleren

Zulu

Shesi

From Porcher (2DD7) and other sources

From Porcher (2DD7) and other sources geographical distribution (Jenkin and Thomas 1938; Naylor 1960; Terell 1968; Bulinska-Radomska and Lester 1985; Bennett 1997; Gaut et al. 2000); it also shares with L. temulentum and L. persicum an inflated nuclear DNA C-value (Hutchinson et al. 1979; Table 1). L. remotum has all the features of a weed of cereals that has been subjected to anthropophytic selection for domestication traits. In so far as it is recognisable as a separate species, it does not have the psychotoxic associations of darnel, but given the capricious nature of traditional plant identification, it is difficult to believe that history has not thoroughly scrambled the accounts of these two arable weeds.

As its name suggests, L. persicum is a native of Western Asia, whence it has become dispersed to other continents to pestilential effect (Forcella and Harvey 1988; Holman et al. 2004; Shinomo and Konuma 2008). According to Loos (1993), when it first appeared in Canada, it was classified as L. temulentum. It tends to lack some of the domestication-type features of L. temulentum and L. remotum. For example, its habit is more spreading than erect and its comparatively small grains shatter at maturity. But morphologically (Mirjalili et al. 2008), cytologically (Hutchinson et al. 1979; Senda et al. 2005a) and phylogenetically (Senda et al. 2005b), it is close to the other annual inbreeding Loliums and probably shares their anthropophytic origin.

Nature never relents: L. multiflorum (Italian ryegrass) is emerging as a successful weed of winter wheat in some parts of the US and Europe (Appleby et al. 1976; Wilson and Wright 1990). We may be witnessing a contemporary recapitulation of the prehistoric process in which the cereal crop is experiencing invasion by a perennial, outbreeding-type Lolium.

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